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Tymandus or Tymandos (Ancient Greek: Τύμανδος) also known as Mandos, Mandas Kiri, or Yassi Veran, was a Roman and Byzantine-era city in northern Pisidia (now southern Turkey). A number of monuments from Roman times remain in the area.[1]


Tymandus was located in the northern part of the region and Roman province of Pisidia, between Philomelion and Sozopolis (Apollonia).[2][3]

The site is identified with the modern town of Yassıören north of Isparta and near Lake Eğirdir.[4] The city was located on a broad flood plain running east into Lake Eğirdir.[5]


The area has a hot summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa) with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers.

Municipal status[edit]

During the 3rd century the residents of Tymandus asked the Roman Emperor for municipal status; their request was granted, as recorded in both an inscription in Tymandus, and an epistle of the emperor,[6][7] possibly Diocletian.[8]

The city was granted rights to elect magistrates, aediles, and quaestors.[9] and establish a town council[10] with 50 members[11](Decurions)[12] and city hall, and to pass ordinances.



Bownmann and Garnsey have argued that Tymandus was actually a village,[13] not a town and that the granting of municipal status was unusual. They argue the wording of the grant is for the granting of municipal status rather than being an actual city. Levick, however, argues that Tymandus had in the 2nd century been a mere village, but by the time of the municipal grant had grown significantly, so that the grant merely reflected a recognition of this change.[14]

Pont has postulated that the granting of the municipal status was to placate a particularly vocal community.[15]


Pisidia was an early center of Christianity, and located in the ecclesiastical province of Antioch.[16] Known bishops of the see include:

The bishopric remains a vacant titular see in the Roman Catholic Church.[19][20]


  1. ^ monuments of Pisidia Oxford University.
  2. ^ William Smith, LLD. London. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. (Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854).
  3. ^ Hierocl. P. 673
  4. ^ Drew Bear, T. , Places: 609 563 (Tymandos) at Pleiades
  5. ^ Monuments of Pisisdia.
  6. ^ Allan Chester Johnson, Paul Robinson Coleman-Norton, Frank Card Bourne, Clyde Pharr, Ancient Roman Statutes: A Translation with Introduction, Commentary, Glossary, and Index(The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 1961)p 222.
  7. ^ Johnson, Coleman-Norton & Bourne, Ancient Roman Statutes, Austin, 1961, pp. 221-222, n270.
  8. ^ A. H. M. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces [Oxford 1937], p142.
  9. ^ LA Curchin 2014, The end of local magistrates in the Roman Empire.
  10. ^ James S Reid, The Municipalities of the Roman Empire (CUP, 1913), p360.
  11. ^ James S Reid, The Municipalities of the Roman Empire (CUP, 1913), p441.
  12. ^ Mary Taliaferro Boatwright, Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire (Princeton University Press, 2002) p44.
  13. ^ Alan Bowman, Peter Garnsey, Averil Cameron, The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337 (Cambridge University Press, 2005) p295.
  14. ^ Barbara Levick, The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook (Routledge, 2002) p 25.
  15. ^ Pont, Anne-Valérie., The City at the Theater in Anatolia from the 260s to the 320s AD: Signs of a Major Transformation (2014) 2 CHS Research Bulletin 2
  16. ^ "Google Translate".
  17. ^ Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1(Liverpool University Press, 2005) p246.
  19. ^ Tymandus at GCatholic.org.
  20. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Tymandus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 38°06′14″N 30°36′25″E / 38.104°N 30.607°E / 38.104; 30.607