Twine (software)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Original author(s)Chris Klimas[1]
Initial release2009; 14 years ago (2009)[1]
Stable release
2.6.2[2] / 27 February 2023; 3 months ago (2023-02-27)[2]
Written inv2.*, JavaScript[3]
v1.*, Python[4]
Operating systemLinux, macOS, Windows, Web application[1]
TypeGame engine, electronic publishing tool
LicenseGPL v3[5]
As of2023-04-08

Twine is a free and open-source tool created by Chris Klimas for making interactive fiction and hypertext fiction in the form of web pages. It is available on Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux.[1]


Twine emphasizes the visual structure of hypertext, and does not require knowledge of a programming language as many other game development tools do.[6] It is regarded as a tool which can be used by anyone interested in interactive fiction and experimental games.[6][7]

Twine 2 is a browser-based application written in HTML5 and Javascript, also available as a standalone desktop app; it also supports CSS.[6] It is currently in version 2.6.2, as of April 2023.[1]

Rather than using a fixed scripting language, Twine supports the use of different "story formats". In Twine 1, these mostly affected how a story was displayed rather than how it was written, but Twine 2 story formats combine style, semantic rules and markup conventions and are described as "dialects" of the Twine language.[8] There are many story formats;[9] they include Harlowe (the default format for Twine 2), SugarCube (based on the original format used by Twine 1), Snowman (which integrates JavaScript libraries into Twine) and Chapbook (a "second generation" format created and maintained by Twine creator Chris Klimas).[10] Twine 2 also supports "proofing formats", which are designed to output Twine content in a variety of ways to allow for on-screen proofing and error checking, as well as conversion of Twine stories into other formats.[9]

Notable works[edit]


Twine was used by writer Charlie Brooker in developing the interactive film Black Mirror: Bandersnatch.[11]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Twinery: Twine Homepage". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Twine v2.6.2 GitHub release". GitHub. 27 Feb 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023.
  3. ^ "Chris Klimas / twinejs: Overview". Atlassian Bitbucket. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  4. ^ "tweecode/twine: twine/". GitHub. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  5. ^ "Twine licenses". Twine Wiki. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b c Petit, Carolyn (12 January 2013). "Power to the People: The Text Adventures of Twine". GameSpot UK. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  7. ^ Hudson, Laura (2014-11-19). "Twine, the Video-Game Technology for All". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  8. ^ "Story Formats - Twine Cookbook". Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  9. ^ a b M. C. DeMarco. "A Catalog of Twine Story Formats". Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  10. ^ "Terms: Story Formats - Twine Cookbook". Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  11. ^ Reynolds, Matt (28 December 2018). "The inside story of Bandersnatch, the weirdest Black Mirror tale yet". Wired UK. Retrieved 28 December 2018.

External links[edit]