Type C escort ship

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Japanese escort ship No17 in 1944.jpg
No.17 on 10 April 1944 at Tokyo Bay
Class overview
Name: No.1-class escort ship
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Ukuru class
Cost: 5,015,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1946
In commission: 1944–1980
Planned: 300
Completed: 53
Cancelled: 79
Lost: 28
Retired: 28
General characteristics
Type: Escort ship
Displacement: 745 long tons (757 t) standard
Length: 67.5 m (221 ft)
Beam: 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in)
Draught: 2.9 m (10 ft)
Propulsion: 2 shaft, geared diesel engines, 1,900 hp (1,417 kW)
Speed: 16.5 knots (19.0 mph; 30.6 km/h)
Range: 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) at 14 kn (16 mph; 26 km/h)
Complement: 136
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Type 22-Go radar
  • Type 93 sonar
  • Type 3 hydrophone
Armament:

The Type C escort ships (丙型海防艦, Hei-gata kaibōkan) were a class of escort ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type C" ocean defense ships, and they were the fifth class of Kaibōkan (Kai = sea, ocean, Bo = defense, Kan = ship), a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel.[1]

Background[edit]

The Type C, like the Ukuru and Mikura classes, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft and anti-submarine roles.

On 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack. The plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design. The result was the Ukuru class, and a scaled-down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes.

Design[edit]

Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type C was a further simplification of the Ukuru design. They were smaller by 200 tons and the diesel engines that propelled them were also smaller, at 1,900 shaft horsepower (1,400 kW) versus 4,200 shaft horsepower (3,100 kW) for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 knots (36.1 km/h; 22.4 mph) to 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph). The range remained the same, 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km; 7,500 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph). The number of 4.7-inch (119 mm) guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one.

Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time. The Type C escorts required approximately 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras.

Construction[edit]

The design work of the Type C ships started in March 1943, the same time as the Ukuru class. They were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and the Type D. The Type C vessels were given odd numbers, while the Type D were given even numbers. The Type C were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months. The lead ship, No.1 (CD-1) was constructed at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, laid down on 15 September 1943, and completed with No.3 (CD-3) on 29 February 1944.

Service[edit]

No.1 on 6 April 1945

The Type C escorts were assigned to the Destroyer Divisions and Escort Divisions for convoy escort operations. However, by 1944 the advantage had passed to the US, and many Type C vessels became casualties as the Japanese merchant fleet was devastated by the American submarine offensive. There were 53 finished during the war of the 300 planned, and several completed after World War II ended. 26 were sunk during the war.

Successes[edit]

  • USS Growler was sunk on 8 November 1944 by CD-19 with Chiburi and destroyer Shigure.[2]
  • USS Trigger was sunk on 28 March 1945 by CD-33 and CD-59 with Mikura.[2]
  • USS Bonefish was sunk on 19 June 1945 by Type C vessels CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 with Okinawa and CD-158.[2]
  • USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-33 and CD-29 with CD-22 on 30 October 1944.

Ships in class[edit]

Under the Wartime Naval Armaments Supplement Programme, it was proposed to build 300 Type C and 200 Type D escorts. These were assigned the Programme numbers #2401-#2700 for the Type C vessels, with #2701-#2900 for the Type D vessels. In view of the vast number intended, no names were allocated, but only numbers; odd numbers from No.1 upwards were assigned to Type C escorts, while even numbers from No.2 upwards were assigned to Type D escorts.

The first 132 of the Type C escorts were authorised under the 1943 Fiscal Year, but just 53 were completed and the others cancelled. The remaining 168 Type C vessels were authorised under the 1944 Fiscal Year, but no contracts were ever issued.

Prog.
No.
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
#2401 No.1 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 September 1943 29 December 1943 29 February 1944 Sunk by USAAF aircraft south of Xiamen, 6 April 1945.
#2402 No.3 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 September 1943 29 December 1943 29 February 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft northwest of Keelung, 9 January 1945.
#2403 No.5 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 23 October 1943 15 January 1944 19 March 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft west of Masinloc, 21 September 1944.
#2404 No.7 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 23 October 1943 18 January 1944 10 March 1944 Sunk by USS Ray west of Vigan City, 14 November 1944. Rebuilt in Jiangnan Shipyard, recommissioned as PLAN FFG Nanning. Decommissioned 1979.
#2405 No.9 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 October 1943 15 January 1944 10 March 1944 Sunk by USS Gato in Yellow Sea , 14 February 1945.
#2406 No.11 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 15 October 1943 15 January 1944 15 March 1944 Heavy damaged by USAAF aircraft in Ormoc Bay, 10 November 1944. Later scuttled.
#2407 No.13 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 18 November 1943 9 February 1944 3 April 1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14 August 1945.
#2408 No.15 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 18 November 1943 21 February 1944 8 April 1944 Sunk by USS Raton to west of Spratly Island, 6 June 1944.
#2409 No.17 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15 December 1943 26 February 1944 13 April 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12 January 1945.
#2410 No.19 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15 December 1943 28 February 1944 28 April 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft off Saint Jacques, 12 January 1945.
#2411 No.21 Nihonkai Dock Company 1 December 1943 31 March 1944 18 July 1944 Sunk by USS Seahorse to east of Pratas Island, 6 October 1944.
#2412 No.23 Nihonkai Dock Company 10 February 1944 20 May 1944 15 September 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft at north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12 January 1945.
#2413 No.25 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 1 February 1944 14 May 1944 2 July 1944 Sunk by USS Springer in Yellow Sea, 3 May 1945.
#2414 No.27 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 16 February 1944 3 June 1944 20 July 1944 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14 August 1947. Later scrapped.
#2415 No.29 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 2 March 1944 26 June 1944 8 August 1944 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Scrapped on 1 March 1948.
#2416 No.31 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 3 March 1944 4 July 1944 21 August 1944 Sunk by USS Tirante in Yellow Sea, 14 April 1945.
#2417 No.33 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 26 May 1944 22 July 1944 31 August 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft to east of Aoshima, 28 March 1945.
#2418 No.35 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 30 May 1944 3 September 1944 11 October 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft at south of French Indochina, 12 January 1945.
#2419 No.37 Nihonkai Dock Company 5 April 1944 5 August 1944 3 November 1944 Decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Surrendered to United States, 4 September 1947. Scrapped on 30 November 1947.
#2420 No.39 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 10 June 1944 13 August 1944 27 September 1944 Sunk by USAAF aircraft off Geoje Island, 7 August 1945.
#2421 No.41 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 1 July 1944 8 September 1944 16 October 1944 Sunk by USS Sea Owl at Tsushima Strait, 9 June 1945.
#2422 No.43 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 10 April 1944 22 June 1944 31 July 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft off Cape Padaran, 12 January 1945.
#2423 No.45 Nihonkai Dock Company 25 May 1944 5 October 1944 23 December 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
#2424 No.47 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15 July 1944 29 September 1944 2 November 1944 Sunk by USS Torsk at south of Hyōgo, 14 August 1945.
#2425 No.49 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 31 July 1944 15 October 1944 16 November 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United States, 1 September 1947. Scrapped on 1 February 1948.
#2426 No.51 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 1 May 1944 20 August 1944 21 September 1944 Sunk by USN aircraft to north of Qui Nhon Bay, 12 January 1945.
#2427 No.53 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 15 August 1944 29 October 1944 28 November 1944 Sunk by USS Besugo at east of Cam Ranh Bay, 7 February 1945.
#2428 No.55 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20 August 1944 4 November 1944 20 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16 July 1947. Later scrapped.
#2429 No.57 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 10 September 1944 15 November 1944 13 January 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Converted to breakwater at Ube, May 1948.
#2430 No.59 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 25 September 1944 22 November 1944 2 February 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Collided with Hyūga and sunk at Kure, 30 July 1946. Salvaged and scrapped on 9 November 1947.
#2431 No.61 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 1 April 1944 25 July 1944 15 September 1944 Decommissioned on 3 May 1947. Later scrapped.
#2432 No.63 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 1 July 1944 20 September 1944 15 October 1944 Decommissioned on 30 September 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
#2433 No.65 Nihonkai Dock Company 10 August 1944 30 November 1944 13 February 1945 Sunk by USN aircraft at Muroran, 14 July 1945. Salvaged and scrapped in July 1947.
#2434 No.67 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 15 June 1944 15 September 1944 12 November 1944 Decommissioned on 25 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 6 July 1947, and renamed Yingkan. Renamed Rui'an (PF-73) 1952. Decommissioned 1963.
#2435 No.69 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 24 August 1944 28 November 1944 20 December 1944 Heavy damaged by USAAF aircraft off Hainan Island, 9 March 1945. Sank on 16 March 1945.
#2436 No.71 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 5 October 1944 3 December 1944 12 March 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-43 (1947), oceanographic research ship West (1948), renamed Ostrovnoy (1953). Decommissioned on 31 January 1964 and scrapped.
#2437 No.73 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 8 October 1944 10 December 1944 5 April 1945 Sunk by USS Sunfish at southeast of Iwate, 16 April 1945.
#2438 No.75 Nihonkai Dock Company 18 October 1944 20 February 1945 21 April 1945 Sunk (probably by mine) off 10 August 1945.
#2439 No.77 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 2 November 1944 18 December 1944 31 March 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-45 (1947), target ship "TsL-45 (1948), repair ship PM-63 (1955). Decommissioned on 25 January 1969 and scrapped.
#2440 No.79 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 6 November 1944 30 December 1944 6 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-39 (1947), target ship TsL-39 (1948), oceanographic research ship Sozh (1949). Decommissioned on 30 August 1960 and scrapped.
#2441 No.81 Maizuru Naval Arsenal 7 August 1944 15 October 1944 15 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China, 29 August 1947, and renamed Yuan. Escape to People's Liberation Army 13 February 1949, and renamed Shengyang. Decommissioned 1980.
#2442 No.83 Kyōwa Zōsen and Naniwa Dock Company 1944 16 January 1945 - Still incomplete at the end of war (85%). Scrapped on 17 March 1948.
#2443 No.85 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 20 November 1944 27 January 1945 31 May 1945 Decommissioned on 25 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Shian. Escape to People's Liberation Army 23 April 1949. Sunk by aircraft at Yanziji, 28 April 1949.
#2444 No.87 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 27 November 1944 15 February 1945 20 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 29 July 1947. Scrapped on 1 March 1948.
#2445 No.89 Nihonkai Dock Company 1944 3 May 1945 - Incomplete until the end of war (95%). Scrapped in November 1947.
#2446 No.91 - - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2447 No.93 Kyōwa Zōsen 20 May 1944 - - Company was closed and construction stopped in May 1945. Later scrapped.
#2448 No.95 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 27 November 1944 14 April 1945 4 July 1945 Decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Scrapped on 20 July 1948.
#2449 No.97 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 5 October 1944 25 May 1945 16 December 1945 Surrendered incomplete in August 1945. Decommissioned on 1 April 1946. Scrapped on 27 October 1947.
#2450 No.99 - - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2451 No.101 Kyōwa Zōsen 8 September 1944 - - Company was closed and construction stopped in May 1945. Later scrapped.
#2452 No.103 - - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2453 No.105 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 24 December 1944 January 1946 15 April 1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-34 (1947), target ship TsL-34 (1948), oceanographic research ship Khersones (1949). Decommissioned on 3 December 1960 and scrapped.
#2454 No.107 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 3 January 1945 16 March 1946 30 May 1946 Surrendered to Republic of China 29 August 1947, and renamed Chaoan (PF-74). Decommissioned 1963.
#2455 No.109 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 26 January 1945 - - Construction stopped on 1 April 1945. Later scrapped.
#2456
#2457
#2458
No.111
No.113
No.115
- - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2459 No.117 Nihon Kōkan, Tsurumi Shipyard 1 February 1945 - - Construction stopped in March 1945. Later scrapped.
#2460 to #2502 Odd numbers from No.119 to No.203 - - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2503 No.205 Nihonkai Dock Company 10 May 1944 15 August 1944 30 October 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31 July 1947, and renamed Chinan (PF-75). Decommissioned 1960.
#2504 No.207 Naniwa Dock Company 17 May 1944 24 August 1944 15 October 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 4 July 1947. Sunk as target at , 13 August 1947.
#2505
#2506
No.209
No.211
- - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2507 No.213 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 24 September 1944 15 January 1945 12 February 1945 Sunk by naval mine at Busan, 18 August 1945.
#2508 No.215 Niigata Iron Works 20 July 1944 10 November 1944 30 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Liaohai. Transferred to Army, 1948. Returned to Navy, 1953. Decommissioned 1960.
#2509 No.217 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 1 December 1944 26 February 1945 17 July 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 5 September 1947. Scrapped on 10 February 1948.
#2510 No.219 Naniwa Dock Company 2 September 1944 30 November 1944 25 January 1945 Sunk by USAAF aircraft at Hakodate, 12 July 1945.
#2511 No.221 Niigata Iron Works, Osaka 11 September 1944 26 December 1944 2 April 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-40 (1947), target ship TsL-40 (1948), rescue ship Zhiguli (1949). Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
#2512 No.223 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 1944 4 July 1945 - Construction stopped on 23 May 1945 (50%). Scrapped on 23 October 1947.
#2513 No.225 Niigata Iron Works 22 November 1944 26 March 1945 28 May 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Scrapped on 30 April 1948.
#2514 No.227 Naniwa Dock Company, Osaka 5 December 1944 10 February 1945 15 June 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-35 (1947), target ship "TsL-35 (1948), oceanographic research ship Siurkum (1949)/ Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
#2515 No.229 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 16 January 1945 - - Construction stopped in January 1945. Later scrapped.
#2516
#2517
No.231
No.233
- - - Cancelled in August 1944.
#2518 No.235 Niigata Iron Works 15 February 1945 - - Construction stopped in February 1945. Later scrapped.
#2519 to #2532 Odd numbers from No.237 to No.263 - - - Cancelled between August 1944 and March 1945.
#2533 to #2700 168 vessels They were projected only, and never ordered.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Worth P. 208
  2. ^ a b c [1]

References[edit]

  • Dodson, Aidan & Cant, Serena (2020). Spoils of War: The Fate of Enemy Fleets after Two World Wars. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-5267-4198-1.
  • Kaibokan @combinedfleet.com (Retrieved 4 May 2009)
  • C type escorts @IJN(Retrieved 4 May 2009)
  • C class @warships of WWII (Retrieved 4 May 2009)
  • US Submarine losses @NavalHistory&Heritage (Retrieved 4 May 2009)
  • ja:丙型海防艦
  • Worth, Richard, Fleets of World War II, Da Capo Press (2001), ISBN 0-306-81116-2