Hepatitis A and B vaccine
|Hepatitis A vaccine||Vaccine|
|Hepatitis B vaccine||Vaccine|
|Trade names||Twinrix, Ambirix, Twinrix Junior, others|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||FDA Professional Drug Information|
Twinrix is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. The full generic name is hepatitis A inactivated & hepatitis B (recombinant) vaccine. Twinrix is administered over three doses.
The name was created because it is a mixture of two earlier vaccines — Havrix, an inactivated-virus Hepatitis A vaccine, and Engerix-B, a recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine. Twinrix first entered the market in early 1997.
In the United States, Twinrix is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for those aged 18 and older. In some countries outside the United States, notably Canada and Europe, Twinrix is known as Twinrix Adult or Ambirix and a pediatric formulation, called Twinrix Junior or Twinrix Paediatric, is available.
Routine Twinrix vaccination is administered by intramuscular injection in the deltoid area using a schedule of three separate doses at 0, 1, and 6 months ([minimum intervals: 4 weeks between doses 1 and 2, 5 months between doses 2 and 3]). In some circumstances, an accelerated dosing schedule of 0, 7 and 21 to 30 days followed by a booster at 12 months can be used and was shown to have similar efficacy as the traditional schedule.
- A: 93.8%, 98.8%, 99.9%
- B: 30.8%, 78.2%, 98.5%
GlaxoSmithKline claims that its studies found 70% of subjects had antibodies against hepatitis B a month after just the first dose, however.
Twinrix should not be used for postexposure prophylaxis, because no data are available on the efficacy of combination vaccine for prophylaxis after exposure to HAV.
- "Twinrix". Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- "FDA approval for a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine" (PDF). MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50 (37): 806–7. September 2001. PMID 11785573. Lay summary.
- "Twinrix Adult Vaccine SmPC". Datapharm. 8 October 2018.
- "Twinrix Paediatric Vaccine SmPC". Datapharm. 8 October 2018.
- "Ambirix SmPC". Datapharm. 5 November 2018.
- "Hepatitis A Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide". Public Health Agency of Canada. 2018-03-13. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- "Twinrix (720/20)". The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2019. Lay summary.
- "Twinrix Junior (360/10)". The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2019. Lay summary.
- "Package Insert - TWINRIX" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- "Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2019". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Notice to Readers: FDA Approval of an Alternate Dosing Schedule for a Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine (Twinrix)" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 12 October 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2019. Lay summary.
- "Hepatitis A - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book - Travelers' Health". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1 July 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
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