Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
|837 BC–728 BC|
|Common languages||Egyptian language|
|Religion||Ancient Egyptian Religion|
|Historical era||Classical antiquity|
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.
There is much debate surrounding this dynasty, which may have been situated at Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, and Thebes. Monuments from their reign show that they controlled Upper Egypt in parallel with the Twenty-second dynasty, shortly before the death of Osorkon II.
|Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
All years are BC
Pharaohs and Kings of the 23rd Dynasty
|Pharaoh / King||Image||Throne Name / Prenomen||Reign||Consort(s)||Comments|
|Harsiese A||Hedjkheperre Setpenamun||880 – 860 BC||Isetweret I||Independent King of Thebes; Ruled during Takelot I's and Osorkon II's reigns|
|Takelot II||Hedjkheperre Setpenre||840 – 815 BC||Karomama D
|Contemporary with the Twenty-Second Dynasty king Shoshenq III, who controlled Lower Egypt.|
|Pedubast I||Usermaatre Setpenamun||829 – 804 BC||Involved in a prolonged civil war with king Takelot II/Crown Prince Osorkon B.|
|Iuput I||829 – 804 BC||co-regent|
|Shoshenq VI||Usermaatre Meryamun||804 – 798 BC||Succeeded Pedubast I at Thebes and ruled Upper Egypt for 6 years.|
|Osorkon III||Usermaatre Setpenamun||798 – 769 BC||Tentsai A
|Involved in a civil war against Pedubast I and Shoshenq VI.|
|Takelot III||Usermaatre Setepenamun||774 – 759 BC||Kakat
|Osorkon III's eldest son, junior coregent and successor.|
|Rudamun||Usermaatre Setepenamun||759 – 755 BC||Tadi[...]||The younger brother and successor of Takelot III. A poorly attested king.|
|Ini||Menkheperre||755 – 750 BC||Only controlled Thebes during his reign.|
- J.P. Elias, "A Northern Member of the 'Theban' Twenty-Third Dynasty", Discussions in Egyptology 31 (1995), 57-67.
- J. Goldberg, "The 23rd Dynasty Problem Revisited: Where, When and Who?", Discussions in Egyptology 29 (1994), 55-85.
- H. Jacquet Gordon, "Deux graffiti d'époque libyenne sur le toit du Temple de Khonsu à Karnak" in Hommages à la memoire de Serge Sauneron, 1927-1976 (Cairo: 1979), pp. 169–74.
- K.A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (c.1100–650 BC), 3rd ed., Warminster: 1996.