Twitter, Inc.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Twitter, Inc.
TypePrivate
NYSE: TWTR (2013–2022)
IndustrySocial media
FoundedMarch 21, 2006; 17 years ago (2006-03-21) in San Francisco
Founders
DefunctApril 2023; 2 months ago (2023-04)
FateAcquired by Elon Musk and merged into X Corp.
SuccessorX Corp.
Headquarters
San Francisco, California
,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Services
RevenueIncrease US$5.1 billion (2021)
Increase US$−273 million (2021)
Increase US$−221 million (2021)
Total assetsIncrease US$14.1 billion (2021)
Total equityDecrease US$7.3 billion (2021)
Number of employees
c. 1,000 (2023)
Websiteabout.twitter.com Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references
[1][2][3][4][5]

Twitter, Inc. is an American social media company based in San Francisco, California. The company operated the social networking service Twitter and previously the Vine short video app and Periscope livestreaming service.

Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and was launched that July. By 2012, more than 100 million users tweeted 340 million tweets a day,[6] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[7][8][6] The company went public in November 2013. By 2019, Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users.[9]

On April 25, 2022, Twitter agreed to a $44 billion buyout by Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX and Tesla, one of the biggest deals to turn a company private.[10][11] On July 8, Musk terminated the deal.[12] Twitter's shares fell,[13] leading company officials to sue Musk in the Chancery Court of Delaware on July 12.[14] On October 4, Musk announced his intention to purchase the company as he had agreed, for $44 billion, or $54.20 a share;[15] the agreement closed on October 27.

Following Musk's takeover, Twitter has been criticized for an increase in hate speech,[16] as well as for perceived systemic prioritization of right-wing content.[17][18][19][20] His acquisition of the company has been characterized by large-scale policy changes, mass layoffs and resignations, and a dramatic shift in the company's work culture. After Musk took over, Twitter was merged with X Holdings,[21] and Twitter ceased to be an independent company, instead being part of X Corp.[22]

History[edit]

2006–2007: Creation and initial reaction[edit]

A sketch, c. 2006, by Jack Dorsey, envisioning an SMS-based social network

Twitter origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.[23][24] Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 12:50 p.m. PST (UTC−08:00): "just setting up my twttr".[1] The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees.[25] The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.[4] In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and shareholders.[26] Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011.[27] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[28]

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[29] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."[30] Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher danah boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference.[31]

2007–2022: Growth[edit]

In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies.[32] Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin.[33] Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011. On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. [34]

The company had its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange on November 7, 2013.[35]

In September 2016, Twitter shares rose 20% after a report that it had received takeover approaches.[36] Potential buyers were Alphabet (the parent company of Google),[36] Microsoft,[37][38][39] Salesforce.com,[36][40] Verizon,[40] and The Walt Disney Company.[41][42] Twitter's board of directors were open to a deal, which could have come by the end of 2016.[36][43] However, no deal was made, with reports in October stating that all the potential buyers dropped out partly due to concerns over abuse and harassment on the service.[44][45][46] In June 2017, Twitter revamped its dashboard to improve the new user experience.[47][48]

In April 2021, Twitter announced that it was establishing its African headquarters in Ghana.[49][50]

In January 2022, Twitter finalized the sale of MoPub to AppLovin. The deal was first announced in October 2021, and the selling price was reported at $1.05 billion.[51]

2022 and 2023[edit]

Acquisition by Elon Musk[edit]

Business magnate Elon Musk revealed that he had bought 9.1% of Twitter for $2.64 billion on April 4, 2022.[52][53][54] In response, Twitter's stock rose by as much as 27% and Twitter shares experienced the largest intraday surge since Twitter's IPO in 2013.[55] Musk was appointed to Twitter's board on April 9, under a deal that prohibited him from acquiring more than 14.9% of the company.[53][56][57]

Musk made an unsolicited offer on April 14 to acquire Twitter for $43 billion and take the company private.[58] Publicly, Musk expressed that his offer was motivated by concerns with how the company was managed, emphasizing his concern that policies he described as censorship were leading to a lack of free speech on the platform.[59][60] Twitter's board introduced a "poison pill" strategy on April 15, which would allow shareholders to buy additional stock should a hostile takeover occur as a means to block Musk's takeover.[61] On April 20, Musk secured $46.5 billion in funding as a tender offer, which the board accepted on April 25.[62][63][64]

On July 8, Musk announced he was unilaterally terminating the proposed acquisition, claiming in a regulatory filing that Twitter was in "material breach" of several parts of the agreement by refusing to comply with Musk's requests for spambot account data and dismissing high-ranking employees.[65][66] In response, Twitter board chair Bret Taylor pledged to pursue legal action against Musk at the Delaware Court of Chancery with the goal of completing the acquisition.[67][68] On July 12, Twitter opened a lawsuit against Musk to force the sale to proceed.[69] On September 13, 2022, Twitter shareholders voted to approve Elon Musk's takeover of the company.[70]

On October 4, 2022, it was reported that Musk offered to proceed with the deal at the original offer price of $54.20 per share.[71][72] The deal closed on October 27, 2022, with the merger between Twitter, Inc. and X Holdings II, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of X Holdings I, Inc., wholly owned by Musk,[73] and Musk took control of the company,[74] paying $54.20 per share, or about $44 billion.[75]

Post-acquisition[edit]

On October 28, immediately following Musk's acquisition, he fired CEO Parag Agrawal and CFO Ned Segal.[76] Twitter's stock was suspended from trading prior to the New York Stock Exchange opening the next day and was delisted on November 8.[77][78] On October 31, Musk announced in a security filing that he had dissolved the board of directors and would serve as the CEO of the company.[79] In January 2023, he also fired an employee who criticized him.[80]

On November 4, Twitter laid off about half of its 7,500 employees,[81] leaving several internal departments, including communication and core engineering teams understaffed.[82] Some of the employees were later asked to return, with Twitter stating that they were "laid off by mistake".[83] Several current and former Twitter employees sued the company for violations of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988 due to failures to provide a 60-day notice prior to mass firings.[84][85]

Top security, compliance, content moderation, and sales executives resigned due to Musk stating that employees must either work longer hours or resign from the company.[86] On November 16, Musk issued an "ultimatum" to all remaining Twitter employees warning that workers could expect "long, intense hours of work" if they decided to stay, a decision that was ordered to be made by the following day, with news sources reporting numerous employees leaving on the same day.[87][88][89] The Verge reported that multiple critical engineering teams "completely or near-total[ly] resigned", increasing internal fears of a collapse of Twitter.[90]

Within a week of Musk's acquisition and subsequent internal instability of the firm, including layoffs of Twitter's trust and safety teams, large advertisers including General Mills, Pfizer, Volkswagen, and General Motors announced an advertising pause.[91] Advertising agencies, including IPG and Omnicom Media Group, advised clients to pause ad spending on Twitter temporarily until the platform can sufficiently assure brand safety concerns.[92] Apprehension over increased hate speech made advertisers leave in large numbers. Impersonator accounts had increased following errors in the blue tick scheme for verified users causing concerns.[93] Musk said Twitter was experiencing "a massive drop in revenue" causing losses of $4 million per day, which he attributed to "activist groups pressuring advertisers," adding that "nothing is working" to lure advertisers back.[94]

According to a November 2022 report from Media Matters for America, Twitter had lost half of its top 100 advertisers, which spent $750 million on ads in 2022.[95] Advertising research firm Standard Media Index said advertiser spending on Twitter declined 55% in November year-on-year, and declined 71% in December, despite those holiday months typically seeing higher ad spending.[96]

By December 2022, Musk's family office privately sought to sell new shares valued at his original acquisition price of $54.20, amid turmoil among users and advertisers, and debt payments approaching. Musk's money manager wrote to investors that in recent weeks the family office had received "numerous inbound requests to invest in Twitter."[97][98] The Wall Street Journal reported in January 2023 that talks had been held to raise up to $3 billion to pay down some of the $13 billion in bank debt incurred in the deal, which includes a $3 billion high interest rate bridge loan. Musk denied the report, saying, "corpo media shills clearly have their marching orders to write hit pieces on me these days."[99][100]

After Elon Musk's acquisition of American social media platform Twitter, National Public Radio were designated as "US state-affiliated media" in April 2023, a label "that's typically been reserved for foreign media outlets that represent the official views of the government, like Russia's RT and China's Xinhua." This move by Twitter sparked a controversy and accusations of pro-Republican bias.[101][102][103] In a statement to Variety, NPR president and CEO John Lansing condemned the decision.[104]

Twitter, Inc. was merged with X Corp. in April 2023.[105][106]

Services[edit]

Twitter[edit]

Twitter is a social networking service on which users send and respond publicly or privately texts, images and videos known as "tweets".

Former services[edit]

Vine[edit]

On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013.[107][108] Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds.[109] On October 27, 2016, Twitter announced that it would disable all uploads, but that viewing and download would continue to work.[110][111] On January 20, 2017, Twitter launched an Internet archive of all Vine videos that had ever been published. The archive was officially discontinued in April 2019.[112]

Periscope[edit]

On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app that allowed live streaming of video.[113] Periscope was launched on March 26, 2015.[114] Due to declining usage, product realignment, and high maintenance costs the service was discontinued on March 31, 2021.[115] However, past Periscope videos can still be watched via Twitter and most of its core features are now incorporated into the app.[116]

Crashlytics and Fabric[edit]

Twitter acquired Crashlytics, a crash reporting tool for developers, on January 28, 2013, for over US$100 million, its largest acquisition at the time.[117] Twitter committed to continue supporting and expanding the service.[118]

In October 2014, Twitter announced Fabric, a suite of mobile developer tools built around Crashlytics.[119] Fabric brought together Crashlytics, Answers (mobile app analytics), Beta (mobile app distribution), Digits (mobile app identity and authentication services), MoPub, and TwitterKit (login with Twitter and Tweet display functionality) into a single, modular SDK, allowing developers to pick and choose which features they needed while guaranteeing ease of installation and compatibility. By building Fabric on top of Crashlytics, Twitter was able to take advantage of Crashlytics' large adoption and device footprint to rapidly scale usage of MoPub and TwitterKit. Fabric reached active distribution across 1 billion mobile devices just 8 months after its launch.[120]

In early 2016, Twitter announced that Fabric was installed on more than 2 billion active devices and used by more than 225,000 developers. Fabric is recognized as the #1 most popular crash reporting and also the #1 mobile analytics solution among the top 200 iOS apps, beating out Google Analytics, Flurry, and MixPanel.[121][122] In January 2017, Google acquired Fabric from Twitter and later integrated it into their Firebase platform.[123][124]

Revue[edit]

Revue was a service which lets writers create email newsletters and offer free or paid subscriptions to them. Revue was founded in the Netherlands in 2015 and acquired by Twitter on January 26, 2021.[125] On December 14, 2022, Twitter announced the service would be discontinued on January 18, 2023, at which point all user data would be deleted.[126]

Acquisitions[edit]

On April 11, 2010, Twitter acquired Atebits, developers of the Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone.[127]

On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products.[117] On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr,[128] followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013.[129]

On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices.[130] On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts.[131][132] The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program.[133] In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores.[134] On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro.[135] On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends.[136]

On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman.[137] The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million.[138] Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock.[139][140] In June 2016, Twitter [141] acquired an artificial intelligence startup called Magic Pony for $150 million.[142][143]

On January 26, 2021, Twitter acquired Revue, an email newsletter service to compete with platforms like Substack.[125]

In November and December 2021, Twitter acquired and immediately shut down two competitors: threader.app, a service to transform Twitter threads into accessible web pages, and Quill, a messaging service.[144] Threader.app users were directed to instead purchase the Twitter Blue service, which at the time was available only in some countries.[145]

Leadership[edit]

Jack Dorsey, co-founder and then CEO of Twitter, in 2009

As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.[146] On October 16, 2008,[147] Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board.[148] On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy".[149][150]

According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away.[151] According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way [he could]."[152] Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time, he split his schedule with Square (where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.[151]

In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors.[153] In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development.[154] Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million".[155] On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015.[156] Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo.[157] On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO.[158] On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer.[159] In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role.[160][161] A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving.[162][163]

In February 2020, it was reported that Elliott Management Corporation had acquired a stake in Twitter, with activist shareholder and Republican Party supporter Paul Singer expected to seek the removal of Dorsey as CEO.[164] Twitter agreed to appoint a new independent director and two new board members, and to perform $2 billion in share buybacks.[165]

On November 29, 2021, Jack Dorsey stepped down as CEO. He was replaced by CTO Parag Agrawal.[166][167] On October 27, 2022, Elon Musk closed a deal to purchase the company and fired Agrawal, CFO Ned Segal, chief legal officer Vijaya Gadde, and general counsel Sean Edgett.[75] Musk replaced the prior board as the sole director of Twitter and appointed himself as the CEO.[79]

List of chairmen[edit]

  1. Jack Dorsey (2008–2015)
  2. Omid Kordestani (2015–2020)
  3. Patrick Pichette (2020–2021)
  4. Bret Taylor (2021–2022)

List of CEOs[edit]

  1. Jack Dorsey (2006–2008); first term
  2. Evan Williams (2008–2010)
  3. Dick Costolo (2010–2015)
  4. Jack Dorsey (2015–2021); second term
  5. Parag Agrawal (2021–2022)
  6. Elon Musk (2022–2023)

Finances[edit]

For the fiscal year 2021, the last fiscal before Twitter was taken private, the company reported earnings loss of 221 million, with an annual revenue of $5.1 billion. Since its IPO, Twitter made profit in two of the eight years.[168]

Year Revenue
in mil. US$
Net income
in mil. US$
Total assets
in mil. US$
Employees
2010[169] 28 −67 0
2011[169] 106 −164 721
2012[169] 317 −79 832 2,000
2013[169] 665 −645 3,366 2,712
2014[170] 1,403 −578 5,583 3,638
2015[171] 2,218 −521 6,442 3,898
2016[172] 2,530 −457 6,870 3,583
2017[173] 2,443 −108 7,412 3,372
2018[174] 3,042 1,206 10,163 3,900
2019[175] 3,459 1,466 12,703 4,900
2020[176] 3,716 −1,136 13,379 5,500+
2021[177] 5,077 −221 14,060 7,500+

Funding[edit]

Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact figures are not publicly disclosed. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million.[178] Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 million[179] and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners.[178] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[146]

The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion.[180] In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.[181] In December 2011, the Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal invested US$300 million in Twitter. The company was valued at US$8.4 billion at the time.[182]

Stock launch and tax issues[edit]

On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ahead of a planned stock market listing.[183] It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing.[184] Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut.[185] The initial public offering (IPO) filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted.[186][187] In an October 15, 2013, amendment to their SEC S-1 filing,[188] Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock would trade on the NASDAQ exchange. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook.[189] On November 6, 2013, 70 million shares[190] were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs.[191]

On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion.[192] Consequently, executives and early investors marginally increased their capital, including co-founders Williams and Dorsey who received a sum of US$2.56 billion and US$1.05 billion respectively, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million.[193] On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013.[194]

In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies.[195] Later The New York Times reported that Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner had strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.[196]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b jack [@jack] (March 21, 2006). "just setting up my twttr" (Tweet). Retrieved February 4, 2011 – via Twitter.
  2. ^ "US SEC: FY2021 Form 10-K Twitter, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  3. ^ "Twitter – Company". about.twitter.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Arrington, Michael (July 15, 2006). "Odeo Releases Twttr". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
  5. ^ Hays, Kali (May 2, 2023). "Elon Musk has chopped Twitter down to about 1,000 employees". Business Insider. Archived from the original on May 2, 2023. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Twitter turns six". Twitter. March 21, 2012. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  7. ^ "Twitter Passed 500M Users In June 2012, 140M Of Them In US; Jakarta 'Biggest Tweeting' City". TechCrunch. July 30, 2012. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  8. ^ "The Engineering Behind Twitter's New Search Experience". Twitter Engineering Blog. Twitter. May 31, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
  9. ^ "Twitter overcounted active users since 2014, shares surge on profit hopes". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 1, 2020. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  10. ^ Isaac, Mike; Hirsch, Lauren (April 25, 2022). "Musk's deal for Twitter is worth about $44 billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  11. ^ Feiner, Lauren (April 25, 2022). "Twitter accepts Elon Musk's buyout deal". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  12. ^ "Elon Musk terminating $44 billion deal to buy Twitter". MSN. July 8, 2022. Archived from the original on July 8, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  13. ^ "Twitter shares fall as Elon Musk backs out of deal". BBC News. July 11, 2022. Archived from the original on July 12, 2022. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  14. ^ Conger, Kate; Hirsch, Lauren (July 12, 2022). "Twitter Sues Musk After He Tries Backing Out of $44 Billion Deal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  15. ^ Levy, David Faber,Jonathan Vanian,Ari (October 4, 2022). "Twitter shares surge 22% after Elon Musk revives deal to buy company at original price". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  16. ^ Sato, Mia (December 2, 2022). "Hate speech is soaring on Twitter under Elon Musk, report finds". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 19, 2023. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  17. ^ Dominick Mastrangelo, Rebecca Klar (December 8, 2022). "Musk boosts Twitter's right-wing appeal with moderation changes, 'Twitter Files'". The Hill. Archived from the original on March 18, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  18. ^ Ramirez, Nikki McCann (December 2, 2022). "Elon Brings One of America's Most Prominent Nazis Back to Twitter". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 14, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  19. ^ Press-Reynolds, Kieran. "QAnon conspiracists and far-right influencers are celebrating Elon Musk buying Twitter". Insider. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  20. ^ Hart, Robert. "Elon Musk Is Restoring Banned Twitter Accounts—Here's Why The Most Controversial Users Were Removed And Who's Already Back". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 18, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  21. ^ Conger, Kate (October 28, 2022). "How Twitter Will Change as a Private Company". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  22. ^ Wei, De Wei; Katanuma, Marika (April 11, 2023). "Twitter Company 'No Longer Exists,' Is Now Part of Musk's X". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 11, 2023. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  23. ^ (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 30, 2010). "Why Twitter's C.E.O. Demoted Himself". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
  24. ^ "Co-founder of Twitter receives key to St. Louis with 140 character proclamation". ksdk.com. KSDK. September 19, 2009. Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2009. After high school in St. Louis and some time at the University of Missouri–Rolla, Jack headed east to New York University.
  25. ^ "How Twitter Was Founded" Archived July 14, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Business Insider (April 13, 2011). Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
  26. ^ Malik, Om (October 25, 2006). "Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp". GigaOM. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
  27. ^ Madrigal, Alexis (April 14, 2011). "Twitter's Fifth Beatle Tells His Side of the Story". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
  28. ^ Lennon, Andrew. "A Conversation with Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey". The Daily Anchor. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
  29. ^ Meyers, Courtney Boyd (July 15, 2011). "5 years ago today Twitter launched to the public". The Next Web. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  30. ^ Levy, Steven (April 30, 2007). "Twitter: Is Brevity The Next Big Thing?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  31. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (March 10, 2007). "To Twitter or Dodgeball at SXSW?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  32. ^ "Twitter heads to Motown to be closer to automakers". Reuters. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  33. ^ "Twitter to create 12 jobs as it scales up Irish operations". Irish Independent. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  34. ^ "Twitter Now Has More Than 200 Million Monthly Active Users". Mashable. December 18, 2012. Archived from the original on July 14, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  35. ^ Tate, Ryan. "Twitter's Big Day: Why Zero Profits Make for a Great IPO". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  36. ^ a b c d Faber, David; Balakrishnan, Anita (September 23, 2016). "Twitter may soon get formal bid, suitors said to include Salesforce and Google". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  37. ^ Vielma, Antonio José (September 26, 2016). "Microsoft seen as possible Twitter suitor: Source". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  38. ^ Rodionova, Zlata (September 27, 2016). "Twitter sale: Disney and Microsoft join Google in list of potential bidders". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 2, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  39. ^ Nusca, Andrew (September 27, 2016). "Will Microsoft Buy Twitter?". Fortune. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  40. ^ a b Lunden, Ingrid; Roof, Katie; Lynley, Matthew; Miller, Ron (September 23, 2016). "Salesforce, Google, Microsoft, Verizon are all eyeing up a Twitter bid". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  41. ^ Sherman, Alex; Frier, Sarah (September 26, 2016). "Disney Is Working With an Adviser on Potential Twitter Bid". Bloomberg Markets. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  42. ^ Roof, Katie; Panzarino, Matthew (September 26, 2016). "Yep, Disney is in talks with bankers about possible Twitter acquisition". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  43. ^ "Twitter shares soar almost 20% on takeover talk". BBC News. September 23, 2016. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  44. ^ Sherman, Alex; Palmeri, Christopher; Frier, Sarah (October 18, 2016). "Disney Dropped Twitter Pursuit Partly Over Image". Bloomberg Technology. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on April 23, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  45. ^ McCormick, Rich (October 19, 2016). "Twitter's reputation for abuse is turning off potential suitors". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  46. ^ Price, Rob (October 18, 2016). "Twitter's abuse problem is reportedly part of the reason Disney chose not to buy it". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on April 23, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  47. ^ Howard, Anne (June 19, 2017). "Twitter Gets a New Look. Does it get it Right?". RPRN Newsmagazine. RPRN News. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  48. ^ Pierce, David (June 15, 2017). "Twitter Redesigned Itself to Make the Tweet Supreme Again". Wired. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  49. ^ "Establishing Twitter's presence in Africa". blog.twitter.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  50. ^ "Ghana basks in Twitter's surprise choice as Africa HQ". BBC News. April 24, 2021. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  51. ^ Perez, Sarah (January 3, 2022). "Twitter completes sale of MoPub to AppLovin for $1.05 billion". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on January 4, 2022. Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  52. ^ "U.S. SEC: Schedule 13G". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 4, 2022. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  53. ^ a b "U.S. SEC: Schedule 13D: Amendment No. 1 to Schedule 13G". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 4, 2022. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  54. ^ "Elon Musk spent $2.64 billion on Twitter shares so far this year, new filing shows". CNBC. April 5, 2022. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  55. ^ Turner, Giles; Trudell, Craig (April 2, 2022). "Elon Musk Takes 9.2% Stake in Twitter After Hinting at Shake-Up". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  56. ^ Corfield, Gareth (April 5, 2022). "Elon Musk to join Twitter board". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  57. ^ "U.S. SEC: Amendment No. 1 to Schedule 13D". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 9, 2022. Archived from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  58. ^ "U.S. SEC: Amendment No. 2 to Schedule 13D". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 13, 2022. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  59. ^ Robertson, Adi (April 15, 2022). "What Elon Musk's Twitter 'free speech' promises miss". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  60. ^ Milmo, Dan (April 14, 2022). "How 'free speech absolutist' Elon Musk would transform Twitter". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  61. ^ "U.S. SEC: Form 8-K". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 15, 2022. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  62. ^ Telford, Taylor; Lerman, Rachel; Siddiqui, Faiz (April 25, 2022). "Twitter shares jump on reports a deal with Musk could come as soon as Monday". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  63. ^ "U.S. SEC: Amendment No. 3 to Schedule 13D". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 20, 2022. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  64. ^ Wells, Georgia; Lombardo, Cara; Bobrowsky, Meghan (April 25, 2022). "Twitter and Elon Musk Strike Deal for Takeover". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  65. ^ Roumeliotis, Greg (July 11, 2022). "Twitter vows legal fight after Musk pulls out of $44 billion deal". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 8, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  66. ^ Clare Duffy, Brian Fung and Rachel Metz (July 8, 2022). "Musk tells Twitter he wants out of deal to buy it. Twitter says it will force him to close the sale". CNN. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  67. ^ "Musk abandons deal to buy Twitter; company says it will sue". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  68. ^ Spangler, Todd (July 8, 2022). "Elon Musk Says He's Terminating Deal to Buy Twitter, Company Vows to Sue Him". Variety. Archived from the original on July 9, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  69. ^ Conger, Kate; Hirsch, Lauren (July 12, 2022). "Twitter Sues Musk After He Tries Backing Out of $44 Billion Deal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  70. ^ Feiner, Lauren (September 13, 2022). "Twitter shareholders vote to approve Elon Musk's bid to buy the company". CNBC. Archived from the original on September 13, 2022. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
  71. ^ "Musk Revives $44 Billion Twitter Bid, Aiming to Avoid Trial". Bloomberg News. October 4, 2022. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  72. ^ Faiz Siddiqui; Elizabeth Dwoskin; Rachel Lerman (October 5, 2022) [2022-10-04]. "Elon Musk offers to buy Twitter for original price, weeks before trial". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 1330888409. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.[please check these dates]
  73. ^ "SEC, Form 25-NSE". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  74. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz; Dwoskin, Elizabeth. "Top Twitter executives fired as Elon Musk takeover begins". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  75. ^ a b Kay, Kali Hays, Grace. "Elon Musk is now officially Twitter's new owner, ending months of costly litigation". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  76. ^ Corse, Lauren Thomas and Alexa (October 28, 2022). "Elon Musk Buys Twitter, Fires CEO and CFO". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 28, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  77. ^ Mehta, Ivan (October 28, 2022). "Twitter will be delisted from the New York Stock Exchange on November 8". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  78. ^ "MoneyWatch: Twitter delisted from the New York Stock Exchange". CBS News. November 8, 2022. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  79. ^ a b "Elon Musk officially becomes Twitter CEO and dissolves board of directors". Euronews. November 1, 2022. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  80. ^ Conger, Kate; Mac, Ryan; Isaac, Mike (November 15, 2022). "Elon Musk Fires Twitter Employees Who Criticized Him". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  81. ^ Donnie Sullivan; Clare Duffy (November 3, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter lays off employees across the company". CNN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  82. ^ Sato, Mia (November 4, 2022). "Elon Musk's Twitter layoffs leave whole teams gutted". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 17, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  83. ^ Sam Tabahirti (November 6, 2022). "Some laid off Twitter employees say they're being asked to come back to Twitter after mass layoffs". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  84. ^ Pearl, Mike (November 5, 2022). "Twitter layoff lawsuit is aimed at preventing a repeat of Tesla layoffs". Mashable. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  85. ^ Perez, Sarah (November 4, 2022). "Twitter sued in class action lawsuit over mass layoffs without proper legal notice". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  86. ^ Conger, Kate; Mac, Ryan; Isaac, Mike; Hsu, Tiffany (November 11, 2022). "Two Weeks of Chaos: Inside Elon Musk's Takeover of Twitter". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  87. ^ Bond, Shannon (November 17, 2022). "Twitter employees quit in droves after Elon Musk's ultimatum passes". NPR. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  88. ^ Wagner, Kurt; Alba, Davey (November 18, 2022). "Musk's 'Hardcore' Ultimatum Sparks Exodus, Leaving Twitter at Risk". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  89. ^ Corse, Alexa; Needleman, Sarah E. (November 17, 2022). "Twitter Workers Say Farewell After Musk Ultimatum Over Terms of Employment Passes". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  90. ^ Sato, Mia (November 17, 2022). "Hundreds of employees say no to being part of Elon Musk's 'extremely hardcore' Twitter". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 18, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  91. ^ "Twitter Advertiser Pause Widens as General Mills Taps the Brakes". Bloomberg.com. November 3, 2022. Archived from the original on March 4, 2023. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  92. ^ Sato, Mia (November 11, 2022). "Another major ad agency recommends pausing Twitter ad campaigns". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 27, 2022. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  93. ^ Twitter hit by 40% revenue drop amid ad squeeze, say reports Archived January 18, 2023, at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
  94. ^ Sarah E. Needleman; Alexa Corse (November 5, 2022). "Elon Musk Says Twitter Has Had Massive Revenue Drop as Layoffs Begin". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  95. ^ Hubbard, Halisia (November 25, 2022). "Twitter has lost 50 of its top 100 advertisers since Elon Musk took over, report says". NPR. Archived from the original on November 29, 2022. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  96. ^ "Ad spending on Twitter falls by over 70% in Dec - data". Reuters. January 24, 2023. Archived from the original on January 25, 2023. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  97. ^ Primack, Dan (December 16, 2022). "Elon Musk asks Twitter investors for more money". Axios. Archived from the original on December 17, 2022. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  98. ^ Liz Hoffman; Reed Albergotti (December 16, 2022). "Elon Musk's team is seeking new investors for Twitter". Semafor. Archived from the original on December 17, 2022. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
  99. ^ Berber Jin; Alexander Saeedy (January 25, 2023). "Elon Musk Explores Raising Up to $3 Billion to Help Pay Off Twitter Debt". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  100. ^ Kirsch, Noah (January 25, 2023). "Elon Musk Denies Report That He's Thinking of Raising $3 Billion for Twitter". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  101. ^ Ladden-Hall, Dan (April 5, 2023). "NPR Labeled 'State-Affiliated Media' on Twitter as Musk Steps Up Press Feud". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  102. ^ Novak, Matt. "Twitter Adds 'State-Affiliated Media' Label To NPR Account Putting It On Par With Russia Today". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  103. ^ "NPR Gets 'State-Affiliated Media' Tag in Twitter's Latest Swipe at News Outlets". Bloomberg. April 5, 2023. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  104. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 5, 2023). "NPR CEO Slams Twitter for Labeling Its Account as 'State-Affiliated Media': It's 'Unacceptable'". Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2023.
  105. ^ Richard, Lawrence (April 11, 2023). "Twitter 'no longer exists' as company officially merges with X Corp". FOXBusiness. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  106. ^ "Twitter Company 'No Longer Exists,' Is Now Part of Musk's X". Bloomberg.com. April 11, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  107. ^ "Twitter Acquires Video Service; Are Third Party Video Developers In Danger Now Too?". MediaBistro. October 9, 2012. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  108. ^ "Twitter Buys Vine, a Video Clip Company That Never Launched". All Things D. October 9, 2012. Archived from the original on September 25, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  109. ^ Dredge, Stuart (January 23, 2013). "Vine iPhone app brings short, sharp video to Twitter". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  110. ^ Foxx, Chris (October 27, 2016). "Twitter axes Vine video service". BBC News. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  111. ^ "Important News About Vine". Medium.com. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  112. ^ "Vine FAQs". Archived from the original on July 6, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  113. ^ Constine, Josh (March 13, 2015). "Twitter Confirms Periscope Acquisition, And Here's How The Livestreaming App Works". Archived from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  114. ^ Pierce, David (March 26, 2015). "Twitter's Periscope App Lets You Livestream Your World". Wired. Archived from the original on May 13, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  115. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (December 15, 2020). "Twitter is shutting down its Periscope apps". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  116. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (March 31, 2021). "Periscope shuts down, six years after popularizing mobile live streaming". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  117. ^ a b T. Huang, Gregory (February 5, 2013). "Twitter's Boston Acquisitions: Crashlytics Tops $100M, Bluefin Labs Close Behind". Xconomy. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  118. ^ Olanoff, Drew (January 28, 2013). "Twitter Acquires Mobile Crash-Reporting Tool Crashlytics, Development Of The Product Will Continue "Unabated"". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  119. ^ Honan, Mat. "Twitter's Audacious Plan to Infiltrate All Your Apps". WIRED. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  120. ^ "Milestone Achieved: Over 1 Billion Devices!". Fabric Blog. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  121. ^ Lew, Jason (December 15, 2016). "The State of Mobile SDKs in 2016". MightySignal Mobile Trends. Archived from the original on March 4, 2023. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  122. ^ "Fabric lands top spots for app analytics, stability, and monetization". Fabric Blog. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  123. ^ Wagner, Kurt; Townsend, Tess (January 18, 2017). "Google has acquired most of Twitter's developer products, including Fabric and Crashlytics". Recode. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  124. ^ Protalinski, Emil (September 14, 2018). "Google is killing Fabric in mid-2019, pushes developers to Firebase". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  125. ^ a b Conger, Kate (January 26, 2021). "Twitter Acquires Revue, a Newsletter Company". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  126. ^ Silberling, Amanda (December 14, 2022). "Twitter shuts down Revue, its newsletter platform". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  127. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (April 11, 2010). "Twitter Acquires Atebits, Maker of Tweetie". Bits (blog of The New York Times). Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  128. ^ "Twitter acquires real-time social data company Trendrr to help it better tap into TV and media". The Next web. August 28, 2013. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
  129. ^ Isidore, Chris (September 10, 2013). "Twitter makes another acquisition". CNN Money. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  130. ^ Shih, Gerry (June 6, 2014). "Twitter acquires mobile advertising startup Namo Media". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  131. ^ Calia, Michael (June 19, 2014). "Twitter Boosts Video Push With SnappyTV Buy". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  132. ^ Tom Cheredar, Venture Beat. "Twitter buys SnappyTV to beef up its arsenal of TV-focused ad tools" Archived October 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  133. ^ Sawers, Paul (June 19, 2014). "Twitter's evolution as a broadcasting platform continues as it acquires live-TV clipping service SnappyTV". The Next Web. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  134. ^ "With CardSpring Deal, Twitter's E-Commerce Strategy Emerges in Time for Holidays". July 20, 2014. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  135. ^ Austin, Scott (July 31, 2014). "Twitter Acquires Security-Password Startup Mitro". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
  136. ^ Lopes, Marina. "IBM, Twitter to partner on business data analytics" Archived November 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
  137. ^ Ha, Anthony (February 11, 2015). "Twitter Acquires Niche, A Startup That Helps Advertisers Work With Social Media Celebrities". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on November 15, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  138. ^ "Twitter buys Niche, an ad network for Vine stars, for about $50 million in cash and stock". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  139. ^ Constine, Josh (April 29, 2015). "Twitter Improves Ads By Acquiring TellApart, Selling Them Through Google's DoubleClick". Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  140. ^ Rosoff, Matt (April 29, 2015). "Twitter's price for TellApart: $532 million". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 6, 2019. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  141. ^ "Musk promises a Twitter "content moderation council"". Lahore Herald. October 29, 2022. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  142. ^ Murgia, Madhumita (June 20, 2016). "Twitter pays $150m for London AI startup Magic Pony". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  143. ^ Lunden, Ingrid (June 20, 2016). "Twitter pays up to $150M for Magic Pony Technology, which uses neural networks to improve images". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on October 16, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  144. ^ "Twitter Acquires and Shuts Down Slack Competitor Quill". HYPEBEAST. December 8, 2021. Archived from the original on December 9, 2021. Retrieved April 16, 2022.
  145. ^ "Twitter Acquires Threader App Which Compiles Tweet Threads into Readable Text". China MFG Guide. November 25, 2021. Archived from the original on April 19, 2022. Retrieved April 16, 2022.
  146. ^ a b Miller, Claire Cain; Vindu, Goel (October 16, 2008). "Twitter Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". The New York Times Bits. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  147. ^ (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 20, 2008). "Popularity or Income? Two Sites Fight It Out". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  148. ^ McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Steps Down". CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on July 29, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  149. ^ "#newtwitterceo". Blog of Twitter. October 4, 2010. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  150. ^ "Twitter CEO Evan Williams Stepping Down". Mashable. October 4, 2010. Archived from the original on November 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  151. ^ a b Miller, Claire Cain (March 28, 2011). "Two Twitter Founders Trade Places". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  152. ^ Albanesius, Chloe (March 29, 2011). "Twitter's Evan Williams Confirms Departure". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  153. ^ "Twitter Shakes Things Up Again: Fred Wilson, Bijan Sabet Leaving Board – Peter Kafka – Social". AllThingsD. September 16, 2011. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
  154. ^ Olanoff, Drew (October 23, 2012). "Twitter Poaches Former Google Exec Matt Derella As New Director Of Agency Business Development". Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  155. ^ Reuters. "Twitter replaces CFO with former Goldman manager" Archived August 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. July 1, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  156. ^ Goel, Vindu (June 11, 2015). "Twitter's Embattled Chief Executive, Costolo, Will Resign". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 11, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  157. ^ Koh, Yoree, "Twitter CFO's Ascent Creates New Power Center" (please edit this parenthetical note to "subscribers only" if link does not work for non-subscribers) Archived September 9, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  158. ^ Koh, Yoree (October 14, 2015). "Twitter Taps Former Google Officer as Executive Chairman". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  159. ^ Kosoff, Maya. "Twitter just named its new CMO". Business Insider. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  160. ^ "Twitter COO Adam Bain to Leave the Company". Fortune. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  161. ^ Isaac, Mike (November 9, 2016). "Twitter's Chief Operating Officer to Step Down". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  162. ^ Lynley, Matthew (December 20, 2016). "Twitter's CTO Adam Messinger is leaving the company along with VP of product Josh McFarland". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  163. ^ Isaac, Mike (December 20, 2016). "Twitter's Chief Technology Officer to Leave Company". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  164. ^ "Elliott targets Twitter, seeking CEO Dorsey's removal: sources". Reuters. February 29, 2020. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  165. ^ Driebusch, Corrie (March 9, 2020). "Twitter, Elliott Strike Truce That Leaves CEO Dorsey in Place". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  166. ^ Bursztynsky, Jessica (November 29, 2021). "Twitter CTO Parag Agrawal will replace Jack Dorsey as CEO". CNBC. Archived from the original on November 29, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  167. ^ "IITian Parag Agrawal to replace Jack Dorsey as Twitter CEO". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  168. ^ Vanian, Jonathan (November 9, 2022). "Elon Musk took over a struggling business with Twitter and has quickly made it worse". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 2, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  169. ^ a b c d "2013 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  170. ^ "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  171. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  172. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  173. ^ "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 11, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  174. ^ "2018 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  175. ^ "2019 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 22, 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  176. ^ "2020 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 20, 2021.
  177. ^ "2021 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 14, 2022. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  178. ^ a b "Twitter Raises over $35M in Series C". MarketingVOX. February 16, 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  179. ^ Womack, Brian (November 12, 2008). "Twitter Shuns Venture-Capital Money as Startup Values Plunge". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  180. ^ Ante, Spencer E.; Efrati, Amir; Das, Anupretta (February 10, 2011). "Twitter as Tech Bubble Barometer". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  181. ^ Delevett, Peter (August 1, 2011). "Twitter lands $800 million venture capital deal, breaking record". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  182. ^ Scott, Mark (December 19, 2011). "Saudi Prince Invests $300 Million in Twitter". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  183. ^ "Twitter plans stock market listing". BBC News. September 12, 2013. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  184. ^ "Twitter's filing for IPO". The New York Times. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 28, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  185. ^ "Twitter wants to raise $1bn in its stock market debut". BBC News. October 4, 2013. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  186. ^ Lapowsky, Issie (October 4, 2013). "Ev Williams on Twitter's Early Years". Inc. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  187. ^ "S-1 1 d564001ds1.htm FORM S-1". United States Securities Exchange Commission. United States Securities Exchange Commission. October 3, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  188. ^ "Amendment 1 to Form S-1 Registration Statement, Twitter, Inc". EDGAR. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  189. ^ "Twitter Announces It Will List On The NYSE Under TWTR, Twitter, Inc". TechCrunch. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  190. ^ "Interesting Numbers From Twitter's IPO". ABC News. November 8, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  191. ^ "Twitter prices IPO at $26 per share". Yahoo! Finance. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  192. ^ "Twitter shares jump 73% in market debut". BBC News. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  193. ^ Wagner, Kurt (November 8, 2013). "Twitter IPO: Guess Who Just Got Rich". Mashable. Mashable. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  194. ^ Rushe, Dominic (February 5, 2014). "Twitter posts revenues of $242m but share price plummets as growth stalls". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  195. ^ "So lief die SZ-Recherche Archived November 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine". Süddeutsche Zeitung. November 5, 2017.
  196. ^ Drucker, Jesse (November 5, 2017). "Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire's Twitter and Facebook Investments". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.

External links[edit]