Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun
|Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun|
Bow gun on Yunagi, September 1936
Coast defense gun
|Place of origin||Empire of Japan|
|Used by||Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Wars||World War I
World War II
|Weight||3,240 kilograms (7,140 lb)|
|Barrel length||5.4 metres (18 ft) bore|
|Caliber||120 millimetres (4.72 in)|
|Breech||single motion interrupted screw Welin breech block|
|Elevation||-7° - +33°|
|Rate of fire||5-6 rounds per minute|
|Muzzle velocity||825 m/s (2,710 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||16,000 metres (17,000 yd) at 33°|
Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun was a Japanese naval gun and coast defense gun used on destroyers, submarines and torpedo boats of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. The proper title of the gun under the Japanese naval artillery naming system is 12 cm/45 3rd Year Type naval gun. Other guns using this naming system are the 41 cm/45 3rd Year Type naval gun, 20 cm/50 3rd Year Type naval gun, 15.5 cm/60 3rd Year Type naval gun and the 12.7 cm/50 Type 3 naval gun.
Design and development
The 12 cm/45 gun designed in 1914 was an indigenous variant of the British QF 4.7 inch Gun Mk I - IV, produced under license from the Elswick Ordnance Company and known as the "Type 41". Later in 1921 the 12 cm/45 gun was used as the basis for a high-angle anti-aircraft gun, designated the 12 cm/45 10th Year Type The "Third Year Type" refers to the Welin breech block used and this should not be confused with the later Type 3 12 cm AA Gun developed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1943. In the Japanese Army artillery naming system, "Type 3" refers to the year of introduction, rather than the type of breech block used.
A re-design in 1922 called the 12 cm/45 11th Year Type (Model 1922) with a shorter gun barrel and a horizontal sliding breech-block was used on submarines and torpedo boats. The 12 cm/45 was manually loaded and fired a 20.3 kilograms (45 lb) High-explosive, a illumination shell or after 1943 an anti-submarine shell.
Weapons of comparable role, performance and era
- BL 4.7 inch /45 naval gun: British equivalent
- Bishop, Chris (eds) The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8
- Campbell. John. Naval Weapons of World War Two", Naval Institute Press (1986). ISBN 0-87021-459-4
- Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun.|
- DiGiulian, Tony. "12 cm/45 (4.7") 3rd Year Type". NavWeaps.com.