Twig (template engine)

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Original author(s)Armin Ronacher,[1] Fabien Potencier
Initial releaseOctober 12, 2009 (2009-10-12)
Stable release
2.5.0[2] / July 13, 2018 (2018-07-13)
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written inPHP
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeTemplate engine
LicenseBSD License

Twig is a template engine for the PHP programming language. Its syntax originates from Jinja and Django templates.[3] It's an open source product[4] licensed under a BSD License and maintained by Fabien Potencier. The initial version was created by Armin Ronacher. Symfony2 PHP framework comes with a bundled support for Twig as its default template engine.[5]


  • complex control flow
  • automatic escaping
  • template inheritance
  • variable filters[6]
  • i18n support (gettext)
  • macros
  • fully extendable[3][7]

Twig is supported by the following integrated development environments:[8]

And the text editors:


Twig defines three kinds of delimiters:

  • {{ ... }}, to print the content of variables or the result of evaluating an expression (e.g.: an inherited Twig template with {{ parent() }}).
  • {# ... #}, to add comments in the templates. These comments aren't included in the rendered page.
  • {% ... %}, to execute statements, such as for-loops.
    • {% set foo = 'bar' %}, to assign.[9]
    • {% if i is defined and i == 1%} ... {% endif %}: condition.
    • {% for i in 0..10 %} ... {% endfor %}: counter in a loop.

The apostrophe (') is the escape character.

To create an iterative array:

{% set myArray = [1, 2] %}

An associative array:

{% set myArray = {'key': 'value'} %}

Operators precedence[edit]

The operators precedence is,[10] from the less to more priority:

Operator Role
b-and Boolean and
b-xor Exclusive or
b-or Boolean or
or Or
and And
== Is equal?
!= Is different?
< Inferior
> Superior
>= Superior or equal
<= Inferior or equal
in Into
matches Corresponds
starts with Begins by
ends with Finishes by
.. Sequence (ex: 1..5)
+ Plus
- Less
~ Concatenation
* Multiplication
/ Division
// Division rounded to lower
% Modulo
is Test (ex: is defined or is not empty)
** Power
| Filter[6]
[] Array entry
. Attribute or method from an object (ex:


The filters provide some treatments on an expression, when place after it, separated by pipes. For example: [6]

  • capitalize: changes a string first letter in capital.
  • upper: changes a whole string in capital.
  • first: displays the first line of an array.
  • length: returns a variable size.

Special variables[edit]

  • loop contains the current loop information. For example loop.index corresponds to the number of iterations which have already occurred.
  • The global variables begin by underscores. For example:
    • _route (URL part located after the domain)
    • _self (current file name)
    So, to the a page route: {{ path(app.request.attributes.get('_route'), app.request.attributes.get('_route_params')) }}
  • The CGI environment variables, such as {{ app.request.server.get('SERVER_NAME') }}.


The example below demonstrates some basic features of Twig.

{% extends "base.html" %}
{% block navigation %}
    <ul id="navigation">
    {% for item in navigation %}
            <a href="{{ item.href }}">
                {% if item.level == 2 %}&nbsp;&nbsp;{% endif %}
                {{ item.caption|upper }}
    {% endfor %}
{% endblock navigation %}

See also[edit]

  • Smarty
  • Twital, a template engine that compile its sources into Twig templates, adding some features as context-aware escaping, attribute-expression and creating more readable templates.
  • Using Twig in Drupal 8 core


External links[edit]

  • Twig official website
  • Potencier, Fabien (October 7, 2009). "Templating Engines in PHP". Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  • Potencier, Fabien (November 20, 2009). "Templating Engines in PHP (Перевод: Шаблонизаторы в PHP)" (in Russian). Retrieved 6 April 2011.