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There are no precise criteria for twin-cityhood, but to be considered twin cities, the cities involved have to have a similar administrative status and somewhat comparable sizes; a suburb of a much larger population center is usually not considered to form a twin city with it. For example, South San Francisco (population about 65,000) is not considered a twin city with San Francisco (population about 850,000). However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, or politically.
In many historical cases, cities that grew into each other's space lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally separating them became almost irrelevant. An 1873 case of twin cities merging to become a united city is Budapest in Hungary, which began as two settlements (Buda and Pest) facing each other across the Danube at a strategic fording place along a trade route. In China, the three ancient cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang, separated by the junction of the Yangtze and Hanjiang rivers, were joined in 1927 into the single entity of Wuhan.
Twin cities may share an airport into whose airport codes are integrated the component initials, e.g., DFW (Dallas–Fort Worth), LBA (Leeds–Bradford), MSP (Minneapolis-Saint Paul), RDU (Raleigh and Durham, NC), and CAK (Akron–Canton, Ohio).
In some cases, such as Albury/Wodonga in Australia, the two cities are permanently divided by a state border, often one that strictly adheres to a geographical landmark, such as the Murray River that divides New South Wales from Victoria, and thus Albury from Wodonga. In other cases twin cities can be divided by an international border, but retain a cultural and historical similarity, for example Haparanda (Sweden) and Tornio (Finland), Leticia (Colombia) and Tabatinga (Brazil) or Valga (Estonia) and Valka (Latvia).
Zambia / Zimbabwe
- Battleford and North Battleford, Saskatchewan "The Battlefords" [n 3]
- Halifax and Dartmouth in Nova Scotia[n 4]
- Brooklyn (pre-1898) and New York City[n 5]
- Champaign and Urbana, Illinois[n 6]
- Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas[n 7]
- Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin[n 8]
- Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota[n 9]
- Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota
- Greenville and Spartanburg, South Carolina[n 10]
- Midland and Odessa, Texas[n 11]
- Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota[n 12]
- Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania[n 13]
- St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida[n 14]
- Texarkana, Arkansas and Texarkana, Texas[n 15]
- Natchez, Mississippi and Vidalia, Louisiana[n 16]
- Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina
- Winston-Salem and Greensboro, North Carolina (Winston-Salem itself was formerly a pair of twin cities, until the two merged)
- Fort Myers and Cape Coral, Florida
- Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington
- Bristol, Tennessee and Bristol, Virginia
- Bluefield, Virginia and Bluefield, West Virginia
- Crystal City, Missouri and Festus, Missouri
Mexico—United States border
- San Diego, California, United States and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico
- Yuma, Arizona, United States and San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico
- El Paso, Texas, United States and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico
- Brownsville, Texas, United States and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
- Laredo, Texas, United States and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Canada–United States border
- Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
- Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario
- International Falls, Minnesota and Fort Frances, Ontario
Examples, sharing names or similar names, across an international border include:
- Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada; Niagara Falls, New York, United States
- North Portal, Saskatchewan, Canada; Portal, North Dakota, United States
- Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United States
- Boquillas del Carmen, Coahuila, Mexico; Boquillas, Texas, United States
- Naco, Sonora, Mexico; Naco, Arizona, United States
- Nogales, Sonora, Mexico; Nogales, Arizona, United States
- Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Laredo, Texas, United States
- Nuevo Progreso, Río Bravo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Progreso, Texas, United States
- San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico; San Luis, Arizona, United States
- Tecate, Baja California, Mexico; Tecate, California, United States
- Calexico, California; Mexicali, Baja California — see Calexico–Mexicali
Pairs with unrelated names
- San Diego and Tijuana — see San Diego–Tijuana
- Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario — see Detroit–Windsor
- Douglas, Arizona and Agua Prieta, Sonora
- Brownsville, Texas and Matamoros, Tamaulipas — see Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
- Eagle Pass, Texas and Piedras Negras, Coahuila
- Del Rio, Texas and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila
- Presidio, Texas and Manuel Ojinaga, Chihuahua
- El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua — see El Paso–Juárez
- Brooklyn, New York and New York City[n 17]
- Lloydminster, Alberta/Saskatchewan[n 18]
- Thunder Bay, Ontario[n 19]
- Saginaw and East Saginaw, Michigan[n 20]
- Surat and Navsari, India
- Bangalore and Hosur, India
- Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, India
- Allahabad and Naini, India
- Varanasi and Mughalsarai, India
- Cuttack and Bhubaneswar, India
- Munger and Jamalpur, India
- Durg and Bhilai, India
- Hubli and Dharwad, India
- Pallavaram and Chromepet, Tamil Nadu, India
- Dharmapuri and Nallampalli,Tamil Nadu,India
- Attur and Narasingapuram,Tamil Nadu,India
- Vijayawada and Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
- Kankroli and Rajsamand, India
- Kochi and Ernakulam, India
- Thrissur and Guruvayur, India
- Kolkata and Howrah, India
- Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India
- Noida and Greater Noida, India
- Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad, India
- Sangli and Miraj, India
- Harihar and Davangere, Karnataka, India
- Bangarpet and Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka,India
- Siliguri and Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India.
- Jalpaiguri and Mainaguri, West Bengal, India.
- Coochbehar and Alipurduar, West Bengal, India.
- Barrackpore and Barasat, West Bengal, India.
- Asansol and Durgapur, West Bengal, India.
- Shivamoga and Bhadravati, Karnataka, India
- Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Telangana state, India
- Ranchi and Hatia, India
- Tiruchirappalli and Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India
- Erode and pallipalayam, Tamil Nadu, India
- Bhavani and Komarapalayam, Tamil Nadu, India
- Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India
- Arcot and Ranipet,Tamil Nadu,India
- Pondicherry and Cuddalore,India
- Seleucia and Ctesiphon, Iraq[n 21]
- Erbil and Mosul, Iraq
- Tel Aviv and Jaffa, Israel
- Ramla and Lod, Israel
- Kyoto and Otsu, Japan
- Okayama and Kurashiki, Japan[n 22]
- Kitakyushu and Shimonoseki, Japan
- Yokkaichi and Suzuka, Japan
- Aomori and Hakodate, Japan
- Maebashi and Takasaki, Japan
- Toyohashi and Toyokawa, Japan
- Tsukuba and Tsuchiura, Japan[n 23]
- Sanjo and Tsubame, Japan
- Nasushiobara and Otawara, Japan[n 24]
- Kamisu and Kashima, Japan[n 25]
- Beirut and Jounieh, Lebanon
- Nepalgunj and Kohalpur, Nepal
- Butwal and Tilottama, Nepal
- Bharatpur and Gaindakot, Nepal
- Dhaka and Narayanganj, Bangladesh
- Guangzhou and Foshan, People's Republic of China
- Macau and Zhuhai, People's Republic of China
- Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan
- Peshawar and Mardan, Pakistan
- Jhelum and Sarai Alamgir, Pakistan
- Ramallah and al-Bireh, Palestine
- Dipolog and Dapitan, Philippines
- Taipei and New Taipei, Taiwan
- Dammam and Khobar, Saudi Arabia
- Seoul and Incheon, South Korea
- Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand
- Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand
- Songkhla and Hatyai, Thailand
- Ho Chi Minh City and Binh Duong, Vietnam
- Chirala-Perala, India
- Victoria and Kowloon, colonial Hong Kong - although, in both colonial Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Victoria is the only city recognised by law; they were widely considered to be separate cities until at least the mid-1970s
- Saigon and Cholon, merged into Saigon-Cholon, now Ho Chi Minh City.
- Wuhan (merger of Wuchang, Hankou, Hanyang)
- Joetsu (merger of Takada, Naoetsu)
- Ise (merger of Uji, Yamada)
- Naha and Shuri, once separate cities, Shuri became integrated as a district of Naha
- Nørresundby and Aalborg, Denmark
- Bournemouth and Poole, United Kingdom
- Brighton and Hove, United Kingdom
- Chatham and Rochester, United Kingdom
- Leeds and Bradford, United Kingdom
- Manchester and Salford, United Kingdom
- Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
- Póvoa de Varzim and Vila do Conde, Portugal
- Ludwigshafen and Mannheim, Germany
- Mainz and Wiesbaden, Germany
- Ulm and Neu-Ulm, Germany
- Sindelfingen and Böblingen, Germany
- Frankfurt and Offenbach, Germany
- Nuremberg and Fuerth, Germany
- Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg, Norway
- Porsgrunn and Skien, Norway
- Sandnes and Stavanger, Norway
- Novi Sad and Petrovaradin, Serbia
- Zemun and New Belgrade, Serbia
- Temerin and Bački Jarak, Serbia
- Alcobendas and San Sebastián de los Reyes, Spain
- Coslada and San Fernando de Henares, Spain
- Santa Cruz de Tenerife and San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Spain
- Elda and Petrer, Spain
- Aldaia and Alaquàs, Spain
- Llombai and Catadau, Spain
- Gothenburg and Mölndal, Sweden
- Jönköping and Huskvarna, Sweden
- Frejus and Saint-Raphaël, France
- Lyon and Villeurbanne, France
- Bad Radkersburg, Austria and Gornja Radgona, Slovenia
- Comines, Belgium and Comines, France
- Mouscron, Belgium and Tourcoing, France
- Wervik, Belgium and Wervicq-Sud, France
- Těšín, Czech Republic and Cieszyn, Poland
- Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden
- Narva, Estonia and Ivangorod, Russia
- Valga, Estonia and Valka, Latvia
- Tornio, Finland and Haparanda, Sweden
- Imatra, Finland and Svetogorsk, Russia
- Hendaye, France and Irun, Spain
- Strasbourg, France and Kehl, Germany
- Frankfurt (Oder), Germany and Słubice, Poland
- Görlitz, Germany and Zgorzelec, Poland
- Guben, Germany and Gubin, Poland
- Heringsdorf, Germany and Świnoujście, Poland
- Esztergom, Hungary and Štúrovo, Slovakia
- Gorizia, Italy and Nova Gorica, Slovenia
- Kerkrade, The Netherlands and Herzogenrath, Germany
- Komárno, Slovakia and Komárom, Hungary
- Slavonski Brod, Croatia and Bosanski Brod, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- La Línea de la Concepción, Spain and Gibraltar
- Vienna, Austria and Bratislava, Slovakia
- Konstanz, Germany and Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
- City of London and City of Westminster, England. Absorbed into London.
- Buda and Pest. United into Budapest.
- Barmen and Elberfeld, Germany. United into Wuppertal.
- West Berlin, West Germany and East Berlin, East Germany. United into Berlin, Germany.
- Bielsko and Biała, Poland. United into Bielsko-Biała.
- Knokke and Heist-aan-Zee. United into Knokke-Heist.
- Gradec and Kaptol. United into Zagreb.
- Albury and Wodonga, Australia
- Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia
- Darwin and Palmerston, Australia
- Gold Coast and Tweed Heads, Australia
- Forster and Tuncurry, Australia
- Harden and Murrumburrah, Australia
- Kalgoorlie and Boulder, Australia
- Napier and Hastings, New Zealand
- Perth and Fremantle, Australia
- Townsville and Thuringowa, Australia
- Guadalajara; Tlaquepaque; Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
- Chandigarh; Mohali; and Panchkula, India
- Vijayawada; Amaravati; and Guntur, India
- Iron River, Caspian, and Gaastra, Michigan
- Bhaktapur; Kathmandu; and Patan, Nepal
- Stockholm; Solna; and Sundbyberg, Sweden
- San Jose; San Francisco; and Oakland, California[n 26]
- New York, New York; Newark; and Jersey City, New Jersey
- Gdańsk; Gdynia; and Sopot, Poland — see Tricity, Poland
- Greensboro; Winston-Salem; and High Point, North Carolina, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Piedmont Triad
- Brisbane; Gold Coast; and Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia — see South East Queensland
- Raleigh; Durham; and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Research Triangle
- Riverside; San Bernardino; and Ontario, California, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Inland Empire
- Albany, Troy, and Schenectady, New York, in the region known as the Capital District
- Dallas; Fort Worth; and Arlington, Texas
- Warangal; Hanamkonda; Kazipet in India — see Warangal Tri-City
- Pasco; Richland; and Kennewick, Washington
- Dubai; Sharjah; and Ajman, United Arab Emirates
- Khartoum; North Khartoum; and Omdurman, Sudan
- Sydney; Wollongong; and Newcastle in the geological region known as the Sydney Basin
- Kitchener; Waterloo; and Cambridge, Ontario, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Kitchener-Waterloo or simply K-W
- The Tri-cities of British Columbia consist of Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, and Port Moody
- Bay City; Saginaw; and Midland, Michigan, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Saginaw Valley and the MBS Regions
- Tri-Town, Ontario, Canada - Cobalt, Haileybury and New Liskeard
- Wejherowo; Rumia; and Reda, Poland — see Kashubian Tricity
- Ironwood; Bessemer; and Wakefield, Michigan
- Binghamton; Endicott; and Johnson City, New York, the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called the Triple Cities
- Petersburg; Colonial Heights; and Hopewell, Virginia
- Dammam; Dhahran; and Khobar, Saudi Arabia
- Ferrysburg; Grand Haven; and Spring Lake, Michigan
- Cebu City; Mandaue; and Lapu-Lapu City, the Philippines
- Allentown/Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Easton, Pennsylvania/Phillipsburg, New Jersey; the collective area is often called the Lehigh Valley
- Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa in Uusimaa, Finland; together form the largest metropolis in the country and its actual capital area.
- Quad Cities of Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. It also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois.
- The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally referred to as "the Quad Cities", with Florence, Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, and Tuscumbia, Alabama. Formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a "Tri-Cities", Alabama. In fact, all except Florence are incorporated as towns.
- The Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert, and Mountain Iron.
- The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho have marketed themselves as "Quad Cities."
- Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area consists of the City of Pattaya, Town of Chonburi, Portal town of Laem Chabang and Town of Sattahip on the west coast of Chonburi Province, Thailand
More than four cities
- In the US state of Virginia: Norfolk, Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach; the cities' collective metropolitan area is often called Hampton Roads
- Ruhr district (Germany): consisting of Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Bochum, Oberhausen, Mülheim, Bottrop, Gelsenkirchen and Herne in its core.
- In the US states of Illinois and Iowa: The cities of Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa; Rock Island, Moline and East Moline in Illinois form a metropolitan area known as the Quad Cities.
- In Malaysia: the cities of Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Puchong, Shah Alam, Klang, Port Klang, Putrajaya, Cyberjaya, and Kajang have formed a huge metropolitan area (around the size of Singapore) known as Greater Kuala Lumpur.
- In India: the cities of New Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon and Faridabad have formed a huge metropolitan area known as National Capital Region (India).
- In the US states of Michigan and Wisconsin sit the 6 cities of Iron Mountain, Kingsford, Quinnesec, Norway (in Michigan), Aurora, and Niagara (in Wisconsin). The area is collectively known as the Iron Mountain Area.
- The Michiana area, in the states of Indiana and Michigan, consisting of the cities of South Bend, Mishawaka, Elkhart, Granger, Michigan City, Goshen, La Porte (Indiana), New Buffalo, Buchanan, Niles, Berrien Springs, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, and Dowagiac (Michigan)
Examples of cities formed by amalgamation
- Delhi, India: What used to be Old Delhi, New Delhi, and a collection of smaller villages has now grown into the current megalopolis that we see today, also known as the National Capital Region (NCR)
- In Telangana, India, the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are merged to form Greater Hyderabad.
- Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, has, as of 2013, grown out so much that small towns by this giant city, such as Shahdara, have been absorbed in its city limits.
- Wuhan in China consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang in Hubei Province.
- Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory.
- Bangkok, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in 1971, when the previous Bangkok province (Phra Nakhon) was merged with Thonburi province.
- The former cities of Taoyuan and Zhongli, Taiwan, which merged along with the entire county in 2014 to form a single municipality city of Taoyuan, the two cities sit directly next to each other and shares almost the same population.
- Fukuoka in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka until the late 19th century.
- Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, and later Iwatsuki. Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities.
- Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, and Tobata. Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right.
- The cities of Saigon and Cholon merged in 1931 to form a single city named Saigon-Cholon; in 1956, the name Cholon was dropped and the city became known as Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City).
- Athens incorporated dozens of villages and towns and absorbed whole of Athens basin and parts outside of it.
- London grew from its cores in the City of London and the City of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within neighbouring counties and absorbed almost the whole of Middlesex county.
- Budapest is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda.
- Berlin (Berlin and Cölln), in Germany
- Duisburg (Duisburg and Hamborn, 1929–1935 called Duisburg-Hamborn), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Wuppertal (Barmen and Elberfeld), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Manchester and the city of Salford, England in the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester (formerly in Lancashire).
- Stoke-on-Trent was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem, Hanley, Tunstall, Longton, Fenton and Stoke, taking its name from the latter. Neighbouring Newcastle-under-Lyme remains a separate town.
- Eindhoven merged with five neighbouring municipalities (Woensel, Tongelre, Stratum, Gestel en Blaarthem and Strijp) into the new Groot-Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") in 1920. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped.
- Madrid evolved by absorption of other towns (like Tetuán de las Victorias, Vallecas, Chamartín de la Rosa or Aravaca)
- Richmond (Richmond and Manchester) in central Virginia
- Cleveland (Cleveland and Ohio City) in Ohio
- Minneapolis. St. Anthony (not to be confused with St. Anthony Village, a modern city which is a suburb) was a twin city to Minneapolis in the two cities' youth. Minneapolis annexed St. Anthony in the late 1800s.
- New York City (five boroughs, historically especially between Manhattan and Brooklyn)
- Jersey City, New Jersey, was incorporated in 1820, and slowly grew by annexing surrounding municipalities: Van Vorst Twp. (1851), Bergen City (1869), Hudson City (1869), Bergen Twp. (1869) and finally Greenville Twp. (1873).
- Fremont, California was formed in 1956 by the combination of the five towns of Centerville, Irvington, Niles, Mission San Jose, and Warm Springs, California. The town of Newark has always refused to merge into Fremont, and Newark is completely surrounded by Fremont.
- What is now the city of Winston-Salem, North Carolina was once two separate towns called Winston and Salem that were combined into one.
- Ottawa, Ontario, was given its large area by the amalgamation in 2001 of the old City of Ottawa, the suburbs of Nepean, Kanata, Gloucester, Rockcliffe Park, Vanier and Cumberland, Orleans, and the rural townships of West Carleton, Osgoode, Rideau, and Goulbourn
- Gatineau, Quebec, formed by the amalgamation of the old City of Gatineau, City of Hull, City of Aylmer, City of Buckingham and the Municipality of Masson-Angers all facing the City of Ottawa, Ontario from the north shore of the Ottawa River.
- Toronto formed by an amalgamation of the Old Toronto with East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York, which were themselves products of earlier amalgamations.
- Thunder Bay, Ontario (Fort William and Port Arthur).
- Lloydminster, Canada, on the Saskatchewan-Alberta border, was formed as a single entity in 1903, when both future provinces were part of the Northwest Territories, but was divided into two separate entities in 1905 because the border between the newly created provinces bisected the community. In 1930, the two towns were reunited as a single town under the shared jurisdiction of both provinces, and Lloydminster was reincorporated as a single city in 1958.
- Halifax and Dartmouth (Canada) were forcibly merged in 1996 along with Bedford and Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality.
- Saguenay, Quebec (Chicoutimi, Jonquière, et al.)
- Bellingham, Washington was formed from four cities, Fairhaven, Sehome, Bellingham and Whatcom.
- Lincoln City, Oregon was formed in 1965 by merging the extant seaside towns of Oceanlake, Delake, and Taft, with the adjoining unincorporated areas of Nelscott and Cutler City.
- Pittsburgh annexed Allegheny City, which is now the quarter of the city that lies north of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Also annexed was Birmingham, now referred to as the "South Side".
- Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which absorbed the cities of South Bethlehem, and West Bethlehem. The former Bethlehem and South Bethlehem are situated in Northampton County, and West Bethlehem is in Lehigh County. As a result, present-day Bethlehem straddles the county line.
- Montreal, Quebec, was merged with the other 27 communities on the Island of Montreal by an act in the Quebec Parliament in 2002. Following a change in the provincial government, several communities later voted via referendum to de-merge and there are now a total of 15, leaving Montreal merged with the other 12.
- Kingston, Ontario was amalgamated in 1998 with the neighboring Kingston and Pittsburgh Townships.
- Winnipeg, Manitoba amalgamated with 12 surrounding municipalities and its metropolitan corporation in 1971 under what was referred to as unicity reforms in local government restructuring.
- Park Hills, Missouri was formed in 1994 by a four-way municipal merger involving the cities of Flat River, Elvins, and Esther, plus the village of Rivermines.
- Helena-West Helena, Arkansas was formed in 2006 by the merger of the previous cities of Helena and West Helena.
- Greater Sudbury, Ontario, was formed in 2001 by the amalgamation of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury, comprising the municipalities of Sudbury, Nickel Centre, Valley East, Capreol, Rayside-Balfour, Onaping Falls and Walden, plus a number of previously unamalgamated townships. The amalgamation made it the most populous city in the Northern Ontario region.
- Boston, Massachusetts is made up of the former towns of Boston, Dorchester, Brighton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Hyde Park.
- Port Alberni, British Columbia was formed in 1967 when Alberni and Port Alberni, merged to become one city.
- Iron River, Michigan absorbed the nearby city of Stambaugh and village of Mineral Hills in July 2000.
Fictional twin cities
- Gotham City (the home of Batman) and Metropolis (the home of Superman) have sometimes been presented as twin cities, mainly in 1970s and 1980s stories by DC Comics. In stories presenting them as twin cities, Gotham City and Metropolis are located on opposite sides of a large bay (identified as Delaware Bay in 1990's The Atlas of the DC Universe), with both cities linked by the Metro-Narrows Bridge, a suspension bridge resembling New York City's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.
- Central City and Keystone City, from the current Flash comics, are shown as twin cities. Before the 1985-86 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, Central and Keystone are presented as located in the same space but on different parallel Earths.
- Ankh-Morpork, from Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, is referred to as "the twin cities of proud Ankh and pestilent Morpork"
- Duckburg and St. Canard were depicted in the cartoon Darkwing Duck as sister cities connected by a bridge, very similar to Oakland and San Francisco.
- Helium, from the Barsoom series of novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs, consists of the twin cities Greater Helium and Lesser Helium.
- Besźel and Ul Qoma in China Miéville's novel The City & the City are intertwined twin city-states in Eastern Europe whose inhabitants have trained themselves to only see the city they live in and unsee the city they don't.
- List of divided cities
- Cross-border town naming
- List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries
- Sister city
- Separated by the Nile, each city is the respective capital of its governorate (Cairo and Giza). The two communities are the main cities of Greater Cairo. They are respectively the most populous city and third most populous city in Egypt.
- Separated by the Zambezi River at the location of Victoria Falls, each city benefits from tourism created by Victoria Falls, the largest waterfall in the world as measured by combined height and width (see Victoria Falls Size). The primary airport of the region, Harry Mwanga Nkumbula International Airport, is located in Livingstone and brings tourists from all over the world. The two cities share an international border that is located halfway across the Victoria Falls Bridge, which was completed in 1905.
- Separated by the North Saskatchewan River. While the communities are commonly referred to by the collective "The Battlefords," they retain distinctive identities.
- Main cities of Metropolitan Halifax, they are geographically separated by Halifax Harbour
- Prior to their consolidation
- Champaign was originally known as West Urbana but has since outgrown its neighbor. See Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area.
- Twin cores of the Metroplex of northern Texas.
- Nicknamed the Twin Ports, these form the world's largest freshwater port.
- See Fargo–Moorhead.
- The two largest cities of Upstate South Carolina. Their shared international airport is named after both cities (Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport).
- Nicknamed the Petroplex in a nod to the DFW region's nickname, as well as its strong reliance on the oil industry.
- Also known as the Twin Cities
- The core cities of the Wyoming Valley in northeastern Pennsylvania.
- Main cities of the Tampa Bay Area.
- The cities meet at the border between Texas and Arkansas, and their name is a portmanteau of those states' names as well as that of Louisiana, whose border lies approximately 25 miles to the south. See Texarkana metropolitan area and Ark-La-Tex.
- The cities are connected by two twin cantilever bridges which merge the two cities together as sister cities. The cities meet on the Mississippi and Louisiana state border and along the Mississippi River adjacent to each other. They both share long history together. Natchez, Mississippi is also a historical part of Concordia Parish, Louisiana, to which Vidalia is the seat of Concordia Parish. See Natchez–Vidalia Bridge, Concordia Parish and Adams County, Mississippi.
- Until incorporation as a single city in 1898 - as noted in the poem "The New Colossus", which is inscribed on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty.
- Until 1930, the community, divided by the Alberta-Saskatchewan border, was two separate, adjacent towns. However, with the Town of Lloydminster Acts in administration the large town became integrated while still bi-provincial.
- Formed by the amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur, Ontario in 1970.
- East Saginaw annexed by Saginaw in 1889.
- Formed historic Al-Mada'in.
- Kurashiki is somewhat more of a suburb
- Co-centers of a shared major metropolitan area.
- Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
- Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
- the principal cities of the San Francisco Bay area.
- "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Weather story from 2006 The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2006-12-31
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- "It's a wise man who knows where Chatham ends and Rochester begins." Charles Dickens
- "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF's Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express. Jan 6, 2014.
- "Quad Cities too generic a name for ID, WA cities". The Seattle Times. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Juan Manuel Grijalvo - Madrid - Barrios desaparecidos y actuales - Antiguos municipios independientes".
- Action Comics #451, DC Comics, September 1975
- New Adventures of Superboy #22, DC Comics, October 1981
- World's Finest Comics #259, DC Comics, October–November 1979
- The Flash (volume 1) #123, DC Comics, September 1961
- See e.g. the introduction of The Hogfather q:Terry Pratchett's Hogfather
- Starr, Joe (2015-08-05). "Nerd Rabbit Hole: A Guide To Disney's Duck Universe". Pajiba. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- "San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge". www.visitcalifornia.com. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- Burroughs, Edgar Rice (1917). A Princess of Mars. A. C. McClurg & Co. pp. 279–80, 305, 313–14.