|Directed by||Vittorio De Sica|
|Produced by||Carlo Ponti|
|Written by||Cesare Zavattini
Vittorio De Sica
|Based on||Two Women
by Alberto Moravia
|Music by||Armando Trovajoli|
Compagnia Cinematografica Champion
Les Films Marceau
Société Générale de Cinématographie (S.G.C.)
|Distributed by||Titanus Distribuzione
Embassy Pictures (USA)
|Box office||2,024,049 admissions (France)|
Two Women (Italian: La ciociara [la tʃoˈtʃaːra], roughly translated as "The [Woman] from Ciociaria") is a 1960 Italian film directed by Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of a woman trying to protect her young daughter from the horrors of war. The film stars Sophia Loren, Jean-Paul Belmondo, Eleonora Brown, Carlo Ninchi and Andrea Checchi. The film was adapted by De Sica and Cesare Zavattini from the novel of the same name written by Alberto Moravia. The story is fictional, but based on actual events during what the Italians call Marocchinate.
The story centers on Cesira (Loren), a widowed Roman shopkeeper, and Rosetta (Brown), her devoutly religious twelve-year-old daughter, during World War II. To escape the Allied bombing of Rome, Cesira and her daughter flee southern Lazio for her native Ciociaria, a rural, mountainous province of central Italy. The night before they go, Cesira sleeps with Giovanni, a neighbouring coal dealer who agrees to look after her store in her absence.
After they arrive at Ciociaria, Cesira attracts the attention of a young local intellectual with communist sympathies named Michele (Jean-Paul Belmondo). Rosetta sees Michele as a father figure and develops a strong bond with him. However, Michele is eventually taken prisoner by a company of German soldiers, who hope to use him as a guide to the mountainous terrain.
Cesira decides to return to Rome once the Allied troops end German occupation. On the way home, Cesira and Rosetta are gang-raped inside a church by a group of Goumier—Moroccan soldiers of the French Army. Rosetta is traumatized, becoming detached and distant from her mother and no longer an innocent child.
When the two manage to find shelter at a neighbouring village, Rosetta disappears during the night, sending Cesira into a panic. She thinks Rosetta has gone to look for Michele, but later finds out that Michele was killed by German soldiers. Rosetta returns, having been out dancing with an older boy, who has given her silk stockings, despite her youth.
Cesira is outraged and upset, slapping and spanking Rosetta for her behavior, but Rosetta remains unresponsive, emotionally distant. When, however, Cesira informs Rosetta of Michele's death, Rosetta begins to cry like the little girl she had been prior to the rape. With her mother comforting the child, De Sica zooms out to end the film.
- Sophia Loren - Cesira
- Jean-Paul Belmondo - Michele Di Libero
- Eleonora Brown - Rosetta
- Carlo Ninchi - Filippo, Michele's father
- Raf Vallone - Giovanni
- Andrea Checchi - A fascist
- Pupella Maggio - Peasant
- Bruna Cealti - Refugee
- Antonella Della Porta - A crazy mother
- Mario Frera
- Franco Balducci - German in the haystack
- Luciana Cortellesi
- Curt Lowens
- Tony Calio
- Remo Galavotti
The film was based on a 1957 novel by Alberto Moravia, La Ciociara (The Woman From Ciociara). It was inspired by Moravia's experiences during World War II.
Carlo Ponti bought the film rights along with Marcello Girosi for a reported US$100,000. Sophia Loren was always meant to star and there was some talk that the film might be financed by Paramount, with whom Loren had made a number of movies. Anna Magnani was going to play the lead and Loren was going to be her daughter. George Cukor was going to direct as part of a two-picture deal with Ponti, the other one being Heller in Pink Tights (1960). The film was going to be shot as part of a six-picture deal between Ponti and Paramount.
Cukor and Paramount dropped out. Vittorio De Sica became attached as director. Magnani pulled out, supposedly because she did not want to play Loren's mother, leading to Loren taking Magnani's role, even though the former was only 26 at the time. However De Sica says it was his decision for Loren to play Magnani's role and cast a younger performer as the daughter "for great poignancy. If in doing this we moved away from original line of Moravia, we had better opportunity to stress, to underline, the monstrous impact of war on people. The historical truth is that the great majority of those raped were young girls."
Magnani says she was going to do it, "Moravia wanted me, but Ponti got it and Moravia did not fight. After that they went through all the roles I'd turned down for Sophia Loren to play."
"The book was one of the most beautiful I've ever read," said Loren. ""I thought it was worth taking the risk at 25 to play an older woman because the story was so beautiful."
Ponti raised money from France and Italy. French investment was conditional upon a French star being used, which lead to the casting of Jean Paul Belmondo, who had leapt to international fame in Breathless (1960). Belmondo's voice was dubbed into Italian.
Joseph E. Levine agreed to buy US release rights after watching only nine minutes of the film. "I bet Sophia she'd win the Oscar and I nursed that film like a baby," Levine later said. He showed the film in every city that a member of the Academy jury lived and promoted it assiduously. "That showed foreign films could get big audiences if promoted with flair," said Levine.
The movie was among the 30 most popular films at the French box office that year.
The film won the Academy Award for Best Actress for Sophia Loren, due largely to heavy promotion by its North American distributor, Joseph E. Levine. This was the first time an acting Oscar had been given for a non-English-speaking performance. Loren was too nervous to attend the ceremony and elected to stay in Rome instead. Greer Garson accepted the award on Loren's behalf.
La Ciociara was remade for television in 1988. It was adapted by Diana Gould, Lidia Ravera, Dino Risi and Bernardino Zapponi. It was directed by Risi and starred Loren, Robert Loggia, Leonardo Ferrantini, Dario Ghirardi and Sydney Penny.
- "Box office information for Jean Paul Belmondo films", Box Office Story
- Pryor, Thomas (13 May 1958). "JAPANESE MOVIE WILL BE ADAPTED: Alciona, U. S. Concern, to Make 'Magnificent 7' -- Moravia Novel Eyed". New York Times. p. 26.
- "FILM EVENTS: Cukor to Direct Loren". Los Angeles Times. 4 June 1958. p. C8.
- Pryor, Thomas (6 February 1959). "PRODUCERS PLAN 6 PICTURES BY '61: Ponti and Girosi Will Work With Paramount -- Studio Plans Consolidation". New York Times. p. 21.
- Small, Pauline (2009). Sophia Loren: Moulding the Star. Intellect Books. p. 77.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (27 Nov 1961). "De Sica Would Dig for 'Deepest Layer': Ace 'Two Women' Director Says Realism Still Dominant". Los Angeles Times. p. C15.
- Shivasrome, Mark (29 Sep 1968). "In the Beginning There Was Magnani. Then Came Loren. 'Ecco!'". New York Times. p. D17.
- von Faber, Karin (27 Oct 1974). "Positively Sophia: Sophia Loren talks about movies, her husband and children, being 40, and the power of positive thinking". Chicago Tribune. p. h56.
- "The actress wins an Oscar--and a name". Chicago Tribune. 21 March 1979. p. b1.
- Schumach, Murray (9 Nov 1961). "MOVIE PRODUCER SELLS THE PUBLIC: Joseph E. Levine Believes in Extravagant Openings". New York Times. p. 39.
- Rosenthal, Donna (5 July 1987). "Self-Made Mogul Hangs On: Joseph E. Levine, 82, Is Still Wheeling and Dealing". Los Angeles Times. p. K23.
- "1961 Box Office". Box Office Story.
- "Festival de Cannes: Two Women". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-02-20.