The Two Centenaries (Chinese: 两个一百年) is a set of goals advanced by General Secretary Xi Jinping following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 2012. It is said to be the basic foundation for achieving the "Chinese Dream", another ideology advanced by Xi.
The concept was first articulated at the 15th Party Congress held in 1997 during the term of then party General Secretary Jiang Zemin. However, apart from occasional pronouncements in party publications, this concept was not widely discussed again until Xi assumed the party leadership in 2012. Since then, it has become a major part of party slogans, often recited in news reports, at conferences, and training sessions for party officials.
The "centenaries" refer to two 100-year anniversaries.
- The centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China in 2021, at which point, a full Xiaokang society would have been achieved. While "Xiaokang" – roughly meaning "moderately well-off" – is a relatively abstract theory rooted in both Confucianism and socialist ideology, the party has outlined this in objective, quantitative terms: a doubling of the 2010 per capita income figures.
- The centenary of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 2049, at which point, China will have become a "strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious, and modern socialist country."
A columnist for Asia-Pacific current affairs publication The Diplomat suggested that Xi's emphasis on these goals gives objective evaluation criteria for the performance of the Communist Party prior to his departure from office, and that achieving these goals will be a major test to the legitimacy of Communist rule in the country.