Jin-class submarine

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Jin class SSBN.svg
Profile of the Type 094
Jin (Type 094) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine.JPG
Type 094 submarine
Class overview
NameType 094 (Jin class)
BuildersBohai Shipyard, Huludao, China
Operators People's Liberation Army Navy
Preceded byType 092 (Xia class)
Succeeded byType 096
Cost$750 million per unit[1]
In commission2007–present[2]
Planned8 (projected)[6]
Completed6[3]
Active6[4][5]
General characteristics
TypeBallistic missile submarine
Displacement11,000 tons submerged.[7]
Length135 m (442 ft 11 in)[8]
Beam12.5 m (41 ft 0 in)
PropulsionNuclear, 1 shaft
RangeUnlimited
ArmamentMissiles: 12 JL-2 SLBM

The Type 094 (simplified Chinese: 09-IV型核潜艇; traditional Chinese: 09-IV型核潛艇; Chinese designation: 09-IV; NATO reporting name: Jin class) is a class of ballistic missile submarine developed by China for the People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force. The Type 094 succeeds the Type 092 submarine and precedes the Type 096 submarine, which is under development.

Background[edit]

The Type 094 was first spotted in 2006 on commercial satellite imagery of the Xiaopingdao Submarine Base. It was noted as being longer than the Type 092.[8] Two Type 094s were spotted at the Bohai Shipyard in May 2007, although it was not clear if these included the one spotted in 2006.[9]

One was operational in 2010,[2] three in 2013,[10] four in 2015,[11] and possibly six in 2020.[4]

The PRC is interested in augmenting its ICBM forces with SSBNs to enhance its comprehensive nuclear deterrent force.[12] Nuclear deterrent patrols commenced in December 2015.[13]

Description[edit]

JL-1 and JL-2 missiles

The Type 094's design is likely based on the Type 093 nuclear attack submarine. It is armed with 12 JL-2 SLBMs,[14] each with an estimated range of 7,400 km (4,600 mi). Each missile carries one warhead.[15] The Type 094 and JL-2 is China's first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent.[3]

Globalsecurity.org notes that a Type 094 patrolling just northeast of the Kuril Islands would be able to strike three-quarters of the contiguous United States;[16] whereas launching from Chinese coastal waters would barely reach the Aleutian Islands.[17] Thomas-Noone and Medcalf note that the Type 094's noisiness would make it difficult for it to reach and maintain patrol areas where it could strike at the contiguous United States; no such limitations would exist against Indian targets.[18]

In 2009, the Office of Naval Intelligence of the United States Navy listed the Type 094 as being slightly noisier than Project 667BDR (NATO reporting name: Delta III) from the late-1970s,[19] some of which were in service through 2015 with the Russian Navy.[20]

Type 094A[edit]

The Type 094A is a variant with a modified and improved sail. The sail appears to incorporate features from one installed on a modified Type 093.[21]

Boats[edit]

Name Hull no. Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Type 094
411[14] Bohai Shipyard, Huludao[14] 2001[14] 28 July 2004[14] March 2007[14] Active
Changzheng 10[22] 412[14] 2003[14] 2006[14] 2010[14] Active
Changzheng 11[22] 413[14] 2004[14] December 2009[14] 2012[14] Active
Changzheng 18[23] 421[24] 23 April 2021[23] Active
Type 094A
2020[5] Active
2020[5] Active

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Till, G. (Ed.), Chan, J. (Ed.). (2014). Naval Modernisation in South-East Asia. London: Routledge. Page 23 Archived 4 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b United States Department of Defense. Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2010 (PDF) (Report). pp. 3 (pp12 of PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  3. ^ a b United States Department of Defense (May 2019). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2019 (PDF) (Report). p. 36. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  4. ^ a b O'Rourke, Ronald (21 May 2020). China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 8. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b c https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/china-now-has-six-type-094a-jin-class-nuclear-powered-missile-submarines-151186
  6. ^ Fisher, Richard D, Jr. (19 April 2015). "US upgrades assessment of China's Type 094 SSBN fleet". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 11 August 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  7. ^ LaGrone, Sam; Majumdar, Dave (9 June 2014). "Chinese Weapons That Worry the Pentagon". usni.org. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b Kristensen, Hans M. (5 July 2007). "New Chinese Ballistic Missile Submarine Spotted". fas.org. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  9. ^ Kristensen, Hans M. (4 October 2007). "Two More Chinese SSBNs Spotted". fas.org. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  10. ^ United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). pp. 6 (pp14 of PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  11. ^ United States Office of Naval Intelligence. The PLA Navy: New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century (PDF) (Report). p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  12. ^ "Does China have an effective sea-based nuclear deterrent?". ChinaPowerCSIS. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  13. ^ Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Saunders, Stephen (2015). IHS Jane's Fighting Ships 2015-2016. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7106-3143-5.
  15. ^ United States National Air and Space Intelligence Center (June 2017). Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat (PDF) (Report). NASIC-1031-0985-17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  16. ^ Pike, John, ed. (20 January 2015). "Type 094 Jin-class Ballistic Missile Submarine". globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  17. ^ Pike, John, ed. (20 March 2014). "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  18. ^ Thomas-Noone, Brendan; Medcalf, Rory (September 2015). Nuclear-armed submarines in Indo-Pacific Asia: Stabiliser or menace? (PDF) (Report). Lowy Institute for International Policy. p. 6 (pp8 of PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  19. ^ Office of Naval Intelligence (August 2009). The People's Liberation Army Navy, A Modern Navy with Chinese Characteristics (PDF) (Report). p. 22 (pp25 of PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  20. ^ Novichkov, Nikolai (13 August 2015). "Russia's new maritime doctrine". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  21. ^ Fisher, Richard D, Jr. (15 July 2016). "Images show possible new variant of China's Type 094 SSBN". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  22. ^ a b "《新闻联播》曝光中国海上大阅兵独家画面(图)". sina.com.cn. 观察者网. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  23. ^ a b Tate, Andrew (27 April 2021). "China commissions three major naval vessels on PLAN's 72nd anniversary". Janes. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  24. ^ 赵文涵, ed. (24 April 2021). "习近平出席海军三型主战舰艇集中交接入列活动". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 27 April 2021.

External links[edit]