Type 95 Ha-Go
|Type 95 Ha-Gō|
Type 95 Ha-Gō on display at the United States Army Ordnance Museum.
|Place of origin||Empire of Japan|
|Used by||Empire of Japan
People's Republic of China
Republic of China
|Wars||Second World War
Chinese Civil War
First Indochina War
|Weight||7.4 t (7.3 long tons; 8.2 short tons)|
|Length||4.38 m (14 ft 4 in)|
|Width||2.06 m (6 ft 9 in)|
|Height||2.13 m (7 ft 0 in)|
|Type 94 (1934) or 37 mm tank gun|
|2 × 7.7 mm Type 97 machine gun|
|Engine||Mitsubishi A6120VDe air-cooled inline 6-cylinder 14.4 L diesel
120 hp (90 kW) at 1800 rpm
|Speed||45 km/h (28 mph) on road|
The Type 95 Ha-Gō (九五式軽戦車 ハ号 kyūgo-shiki kei-sensha Ha-Gō?) (also known as Ke-Go was a light tank used by the Imperial Japanese Army in combat operations of the Second Sino-Japanese War, at Nomonhan against the Soviet Union, and in the Second World War. It proved sufficient against infantry, but, like the American M3 Stuart, it was not designed to fight other tanks. Approximately 2,300 units were produced, making it the most numerous Japanese armored fighting vehicle of the time.
- 1 History and development
- 2 Design
- 3 Variants
- 4 Combat history
- 5 Survivors
- 6 Japanese WWII units equipped with Type 95 Ha-Gō
- 7 Operators
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
History and development
From early 1930s, the Japanese army began experimenting on a mechanized warfare unit combining infantry with tanks. However, the Type 89 Medium tank could not keep pace with the motorized infantry, which could move at 40 km/h (25 mph) by truck. In combat, motorized infantry could only hope to achieve 40 km advance per day. For transport, tanks could be loaded on train platforms like in any other army of the times. To solve this problem, the Army Technical Bureau proposed a new light tank of 7 tonnes or less capable of 40 km/h speed and started development in 1933.
The prototype of the new tank was begun in 1933 and completed in 1934 at the Army's Sagami Arsenal. Initial tests were positive but it was too heavy at 7.5 tonnes and had to be reworked bringing the weight down to 6.5 t. Due to doubts by the infantry as to its capability for infantry support it was tested in Manchuria in the winter of 1934/1935. The reports were favourable and a second prototype built, being completed in November 1935.
In 1935, at a meeting in the Army Technical Bureau, the Type 95 was proposed as the main tank for mechanized infantry units. The infantry had concerns that the armor was insufficient; however, the cavalry indicated that the improved speed and armament compensated for thin armor. In the end, the infantry agreed, as the Type 95 was still superior to the only available alternative, which was the Type 92 Heavy Armoured Car.
Production was started in 1936 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Mass production began in 1938 with the tank and parts made by several different companies; besides Mitsubishi, that included, Niigata Tekkoshō, Dowa Jido Sho, Sagami Arsenal Kokura Rikugu Jiohei Sho and Ihesil.
The Type 95 was a 7.4-tonne vehicle with a complement of 3 crewmen: a commander, a hull machine gunner, and a driver. Only the commander was seated in the turret, hence he was responsible for observation, loading, aiming, firing the main gun, as well as decision-making and commanding the crew. The hand-operated turret was small and extremely cramped.
The primary armament of the most produced version was a Type 94 (1934) 37 mm Tank Gun (not to be confused with the Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun introduced two years later) with the barrel length of 46.1 calibers. It elevated between −15 to +20 degrees. The tank carried two types of 37 mm ammunition, the high-explosive and armor-piercing. For the latter, muzzle velocity was 1,900 feet per second (579 m/s) and the armor penetration was 1.4 inches (36 mm) at a distance of 300 yards (275 meters).
Secondary armament was originally two 6.5 mm Type 91 machine guns, but these were replaced with two 7.7 mm Type 97 light machine guns, one mounted in the hull front and the other in the back of the turret, facing to the rear right (that is, in the five-o-clock direction).
The most characteristic feature of the Type 95 tank was its simple suspension system. Two bogie wheels were suspended on a single bell crank with two bell cranks per side. The tracks were driven through the front sprockets. There were two return wheels. The suspension had troubles early on, with a tendency to pitch so badly on rough ground that the crew sometimes found it impossible to drive at any speed, and so it was modified with a brace to connect the pairs of bogies. Despite this, the tank continued to give its users a rough ride across any uneven ground. It was provided with an interior layer of asbestos padding separated from the hull with an air gap, to isolate the crew from the sun-heated armor plates, and to protect the crew from injury when the tank moved across rough terrain.
Type 95 was fitted with 120 hp (89.5 kW) Mitsubishi A6120VDe air-cooled 6-cylinder diesel engine. It was located in rear compartment on the right side. The power unit gave it good mobility. Some tanks were fitted with two reflectors in the front of the vehicle for night operations.
- Type 95 Ha-Gō (early production)
- An early production version that differed from the most produced model by using less powerful armament: the main gun was 37 mm Type 94 with the barrel length of 36.7 calibers, muzzle velocity of 575 (1900 fps)-600 m/s (2200 fps), armor penetration of 45 mm at 300 m (1.48 inches at 300 yards). Secondary armament consisted of two Type 91 6.5 mm machine guns. Produced until 1937 with less than 100 made. Used in Manchukuo and China. Of this variant, the very first production tanks used the older 110 hp (82 kW) Mitsubishi engine (as used in the Type 89 I-Go medium tank), and had a top speed of 25 mph (40 km/h).
- Type 95 Ha-Gō (Hokuman version)
Due to issues in Manchukuo with sorghum grass in fields getting trapped in the suspension/wheels, the wheel suspension components were inverted so the tanks could move freely through the grass. This modified version was used in the Battle for Nomohan.
- Type 95 Ha-Gō (later production)
- Among other improvements to the engine and main gun, the secondary armament was changed to two Type 97 7.7 mm machine guns, one in the rear section of the turret and one in the front hull.
- Type 95 Ri-Ki Crane Vehicle
- The Type 95 Ri-Ki was an engineering vehicle for field works. It had a 3-ton 4.5 meter boomed crane.
- Type 2 Ka-Mi Amphibious Tank
- This was the first amphibious tank produced in Japan, and was intended for use by the Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces. The chassis was based on the Type 95 Ha-Go and it main armament was the same, a 37 mm tank gun. The pontoons were attached by a system of "small clips" with a release inside the tank, to be engaged once it landed for ground combat operations. The Type 2 Ka-Mi was first used in combat on Guadalcanal in late 1942. Later they were encountered by the United States Marine Corps in the Marshall Islands and Mariana Islands, particularly on Saipan. They were also used during the fighting on the Philippine island of Leyte in late 1944. They were made in 1943–1944, with 182 completed.
- Type 3 Ke-Ri proposition
- This was a proposed model with a Type 97 57 mm gun as the main armament. This design never got past testing in 1943.
- Type 4 Ke-Nu conversion
- The conversion that replaced the existing turret with the large turret of Type 97 Chi-Ha, armed with the low-velocity 57 mm gun. The conversion was done in 1944, with approximately 100 units completed.
- Type 5 Ho-Ru prototype
- The Ho-Ru was a light tank destroyer similar to the German Hetzer, but armed with weaker 47 mm main gun (Type 1 47 mm tank gun II). The Type 5 Ho-Ru utilized the chassis of the Type 95 Light Tank, but its suspension was enlarged to 350 mm track link width. The wheel guide pins were set in two rows to hold a road wheel between them. The sprocket of the driving wheel was the grating type to gear with the wheel guide pins like on the Soviet T-34. The development of the Type 5 Ho-Ru started in February 1945, only a single prototype was completed.
- Ho-To prototype
- The Ho-To was a Type 38 120 mm howitzer mounted on the Type 95 Ha-Go chassis. The gun had low velocity but the HEAT shell could possibly penetrate the American M4 Sherman tank. This tank destroyer was developed in 1945 along with the Ho-Ru self-propelled gun. None were produced.
It is considered one of the best light tanks in 1935, being armed with a 37 mm cannon, and powered by a diesel engine, a fuel considered by some to be superior due to its low volatility. As with most armies in the 1930s, including the US Army, the tank, and the light tank in particular, were used primarily to support infantry or serve as cavalry reconnaissance and to a lesser extent, as raiding vehicles. Its speed was about 18 mph cross country, which was comparable to the M3 Stuart's 20 mph nearly 6 years later in 1941. In armor, road speed, and weaponry, the Type 95 was far inferior to the (five years older) American M3 Stuart light tanks, but the environment of the Philippines (where roads were sparse and tank engagements took place at near point blank range) largely minimized these disadvantages and allowed the Type 95 to be competitive, as its off-road speed and turret rotation was comparable.
Type 95 proved sufficient against opposing infantry in campaigns in Manchuria and China, as the Chinese National Revolutionary Army had only three tank battalions consisting of Vickers export tanks, German PzKpfw I light tanks, and Italian CV33 tankettes to oppose them. However, the Type 95, like the US M3 Stuart, was not designed to fight other tanks, but for infantry support and due to the IJN's priority in receiving new technology and steel for warship construction, tanks for the IJA were relegated to receiving what was left. By 1942, Japanese armor remained largely the same as it did in the 1930s, and new tank development "stymied". The Type 95 was also used by Imperial Japanese Navy SNLF detachments in Pacific areas during the conflict.
Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan) 1939
Under the mistaken belief that the Red Army was retreating from the area of the Khalkhyn Gol river, the IJA command in Manchuria transferred the 1st Tank Corps, under the command of Lt. Gen. Yasuoka Masaomi to the village of Nomonhan to cut off the retreating Soviets at Khalkhyn Gol. After a two-day journey by rail, the 1st Tank Corps began unloading its 3th Tank Regiment and 4th Tank Regiment from their trains at Arshaan in Manchuria on 22 June 1939. While the 3rd Tank Regiment was composed primarily of the nearly decade-old Type 89 medium tanks, the 4th Tank Regiment, commanded by 48-year-old Col. Tamada Yoshio, consisted of 35 Type 95 light tanks, eight Type 89s, and three Type 94 tankettes.
From the beginning of Soviet General Zhukov's assumption of command at Nomonhan in June 1939, he had deployed his BT-5 and BT-7 light tanks (Bystrokhodnyi tanks, meaning "high-speed tank"; and incorporated them into all of his combined artillery, infantry, and armor attacks. Although in the same light tank category as the Type 95, also with 3 man crews, and similar dimensions, the BT tanks were nearly twice as heavy, at 13.8 tons but were highly susceptible to close-quarter (tank killer) teams using fire bombs (molotov cocktails); which was primarily due to their gasoline engines. As such, Japanese tank crews held a generally low opinion of the Soviet Army tanks, but the BT tank's 45 mm gun was an altogether different matter. With a velocity of over 2,000 feet per second, Soviet tanks could penetrate the Japanese tanks at a range of over 1,000 meters (the Type 95's 37 mm main gun had a maximum effective range of less than 700 meters); as one Type 95 tank officer put it, "...no sooner did we see the flash, then there would be a hole in our tank! And the Russians were good shots too!"
On 2 July 1939, at approximately 18:10 hours (6:10 pm), Col. Tamada's 4th Tank Regiment of more mobile Type 95 tanks took the lead in front of the medium tanks of the 3rd Tank Regiment, as the 1st Tank Corps launched its first offensive against the Soviet forces at Khalkhin Gol. While the 3rd Tank Regiment passed through Soviet artillery fire, becoming decisively engaged by about 20:00 hours (8 pm) during their movement forward, the 4th Tank Regiment, while avoiding Soviet artillery barrages had advanced in a southeast direction instead of due south, engaging Russian forces southwest of Uzuru pond Observing a Russian artillery battery between himself and his objective, a "junction", Col. Tamada ordered an attack in the darkness. At about 23:00 hours (11 pm), the 4th Tank moved towards their objective with about 6 meters between tanks and 30 meters between companies and platoons. Just after midnight, a thunderstorm struck, conveniently exposing the Russian positions while at the same time masking the advancing 4th Tank Regiment. While at close range, the lightning storm suddenly illuminated the advancing Type 95s, and the Soviet defense line immediately opened fire with heavy machine guns, artillery, BT-7 light tanks, and anti-tank guns. However, since the range was so close, the Russian artillery could not depress their barrels low enough to hit the tanks, and their shells flew wildly over the advancing tanks. At about 00:20 hours (12:20 am) Col. Tamada ordered the 4th Tank Regiment to "charge", and by 02:00 hours his light tanks had penetrated over 1,000 yards through Russian lines and knocked out 12 artillery guns.
Japanese losses consisted of one Type 95 light tank, one officer and one enlisted man killed and 8 wounded,; the 4th Tank had expended approximately 1,100 37 mm and 129 57 mm tank shells, and 16,000 rounds of machine gun ammunition. After the action, the Soviet command acknowledged that 1st Tank Corps armor had reached the Russian guns.
British Malaya and Burma 1941
Considering that the United States military had been operating in the Philippines since the Philippine–American War of 1899–1902 and Great Britain had military bases in Singapore since at least the 1840s; combined, they both had at least one hundred years of "jungle warfare" experience between them. Which no doubt influenced their beliefs that "tanks could not operate in those jungles." On the other hand, the IJA had always been focused upon Russia and China, and had never conducted major campaigns in jungle (tropical) regions. Facing impenetrable jungles, two experienced powerful armies, and lacking any combat jungle experience themselves, the IJA Type 95s led the assault forces into taking Singapore by 15 February, and Corregidor by April 1942. By those standards, the Type 95 proved to be an extremely successful light tank during the early campaigns leading into mid 1942. Poor planning on the part of the British Army resulted in few to none of any type of armor in British Malaya or Burma in December 1941.
America's first clash of armor in World War II
America's first tank versus tank battle of World War II occurred when Type 95 light tanks of the IJA 4th Tank Regiment engaged a US Army tank platoon, consisting of five brand new M3 Stuart light tanks from "B" company, 192nd Tank Battalion, on 22 December 1941; north of Damortis during the retreat to the Bataan Peninsula in 1941. Both the M3 and Type 95 light tanks were armed with a 37 mm gun, but the M3 was better armored, with 32 mm (1¼ inches) thick turret sides, vs the Type 95's 12 mm thick armor; however, based upon the Army's Ballistics Research Lab (BRL) which conducted the first large study of tank vs tank warfare in 1945, the conclusion was that the single most important factor in a tank duel was which side spotted the enemy first, shot first, and hit first. In this first engagement the IJA reacted first, destroying the lead M3 as it tried to leave the road. The four remaining American tanks all suffered hits as they retreated.
On 6/7 June 1942, the Japanese 3rd Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF) landed on Kiska Island during the Japanese invasion of the Aleutian Islands, part of today's state of Alaska. The SNLF landing was reinforced by Type 95 light tanks from the IJAs 11th Tank Regiment, which became the only enemy tanks to ever land on North American soil. After the battle, two captured Type 95s were transported to Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland for study and evaluation; where they are on display today (see the photo from the United States Army Ordnance Museum).
Two Type 95 tanks were deployed to support the Japanese landing at Milne Bay, in late August 1942. Initially, the tanks proved successful against the lightly armed Australian infantry, whose 'sticky bombs' failed to stick due to the humidity. Although the tanks had proved reliable in the tropical conditions of Malaya, they could not handle the volume of mud caused by intense, almost daily rainfall at Milne Bay. Both tanks were bogged down and abandoned a few days after the landing.
The Type 95 first began to show its vulnerability during later battles against British/Commonwealth forces, where the tank's 37 mm gun could not penetrate the armor of the British Matilda infantry tanks which were deployed against them. The thin armor of the Type 95 made it increasingly vulnerable, as Allied forces realized that standard infantry weapons were capable of penetrating the minimal armor around the engine block, and even its thickest armor was vulnerable to heavy machine gun fire. By 1944, it was already known that the 10-year-old Type 95 light tank's firepower was insufficient to take on the newest US tanks, such as the medium M4 Sherman, or the M5 Stuart light tank, although the Type 95 could still give the older M3 Stuart light tank a run for its money at close range.
In August 1942, the US launched its first counter-offensive against Japan, when it landed US Marines on Guadalcanal. The US Marine Corps deployed its 1st Tank Battalion, which was equipped with the only M2A4 light tanks to see combat with US forces during World War II. The M2A4 was the foundation for the M3 Stuart, and both vehicles were nearly identical when viewed side by side; with the primary difference being the rear idler wheel lowered to the ground on the M3. Although the M2A4 was newer by five years, being built in 1940, than the Type 95, it was the closest US tank in armament and armor to the Type 95 light tank; with 25 mm (1") thick turret sides vs the 95's 12 mm turret sides; and both tanks were equipped with 37 mm main guns. Several Type 95s were destroyed or captured by the United States Army during the Battle of Biak in 1944. As the tide of the war turned against Japan, the Type 95s were increasingly expended in banzai charges or were dug-in as pillboxes in static defense positions in the Japanese-occupied islands. During the Battle of Tarawa, seven entrenched Type 95s opposed American landings. More were destroyed on Parry Island and on Eniwetok. On Saipan, Type 95s attacked the American Marine beachhead on 16 June 1944, and more were used in the largest tank battle in the Pacific the following day.
In the Battle of Guam on 21 July, ten Type 95s were lost to bazooka fire or M4 tanks. Seven more were destroyed on Tinian on 24 July, and 15 more on Battle of Peleliu on 15 September. Likewise, in the Philippines, at least ten Type 95s were destroyed in various engagements on Leyte, and another 19 on Luzon. At the Battle of Okinawa, 13 Type 95s and 14 Type 97 Shinhoto medium tanks of the 27th Tank Regiment faced 800 American tanks.
China-Burma-India theater of operations
In 1942 the IJA pushed through Southeast Asia, through Thailand and into Burma, and headed for India. Type 95 light tanks of the IJA 14th Tank Regiment led the way. They engaged the M3 Stuarts of the British 7th Hussars and 2nd Royal Tank Regiment, and as the British retreated towards India, the IJA ultimately resupplied their destroyed Type 95's with "some" captured M3 tanks. By 1944, the 14th Tank Regiment was starving to death due to British deep battle tactics of cutting the IJA's logistical lines; and a final push by the IJA was stopped at Imphal, India.
In the Battle of Hukawng Valley, Japanese Type 95 tanks of the 18th Division were joined by remnants of the 14th tank division. They were attacked by the Chinese Army in India's offensive from India but they were virtually annihilated with the rest of the division as only 1700 out of the 12000 strong Chrysanthemum division managed to break out.
When the war ended, hundreds of Type 95s were left in China. They were used during the Chinese Civil War.
Although no surviving examples of the Type 95 light tank remain in Japan, a number have been preserved at museums around the world. In about 2007, the Oregon Military Museum sponsored the complete reconstruction of a Type 95 light tank. The tank is no longer operational however as the original engine encountered mechanical issues and lost oil pressure during a test drive.
- The Tank Museum, Bovington, United Kingdom
- Kubinka Tank Museum, Moscow, Russia
- Central Armed Forces Museum, Moscow, Russia
- United States Army Ordnance Museum, United States
- Oregon Military Museum, United States
- National Armor & Cavalry Museum, Fort Benning, United States
- U.S. Army Museum of Hawaii, United States
- Indiana Military Museum, United States
- Adisorn Cavalry Centre, Saraburi, Thailand
- Australian War Memorial, Australia (undergoing restoration)
- Reserve Affairs Center, Thailand
- Surasakmontree Army Camp, Lampang, Thailand
- Cavalry Tank Museum, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Japanese WWII units equipped with Type 95 Ha-Gō
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Units equipped with Type 95 Ha-Gō:
- 1st Independent Mixed Brigade
- 4th Tank Regiment
- 1st Tank Regiment
- 6th Tank Regiment
- 7th Tank Regiment
- 2nd Tank Regiment
- 1st Company of 2nd Tank Regiment
- 14th Tank Regiment
- 1st Independent Tank Company
- 2nd Battalion of 1st Army Sea-mobile Brigade
- Tank Company of 1st Army Sea-mobile Brigade
- Tank Company of 222nd Infantry Regiment
- 9th Tank Regiment
- Tank Unit of 18th Infantry Regiment
- 1st Company of 9th Tank Regiment
- 2nd Company of 9th Tank Regiment
- Tank Unit of 29th Division
- Tank Unit of 36th Division
- Tank Unit of 14th Division
- 3rd Tank Division
- 7th Independent Tank Company
- 1st Independent Tank Company
- 2nd Independent Tank Company
- 1st Company of 4th Tank Regiment
- 3rd Company of 4th Tank Regiment
- 2nd Tank Division
- 26th Tank Regiment
- 27th Tank Regiment
- 11th Tank Regiment
- Training Group of Kungchuling Army Tank School of Kwantung Army.
- Kamiyoshi Detachment
- Shoji Detachment
- Itoh Detachment (Army Gr.)
- Itoh SNLF Detachment (Navy Gr.)
- Tank Platoon unit of Kure 5th SNLF
- Tank Unit of Sasebo 7th SNLF
- Makin Detachment of 3rd Naval Special Base Force
- 55th Armor Guard Unit of Yokosuka 1st SNLF
- Kwajalein Armor Detachment of Sasebo 7th SNLF
- Primary Operators.
- In 1940 the Thai army acquired approximately 50 Type 95s. A number of them spearheaded the Thai invasion of Burma's Shan States during the Second World War. In 1952 the tanks were decommissioned.
- The Chinese Red Army captured examples from the National Revolutionary Army (in turn captured from the Japanese) and received others captured by the Soviet Union. They were used in the Chinese Civil War and the Korean War alongside the Type 97 Chi-Ha.
- Using left over Japanese equipment from the Japanese invasion of French Indochina, an ad hoc unit of French and Japanese armour was set up called the 'Commando Blindé du Cambodge' and participated in the early stages of the First Indochina War.
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 10, 17.
- Tomczyk 2002, p. 74.
- Zaloga 2007, p. chart D.
- Tomczyk 2002, p. 67.
- Tomczyk 2002, p. 64.
- Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt), pp. 16, 18
- Hara Armour in Profile
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 9, 10.
- Tomczyk 2002, pp. 64, 66.
- Tomczyk 2002, pp. 67, 74.
- "Type 95 Ha-Go5, Type 95 Ke-Go5, Type 3 Ke-Ri, Type 4 Ke-Nu, Type 5 Ke-Ho". WWII Vehicles.com.
- US Department of War, Japanese Tank and Anti-Tank Warfare. United States Government Printing Office. Washington D.C., p. 80.
- U.S. War Department "Japanese Light Tank" Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 31, August 12, 1943.
- Horner, David (1995). "The Gunners: A History of Australian Artillery". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- History of War
- War Department, TM-E 30-480 pp. IX-183, 184
- Coox 1985, p. 433.
- Zaloga 2007, p. 23.
- Tomczyk 2003, pp. 29, 30.
- Tomczyk 2003, p. 30.
- Zaloga 2007, p. 17.
- History of War: Type 4 Ke-Nu
- Zaloga 2007, p. 20.
- Zaloga 2007, p. 3.
- Coox 1985, pp. 437, 993.
- Goldman p. 123
- Zaloga (M3/M5 Stuart) p. 40
- Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) pp. 15, 16, 18
- Zaloga (M3/M5 Stuart) p. chart D
- Zaloga (M3/M5 Stuart) p. 41
- Zaloga 2007, p. 12.
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 16, 18.
- Zaloga 2007, p. 15.
- Coox 1985, pp. 287, 353, 368, 369.
- Coox 1985, p. 353.
- Coox 1985, p. 350.
- Coox 1985, p. 251.
- Coox 1985, p. 641, notation #23.
- Coox 1985, p. 1089.
- Coox 1985, p. 318.
- Coox & 1985 309.
- Coox 1985, p. 437.
- Coox 1985, p. 362.
- Coox 1985, p. 370.
- Coox 1985, p. 371.
- Coox 1985, p. 381.
- Coox 1985, p. 383.
- Coox 1985, p. 385.
- Coox 1985, p. 394.
- Coox 1985, p. 386.
- Coox 1985, p. 387.
- Coox 1985, p. 395.
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 15, 17.
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 16, 17.
- Zaloga 2007, pp. 15, 16.
- Foss, The Great Book of Tanks[page needed]
- Hunnicutt (Stuart) p. 395
- Hunnicutt (Stuart) p. 478
- Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) pp. 229, 230
- Zaloga (M3/M5 Stuart) p. 15
- Hunnicutt (Stuart) p. 475
- Hunnicutt states that the British M3s were destroyed (to prevent enemy use) during the British retreat, however the photo on page 397 shows them intact. Likewise, Zaloga states that some were ultimately "re-used" by the enemy.
- Hunnicutt (Stuart) p. 396
- Zaloga 2007, p. 40.
- Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) pp. 30, 31
- Dunstan, Vietnam Tracks: Armor in Battle 1945-1975, pp 10–11
- Coox, Alvin D. (1985). Nomonhan; Japan Against Russia, 1939 (Two volumes). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1160-7.
- Foss, Christopher (2003). Great Book of Tanks: The World's Most Important Tanks from World War I to the Present Day. Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-1475-6.
- Foss, Christopher (2003). Tanks: The 500. Crestline. ISBN 0-7603-1500-0.
- Goldman, Stuart D. (2012). Nomonhan, 1939; The Red Army's Victory That Shaped World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-329-1.
- Hara, Tomio (1973), Japanese Combat Cars, Light Tanks, and Tankettes, AFV Weapons Profile No. 54, Profile Publications
- Hunnicutt, Richard (1992). Stuart, A history of the American Light Tank Volume 1. Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2.
- Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, TM-E 30-480 (1945). TM-E 30-480. War Department.
- Tomczyk, Andrzej (2002). Japanese Armor Vol. 1. AJ Press. ISBN 83-7237-097-4.
- Tomczyk, Andrzej (2003). Japanese Armor Vol. 3. AJ Press. ISBN 978-8372371287.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (1999). M3 & M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940–45. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-911-9.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2007). Japanese Tanks 1939–45. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-8460-3091-8.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2008). Armored Thunderbolt, the US Army Sherman in World War II. Mechanicsville, PA (USA): Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0424-3.
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