L. f. flavirostris
The twite and the closely related linnets were formerly placed in the genus Carduelis but were moved to a separate genus Linaria based on a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.
It is similar in size and shape to a linnet, at 13 to 13.5 centimetres (5.1 to 5.3 in) long. It lacks the red head patch and breast shown by the linnet and the redpolls. It is brown streaked with black above, and a pink rump. The underparts are buff to whitish, streaked with brown. The conical bill is yellow in winter and grey in summer. The call is a distinctive twit, from which its name derives, and the song contains fast trills and twitters. Twites can form large flocks outside the breeding season, sometimes mixed with other finches on coasts and salt marshes. They feed mainly on seeds.
The twite breeds in northern Europe and across central Asia. Treeless moorland is favoured for breeding. It builds its nest in a bush, laying 5–6 light blue eggs. It is partially resident, but many birds migrate further south, or move to the coasts. It has declined sharply in parts of its range, notably Ireland.
In the UK, the Twite is subject to several research projects in the Pennines, the Scottish Highlands and the North wales and Lancashire coast lines. Records show that the birds to the east of the Pennine hills move to the southeast coast in winter and those to the west winter between Lancashire and the Hebrides. The Welsh population winters almost exclusively in Flintshire.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Carduelis flavirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (eds.). "Finches, euphonias". World Bird List Version 5.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2012). "The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (2): 581–596. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002.
- Clement, Harris & Davis 1993, pp. 246–247
- Perrins 1987, p. 196
- Newton 1973
- BirdWatch.Ireland. "Irish Twite danger". BirdLife Europe. BirdLife International. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Bangs, Outram (12 October 1932). "Birds of Western China Obtained by the Kelly–Roosevelt Expedition". Field Museum of Natural History Publication, Zoological Series 18 (11): 343–379.
- Clement, Peter; Harris, Alan; Davis, John (1993). Finches and Sparrows: an Identification Guide. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03424-9.
- Newton, Ian (1973). Finches. The New Naturalist Library 55. New York: Taplinger. ISBN 0-8008-2720-1.
- Perrins, Christopher M. (1987). New Generation Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75532-5.
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