Tyne and Wear Metro
|Tyne and Wear Metro|
Metro train at South Shields.
|Type||Rapid transit/light rail|
|Locale||Tyne and Wear|
(St James-South Shields)
|Daily ridership||109,600 (2015)|
|Ridership||Over 40 million (2015)|
|Opened||11 August 1980|
Arriva UK Trains
|Line length||74.5 km (46.3 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Electrification||1500 V DC|
|Operating speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as simply The Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in the Tyne and Wear region. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom.
It opened in 1980, and in 2015/16 provided 40 million public journeys on its network of 74.5 kilometres (46.3 mi). It is the second-largest of the three metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the other being the Glasgow Subway. It is operated by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains under contract to Nexus.
- 1 History
- 2 Infrastructure
- 3 Services
- 4 Current developments
- 5 Proposed extensions and suggested improvements
- 6 Rolling stock
- 7 Layout and distances
- 8 61st station – Beacon Hill
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The present system uses much former railway infrastructure, mostly constructed between 1839 and 1882. One of the oldest parts being the Newcastle & North Shields Railway (between Newcastle and North Shields) opened in 1839. In 1904, in response to tramway competition which was taking away passengers, the North Eastern Railway (NER) started electrifying several the local railways north of the River Tyne with a 600V DC third-rail system, forming one of the earliest suburban electric networks, known as the Tyneside Electrics. In 1938, the line south of the Tyne between Newcastle and South Shields was also electrified. Falling passenger numbers, and the need to renew life expired infrastructure and rolling stock, meant that the Tyneside Electric network was de-electrified in the 1960s under British Rail, and converted to diesel operation. The Newcastle-South Shields line was de-electrified in 1963, and the north Tyneside routes were de-electrified in 1967.
Planning and construction
Plans for the Metro were first conceived in 1970 by the recently created Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority (now known as 'Nexus') as a way to revive the badly run down former Tyneside Electric network, by converting it into an electrified rapid transit system, with new infrastructure linking it up. The system was intended to form part of an integrated transport network, with buses acting as feeders to purpose-built interchanges. The plans were approved in 1973, and took 11 years to be completed. Construction work began in 1974; this involved re-electrifying the routes with overhead line equipment at 1,500 V DC, the upgrading or relocation of existing stations, and the construction of around six miles (10km) of new routes: The new infrastructure was built both to separate the Metro from the existing rail network, and also to allow the Metro to better penetrate the central areas of both Gateshead and Newcastle. Around 6.4km of the new routes were in tunnels, while the remainder was either at ground level or elevated: The elevated sections included the new 350 metre Queen Elizabeth II Bridge crossing the River Tyne, and the 820 metre Byker Viaduct across the Ouseburn Valley, between Byker and Manors stations. The first part of the original network opened in August 1980, and the remainder opened in stages until March 1984.
Some extensions to the original system have since been built. A short extension from Bank Foot to Newcastle Airport was opened in 1991. In 2002 an 11-mile (18.5 km) extension was opened from Pelaw to South Hylton via Sunderland. This extension used part of the existing Durham Coast Line to Sunderland, but did not take it over; instead the line was adapted to allow a shared service between the Metro and the conventional rail services. Three intermediate stations on the route were rebuilt, and three new ones were added. Within Sunderland, part of a former freight line which had been abandoned in 1984, was reused for the route between Sunderland station and South Hylton.
The opening dates of the services and stations are as follows:
|11 August 1980||Tynemouth||Haymarket||Whitley Bay, South Gosforth|
|10 May 1981||South Gosforth||Bank Foot||Fawdon|
|15 November 1981||Haymarket||Heworth||Monument|
|14 November 1982||St James||Tynemouth||Monument, Wallsend and North Shields|
|24 March 1984||Heworth||South Shields||Pelaw, Jarrow|
|15 September 1985||Kingston Park|
|16 September 1985||Pelaw|
|19 March 1986||Palmersville|
|17 November 1991||Bank Foot||Newcastle Airport|
|31 March 2002||Pelaw||South Hylton||Sunderland|
|28 April 2002||Park Lane|
|11 December 2005||Northumberland Park|
|17 March 2008||Simonside|
When the Metro opened it was intended to form part of an integrated public transport system, with the local bus network reconfigured to act as 'feeders' for the Metro. Metro was intended to cover trunk journeys, while buses were reoriented toward shorter local trips, integrated with the Metro schedule, to bring passengers to and from Metro stations, using unified ticketing. Integration lasted until deregulation of bus routes in 1986. It is however still possible to buy Transfare tickets that combine a Metro and bus journey.
Ticket barriers were withdrawn from service in the late 1980s. The gates were removed from most stations, but in some instances remained in use (permanently open) to assist with crowd control.
With the opening of the Sunderland extension in 2002, Metro became the first UK system to implement a form of the Karlsruhe model, using track shared with main-line trains on the section between Pelaw and Sunderland. The section from Sunderland to South Hylton was previously part of the Sunderland to Durham main line, closed in the wake of the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, and was the second Metro segment to be built on a disused line: the Newcastle International Airport extension was largely built on the former Ponteland branch line.
The network's newest station, Simonside, opened on 17 March 2008. It cost £3.2 million, partly funded by the European Regional Development Fund, and serves a large residential and commercial area in South Shields. In May 2009, overall passenger numbers rose to above 40 million for the first time in over 15 years.
The Metro fleet was initially painted in a two-tone livery of cadmium yellow and white that matched the Metro station design and the livery of the Tyne and Wear bus fleet until 1986. In 1996 a new colour scheme was introduced, of solid red, green, or blue with a yellow wedge at each end and yellow triangles on the doors.
The fleet of trains was refurbished between 2011 and 2015, with improved facilities for wheelchair users being introduced along with improved lighting and flooring. The refurbished trains are painted silver and black, with yellow on the front ends.
Metro is publicly owned, receiving funding from council tax payers and government. Nexus, which owns and manages Metro, contracted out operations and train maintenance as part of a deal with the UK Government to secure modernisation investment and operating subsidy for the system between 2010 and 2021. Nexus continues to set fares, set frequency of services and Metro operating hours. Opponents say this was privatisation by the back door, though some services had already been contracted out, such as cleaning of stations and ticket inspections. On 3 November 2008, Nexus invited potential bidders to declare an interest in a contract to run the operations side of the business on its behalf. The successful bidder was to obtain a seven-year contract commencing on 1 April 2010, with up to an additional two years depending on performance. In February 2009 four bids were shortlisted; DB Regio, MTR Corporation, Serco-NedRailways, and an in-house bid by Metro. By October 2009 the shortlist had been reduced to bids from DB Regio and Nexus. In December 2009, DB Regio was named as the preferred bidder. The contract for operating the system was signed on 2 February 2010, and the service was handed over to DB Regio on 1 April 2010.
One of DB Regio's first initiatives was called Metro Dig It and involved the re-painting of stations and deep-cleaning of stations and trains.
In September 2007, Nexus announced that it was investing £14.3 million on new ticket machines, able to take credit/debit cards and notes alongside coins for the first time. At the same time, it said three-quarter height barriers would be installed at 13 main stations from 2011.
On 3 February 2010 the Government confirmed it would award Nexus up to £580 million to modernise and operate the Tyne and Wear Metro. Up to £350 million was to be spent on the 'Metro: All change programme' over the next eleven years. A further £230 million would support running and maintenance costs over the next nine years.
Branding and identity
The Metro has a distinctive design and corporate identity, to distinguish itself from the decrepit rail system it replaced and to match the livery of the buses then in use. The Calvert typeface, used for signage and in printed materials, was designed specifically for the Metro by Margaret Calvert. The corporate identity was revised in 1998, de-emphasising the Calvert font, and adding the word Metro to its M logo. A further revision made in 2008, and subsequently rolled out, re-emphasises the Calvert font, most obviously in posters and in signage at the refurbished Haymarket station in the centre of Newcastle.
The Metro consists of two lines, the Green Line, which runs between Newcastle Airport and South Hylton (via Newcastle city centre, Gateshead and Sunderland) and the Yellow Line, which runs between St James and South Shields (via North Shields, Tynemouth and Whitley Bay), then looping back on itself and going south (via the city centre, Gateshead and Jarrow).
List of routes: Stations in bold indicate terminating stations
|Green Line||Yellow Line|
Originally, there was also a Red line between Heworth (later Pelaw) and Benton and a Blue line between St James and North Shields. Additional trains ran on these lines during peak hours to increase the frequency at the busier stations. Many of these additional services still operate as Yellow line services.
Metro installed ticket barriers at 13 stations on the network during a modernisation programme in 2013–2014, while the remaining stations have no fixed ticket controls. Despite this, the Tyne and Wear Metro has the third-highest level of passenger income per year (£45.2 million in 2013/2014) of the eight light rail systems in England. Checks are made by roving patrols of inspectors. Ticket machines that accept coins, notes and credit/debit cards were introduced during the modernisation programme.
Metro pioneered the playing of classical music in some of its stations to deter vandalism. In 1998 Frederick Delius's Incidental Music to Hassan was chosen by Metro to be played over its public address system as a deterrent to vandals.The Director General of Nexus was quoted as saying: "The aim is not to soothe but to provide a background of music that people who we are aiming at don't actually like and so they move away. It's been pretty successful." In 2005 the London Underground began to follow Metro's example.
Many stations throughout the system feature commissioned works by various artists. Examples include the following:
- A large-scale public artwork by Nayan Kulkarni, Nocturne, consisting of a moving kaleidoscope of light travelling along the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge, which carries the Metro between Newcastle and Gateshead, was inaugurated in April 2007.
- Wallsend station is probably the only public facility in Britain in which the signage is in Latin. Artist Michael Pinsky was commissioned to create the bilingual signs and a map of Hadrian's Wall in the style of the Metro map to commemorate the area's Roman heritage and its location near the Segedunum Roman fort at the end of the wall. The project was part of Newcastle and Gateshead's unsuccessful joint bid to become European Capital of Culture in 2008.
On each line, services operate every 12 minutes: on the shared section between South Gosforth and Pelaw this rises to every six minutes. Services operate from around 5:30 until midnight. A full journey on the Green Line between Airport and South Hylton takes 67 minutes. The Yellow Line consists of the North Tyneside Loop, and the branch to South Shields; a full journey around the loop takes 54 minutes, and the full route from St James to South Shields takes 82 minutes.
Metro does not allow the carriage of standard bicycles, though there are storage lockers for these at some stations. Only small folding bicycles are permitted on the Metro, and technically only Nexus-approved models of folding bikes are permitted. Photography is allowed on Metro but written permission is required. Furthermore, Nexus reserves the right to chaperone any filming or photography taking place on the network, and has often insisted upon doing so. This rule however does not apply to Sunderland station, because of its being owned by Network Rail and managed by Northern.
'Metro: All Change programme' Phase 1
New ticket machines accepting notes and cards at all stations and barriers at 13 main stations were installed between 2011 and 2014. The modernisation of Haymarket station, funded through private development, was completed on 29 March 2010, and a new station at Simonside opened in March 2008. An upgrade of platforms at Sunderland and the modernisation of several other stations was included in this phase.
Lifts have been replaced at several Metro stations since 2009 as part of the programme. The programme also includes overhauling infrastructure including communications, track and overhead power lines, structures and embankments.
'Metro: All Change programme' Phase 2
Refurbishment of 90 Metro trains and modernisation of 45 stations, a new communications system, overhaul and maintenance of structures such as bridges, tunnels, track and overhead power lines. North Shields station has also been rebuilt. This work started in 2010 and cost £255.3m. Refurbishment of the Metro trains commenced during the summer of 2010, with 4041 being the first one to undergo a nine-month rebuild; this included a new livery and a new interior.
'Metro: All Change programme' Phase 3
Procurement of a new fleet of Metrocar trains, a new signalling system, overhaul and maintenance of structures, track and overhead lines, and further station improvements. This work is scheduled to start in 2019. Funding for this phase has yet to be secured, and the scheme is being criticised due to the fact that the Metro fleet will be almost 40 years old when replacement begins, even though the fleet has an original design life of approximately 30 years. In October 2016 it was announced that Nexus was to submit a bid to the Department for Transport in order to gain funding for new trains.
Proposed extensions and suggested improvements
In 2002, Nexus unveiled an expansion plan to extend the system by adding new sections using street running, changing the Metro into a high-end tram system. Nexus argued that this would provide a cost-effective way to introduce rail service to parts of Tyne and Wear the current Metro services did not reach. The plan listed a number of routes, not all of which were to be built as rail lines; transitional bus services were envisioned, and these could be replaced by trams as demand increased. The original Project Orpheus has been abandoned, possibly because of the government's present "value-for-money" policies for public transport. The use of trams in Tyne & Wear is now less likely, with additional public transport schemes being based around the use of buses.
Nexus has struggled to gain funding for improvements to the existing system, so any extensions are simply part of a long-term vision. Below is a list of previously mooted extensions:
- Tyne Dock to East Boldon along a dismantled railway alignment through Whiteleas could easily be added, because two Metro lines are separated by only a short distance (1.61 miles). This would provide a service from South Shields to Sunderland via the Whiteleas area of South Shields. It was originally suggested by the South Tyneside Local Development Framework and reported by a local newspaper, the Shields Gazette, in January 2008. This would probably be the most likely of extensions, because Nexus is also interested in building stabling facilities for Metro trains at South Shields station as part of the reinvigoration programme.
- Washington, either via the disused Leamside line or a new route. Present planning may lead to the Leamside line being opened at least as far as Washington as a conventional rail line for passengers as well as freight, although this could be shared with Metro trains in the same way as the line from Pelaw Junction to Sunderland. In 2009 ATOC suggested reopening the Leamside line as far south as Washington. On 12 July 2010 local MP Sharon Hodgson started an online petition on the website of local radio station Sun FM to get the Metro extended to Washington.
- Blyth and Ashington, running on existing little-used freight lines. Northumberland Park station has been built to provide a link to a potential new rail service to these communities; if opened, it will not be a part of the Metro system.
- A northward extension to Killingworth and Cramlington has been planned since the Metro was on the drawing board, but would require widening of the busy East Coast Main Line to four tracks, which would be expensive, and a new alignment involving street running.
- Extending the Metro to the West End of Newcastle would require new track, involving tunnelling and bridging in rough terrain; this would be very costly and is perhaps least likely to receive funding, though would probably have the highest potential ridership.
- Ryhope and Seaham, a proposal drawn up by Tyne and Wear Passenger Authority to use the existing Durham coast line south of Sunderland.
Since the inception of the Tyne and Wear Metro, its rolling stock has remained the same. The fleet has been refurbished a number of times, with various liveries. Full refurbishment of the fleet was to take place from 2010 until 2015. Metrocars are to be refurbished by Wabtec Rail at its Doncaster facility with the main goal of the project to extend their service life until 2025. Metro's passenger fleet is formed of a total of 90 two-car articulated units, which are usually coupled together in pairs. These were built between 1978 and 1981 by Metro Cammell in Birmingham.
In addition to its passenger trains, the Tyne and Wear Metro also owns and operates three battery-electric locomotives, constructed by Hunslet in 1988 and numbered BL1, BL2 & BL3, as well as a Plasser & Theurer 08-275 NX ballast tamper and 15 wagons.
Layout and distances
Metro was the first rapid-transit system in the world with a "pretzel" configuration, in which a line crosses over itself and trains pass through the same station twice at different platforms, as Yellow line trains do at Monument station. It was joined in having such configurations by the Vancouver SkyTrain in Canada and the RandstadRail tram system in the Netherlands in 2006. Toronto had previously experimented with a pretzel configuration in 1966.
Distances on the system are measured from a datum point at South Gosforth. The system is metric, with distances in kilometres to the nearest metre. Lines are designated In and Out. The In line is from St. James to South Shields via the inside of the loop (Yellow Line); the Out line is the opposite. By extension the In line is from Airport to South Gosforth, and from Pelaw to Sunderland and South Hylton. Distance plates are mounted on all overhead line structures. Different distances are normally quoted for stations, depending on whether the direction of travel is In or Out. Distances increase from the datum in all directions.
The part of the Sunderland extension owned by Network Rail is dual-marked in metric units and the miles and chains system used by mainline trains. The boundary between the two systems is close to Pelaw Metro Junction. The closest adjacent stations are St Peter's and Sunderland; the furthest apart Pelaw and Fellgate.
61st station – Beacon Hill
A mock station, named Beacon Hill, was installed in late 2010 at Beacon Hill School in Wallsend, North Tyneside. The 'station' features a building painted like a Metro train, with working passenger doors, standing at a station with a recreated station building. The 'station' features a lifelike ticket hall with working ticket machines, a recreated platform area with tactile paving, authentic passenger seating, yellow litter bins and railings and an illuminated Metro "cube" outside.
The station has been installed at the school in association with Nexus to assist with teaching children how to travel by Metro, encouraging safe independent travel.
- Transport in Tyne and Wear
- List of metro systems
- List of Tyne and Wear Metro stations
- North Tyneside Loop
- Rail transport
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