12 cm/45 3rd Year Type naval gun
|Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun|
Bow gun on Yunagi, September 1936
Coast defense gun
|Place of origin||Japan|
|Used by||Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Wars||World War I|
World War II
|Mass||3,240 kg (7,140 lb)|
|Barrel length||5.4 m (18 ft) bore|
|Shell||Separate loading cased charges and projectile|
|Shell weight||20.3 kg (45 lb)|
|Caliber||120 mm (4.72 in)|
|Breech||Single motion interrupted screw Welin breech block|
|Elevation||-7° - +33°|
|Rate of fire||5-6 rpm|
|Muzzle velocity||825 m/s (2,710 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||16 km (10 mi) at 33°|
Design and development
The 12 cm/45 gun designed in 1895 was an indigenous variant of an Elswick Ordnance Company export design known as the Pattern Y. The Japanese designation was the "Type 41". Later in 1921 the 12 cm/45 gun was used as the basis for a high-angle anti-aircraft gun, designated the 12 cm/45 10th Year Type The "Third Year Type" refers to the Welin breech block used and this should not be confused with the later Type 3 12 cm AA Gun developed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1943. In the Japanese Army artillery naming system, "Type 3" refers to the year of introduction, rather than the type of breech block used.
A re-design in 1922 called the 12 cm 11th Year Type naval gun (Model 1922) with a shorter gun barrel and a horizontal sliding breech-block was used on submarines and torpedo boats. The 12 cm/45 was manually loaded and fired a 20.3 kg (45 lb) high-explosive, a illumination shell or after 1943 an anti-submarine shell.
In addition to its shipboard role it was widely deployed as a coastal defense gun for Japanese bases in the Pacific and was one of the more common types found by Allied forces.
Weapons of comparable role, performance and era
Two Japanese guns at Fort Siloso - Sentosa Island, Singapore.
- Japanese Artillery Weapons. United States Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas. 1945-07-01. p. 46. OCLC 51837610.
- Bishop, Chris (eds) The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8
- Campbell. John. Naval Weapons of World War Two", Naval Institute Press (1986). ISBN 0-87021-459-4
- Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 3 120 mm 45 caliber naval gun.|
- DiGiulian, Tony. "12 cm/45 (4.7") 3rd Year Type". NavWeaps.com.