Type 44 carbine

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Type 44 Cavalry Rifle
Rifle Type44.JPG
Type 44
Type Cavalry-Carbine
Place of origin Empire of Japan
Service history
In service 1912–1945
Used by Imperial Japanese Army
Wars World War I
Second Sino-Japanese War,
World War II,
Korean War,
Chinese Civil War
Production history
Designer Nariakira Arisaka
Designed 1911
Produced 1911–1942
No. built 91,900[1]
Weight 3.3 kg (7.3 lb)
Length 966 mm (38.0 in)
Barrel length 487 mm (19.2 in)

Cartridge 6.5×50mm Arisaka
Action Bolt action
Muzzle velocity 761 metres per second (2,500 ft/s) Type 38 cartridge[2]
Effective firing range 366 m (400 yd)[3]
Maximum firing range 2,011 m (2,199 yd)[4]
Feed system 5-round internal magazine

The Type 44 Cavalry Rifle (四四式騎銃Yonyon-shiki kijū or Yonjūyon-shiki kijū) is a Japanese bolt-action rifle. This rifle is also often referred to as a Type 44 Carbine.

History and development[edit]

Developed from the Type 38 carbine to provide a cavalryman a carbine with a bayonet and not be encumbered with weapons as before the trooper was required to have a Type 32 cavalry saber, a Type 38 carbine and a bayonet.[5] It entered production in 1911 and entered service in 1912 (the 44th year of the Meiji period, hence "Type 44"), and served on until the end of the Second World War in 1945, production of the rifle ran until three years prior to the end of the Second World War; 1942. Approximately 91,900 Type 44 rifles were produced by Japanese arsenals during these years.[6]

Although it was intended for cavalry troops, many other units such as transportation units were issued these carbines[7] and some cavalry troops continued to use the Type 38 carbine.[8]

After the war, the Type 44 continued to be used by the Chinese People's Liberation Army and Navy.[9]

Description and variant types[edit]

It was a development of the Arisaka Type 38 Cavalry Rifle, the main difference being the bayonet is a needle type and it can be folded backwards and locks underneath the barrel. A hook was located directly below the front sight on the right side of the rifle, replicating the hooked quillon of the Type 30 bayonet for use in the bayonet fencing techniques taught to Japanese soldiers of the period. The Type 44 also included a compartment in the buttstock for which to store a unique two-piece cleaning rod. The cleaning rod storage compartment was accessed via an ingenious rotating door. It fired the 6.5×50mm Arisaka round, and capacity was an internal five-round box magazine, it was fed via five-round chargers.

The Type 44 was produced in three variations (referred to as First, Second, and Third variations). The major differences between variations was in the folding bayonet housing, which increased the length and durability with each variation. The changes to the bayonet housing was because of accuracy issues and to strengthen the stock.[10] A minor difference between variations may be found in the cleaning rod compartment found beneath the buttplate. First variation stocks had two holes drilled for each half of the cleaning rod, while second and third variations had a single larger hole to house both halves of the cleaning rod.


  1. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  2. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  3. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  4. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  5. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  6. ^ Allan and Macy. p.313
  7. ^ Allan and Macy. p.316
  8. ^ Allan and Macy. p.241
  9. ^ Allan and Macy. p.315
  10. ^ Allan and Macy. p.314
  • Daugherty III, Leo J. Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–1945: Training, Techniques and Weapons. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2002. ISBN 1-86227-162-3.
  • Allan, Francis C. and Macy, Harold W. The Type 38 Arisaka 2007. AK Enterprises, U.S.A. ISBN 978-0-9614814-4-5.

External links[edit]