Type D escort ship

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IJN No2 escort vessel in 1944.jpg
No.2 on 26 February 1944 at Tokyo Bay
Class overview
Name: No.2-class escort ship
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Ukuru class
Cost: 5,363,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1946
In commission: 1944–1987
Planned: 203
Completed: 67
Cancelled: 136
Lost: 26
Retired: 41
General characteristics [1]
Type: Escort ship
Displacement: 740 long tons (752 t) standard
Length: 69.5 m (228 ft)
Beam: 8.6 m (28 ft 3 in)
Draught: 3.05 m (10 ft)
Propulsion: 1 shaft, geared turbine engines, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW)
Speed: 17.5 knots (20.1 mph; 32.4 km/h)
Range: 4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h)
Complement: 160
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Type 22-Go radar
  • Type 93 sonar
  • Type 3 hydropnhone
Armament:

The Type D escort ships (丁型海防艦, Tei-gata kaibōkan) were a class of escort ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type D" coast defence ships, and they were the sixth class of Kaibōkan (Kai = sea, ocean, Bo = defence, Kan = ship), a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel.[2]

Background[edit]

The Type D, like the Ukuru and Mikura classes, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft (AA) and anti-submarine role.

On 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack. The plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design. The result was the Ukuru class, and a scaled-down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes.

Design[edit]

Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type D version was a further simplification of the Ukuru design and were built to the same design as the Type C escort ship. However, due to a shortage of diesel engines to power both groups of vessels, the Type D were powered by turbine engines. This gave a slight increase in speed, from 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph) to 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph), but a reduction in range and endurance, 4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) instead of 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km; 7,500 mi). The Type D was the only Kaibōkan type to use turbines.

They were smaller by 200 tons than the Ukuru's and engines that propelled them were also smaller, at 2,500 shaft horsepower (1,900 kW) versus 4,200 shp (3,100 kW) for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 knots (36.1 km/h; 22.4 mph) to 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph). The number of 4.7 in (119 mm) guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one.

Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time. The Type D escorts required approximately 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras.

Construction[edit]

The design work for the Type D ships started in March 1943, at the same time as for the Ukuru class. They were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and Typce C vessels. The Type D were given even number designations while the Type C were given odd numbers. The Type D were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months. The lead ship, No.2 (CD-2) was constructed at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, laid down on 5 October 1943, launched on 30 December 1943, and completed on 28 February 1944. CD-198 was the fastest build, being constructed in only 71 days; she was laid down on 31 December 1944, and completed on 11 March 1945.[3]

Service[edit]

No.134 on 6 April 1945

Most of the Type D escorts were assigned to the Escort Fleet. However, they were not able to stop the American submarine offensive. One drawback was they did not have an effective fire-control system. They were equipped only with one height rangefinder for the AA guns and were powerless against an air attack. Despite being simple to construct they proved themselves very durable for their size. Of the 22 instances of torpedoes striking them, they survived 9 times, with CD-30 being struck and surviving on two separate occasions. Of the seven occasions when they struck mines, only one sank. During the war 68 ships were finished out of the 200 planned; 25 were sunk during the war.[4]

Successes[edit]

  • USS Harder was sunk on 24 August 1944 by CD-22.[5]
  • USS Scamp was probably sunk on 11 November 1944 by CD-4.[5]
  • USS Swordfish may also have been sunk by CD-4 on 4 January 1945, though evidence is unclear.[5]
  • USS Snook was probably sunk by CD-8, CD-32, and CD-52 with Okinawa on 9 April 1945.[5]
  • USS Bonefish was sunk on 19 June 1945 by CD-158 with CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 and Okinawa.[5]
  • USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-22 with CD-33 and CD-29 on 30 October 1944.
  • USS Halibut was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-6 on 14 November 1944.[6]

Ships in class[edit]

Ship # Ship Builder Completed Fate
2701 No.2 (第2号海防艦,, Dai 2 Gō Kaibōkan)
the same shall apply hereinafter
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 28 February 1944 Decommissioned on 20 September 1945. Scrapped on 20 July 1948.
2702 No.4 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 7 March 1944 Sunk by aircraft at Toba, 28 July 1945. Salvaged and scrapped on 30 June 1948.
2703 No.6 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 15 March 1944 Sunk by USS Atule at south of Hidaka, 13 August 1945.[6]
2704 No.8 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 29 February 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16 July 1947. Later scrapped.
2705 No.10 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 29 February 1944 Sunk by USS Plaice at west of Tokara Islands, 27 September 1944.
2706 No.12 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 22 March 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United States, 5 September 1947. Scrapped on 30 November 1947.
2707 No.14 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 27 March 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Tsinan. Captured by People's Liberation Army 1949, and renamed Wuchang (215). Decommissioned in 1982.
2708 No.16 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 31 March 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14 August 1947. Later scrapped.
2709 No.18 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 8 March 1944 Sunk by aircraft at east of Quảng Ngãi, 29 March 1945.
2710 No.20 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 11 March 1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft at northwest of San Fernando, 29 December 1944. Sunk on 30 December 1944.
2711 No.22 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 24 March 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United States, 5 September 1947. Scrapped on 31 December 1947.
2712 No.24 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 28 March 1944 Sunk by USS Archer-Fish at west of Iwo Jima, 28 June 1944.
2713 No.26 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 May 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United States, 6 September 1947. Scrapped on 13 October 1947.
2714 No.28 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 May 1944 Sunk by USS Blenny at Dasol Bay, 24 December 1944.
2715 No.30 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 26 June 1944 Sunk by aircraft at Yura, 28 July 1945. Salvaged and scrapped 1948.
2716 No.32 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 30 June 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16 July 1947. Later scrapped.
2717 No.34 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 25 August 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-32 (1947), target ship TsL-63 (1954), repair ship PM-75 (1957). Decommissioned on 23 July 1958 and scrapped.
2718 No.36 Fujinagata Shipyards 21 October 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 19 July 1947. Scrapped on 3 January 1948.
2719 No.38 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 10 August 1944 Sunk by USS Hardhead at west of Corregidor, 25 November 1944.
2720 No.40 Fujinagata Shipyards 22 December 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 29 August 1947, and renamed Chenan (PF-72). Decommissioned 1963.
2721 No.42 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 25 August 1944 Sunk by USS Puffer at northwest of Agunijima Island, 10 January 1945.
2722 No.44 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 August 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 5 July 1947. Sunk as target at 34°48′N 139°42′E / 34.800°N 139.700°E / 34.800; 139.700, 25 August 1947.
2723 No.46 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 29 August 1944 Sunk by naval mine at Mokpo, 17 August 1945.
2724 No.48 Fujinagata Shipyards 13 March 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-42 (1947), target ship TsL-42 (1948), dispatch ship Abakan (1949). Decommissioned on 2 June 1959 and scrapped.
2725 No.50 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 13 October 1944 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Scrapped on 5 May 1948.
2726 No.52 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 25 September 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-36 (1947), tdispatch ship Naryn (1954). Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
2727 No.54 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 30 September 1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft at Calayan, 15 December 1944. Later scuttled.
2728 No.56 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 27 September 1944 Sunk by USS Bowfin at south of Tateyama, 17 February 1945.
2729 No.58 Fujinagata Shipyards 8 April 1946 Surrendered to United States, 31 July 1947. Scrapped on 30 November 1947.
2730 No.60 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 9 November 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14 August 1947. Later scrapped.
2731 No.62 Hitachi Zōsen, Mukōjima Shipyard Construction stopped on 22 May 1945. Sunk at Kure, 14 January 1946. Salvaged and scrapped, May 1948.
2732 No.64 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15 October 1944 Sunk by USS Pipefish at east of Hainan Island, 3 December 1944.
2733 No.66 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 21 October 1944 Sunk by aircraft off Shantou, 13 March 1945.
2734 No.68 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 20 November 1944 Sunk by aircraft at west of Amami Ōshima, 24 March 1945.
2735 No.70 Hitachi Zōsen, Onomichi Factory Construction stopped on 1 April 1945. Later scrapped.
2736 No.72 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 25 November 1944 Sunk by USS Haddo at west of Taedong River, 1 July 1945.
2737 No.74 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 10 December 1944 Sunk by aircraft at Muroran, 14 July 1945.
2738 No.76 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 23 December 1944 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-44 (1947), target ship TsL-44 (1948), patrol ship SKR-49 (1954). Refitted, rearmed and ceded to Chinese People's Liberation Army on 25 June 1955.
2739 No.78 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 4 April 1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-37 (1947), dispatch ship Murgab (1954). Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
2740 No.80 Hitachi Zōsen, Mukōjima Shipyard Construction stopped on 1 April 1945. Later scrapped.
2741 No.82 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 December 1944 Sunk by aircraft at ENE of Kimchaek, 10 August 1945.
2742 No.84 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 December 1944 Sunk by USS Hammerhead at ENE of French Indochina, 29 March 1945.
2743 - 2750 Even numbers from No.86 to No.100 Cancelled in August 1944.
2751 No.102 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 20 January 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28 August 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-46 (1947), target ship TsL-46 (1948). Decommissioned on 21 January 1960 and scrapped.
2752 No.104 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 January 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 29 August 1947, and renamed Taian (PF-71). Decommissioned 1963.
2753 No.106 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 14 January 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 5 July 1947. Sunk as target at 34°45′N 139°44′E / 34.750°N 139.733°E / 34.750; 139.733, 21 July 1947.
2754 - 2755 No.108 and No.110 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2756 No.112 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 24 October 1944 Sunk by USS Barb at northeast of Cape Crillon, 18 July 1945.
2757 No.114 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2758 No.116 Ishikawajima Heavy Industries 28 November 1945 Decommissioned 25 March 1946. Later scrapped.
2759 No.118 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 27 December 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31 July 1947. Captured by People's Liberation Army, May 1949, and renamed Changsha (216). Decommissioned in 1982.
2760 No.120 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2761 No.122 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard Construction stopped in March 1945. Later scrapped.
2762 No.124 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 9 February 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 1 February 1948.
2763 No.126 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 26 March 1945 Decommissioned on 5 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14 August 1947. Later scrapped.
2764 No.128 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2765 No.130 Harima Zōsen 12 August 1944 Sunk by aircraft at east of Quảng Ngãi, 29 March 1945.
2766 No.132 Harima Zōsen 7 September 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Scrapped on 2 July 1948.
2767 No.134 Harima Zōsen 30 September 1944 Sunk by aircraft at south of Xiamen, 6 April 1945.
2768 No.136 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2769 No.138 Harima Zōsen 23 October 1944 Sunk by aircraft at San Fernando, 2 January 1945.
2770 No.140 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2771 No.142 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 7 April 1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-38 (1947), target ship TsL-38 (1948), dispatch ship Arkhara (1949), patrol ship SKR-48 (1954). Refitted, rearmed and ceded to Chinese People's Liberation Army on 11 February 1955. Under the name Chih-17 served until 1987.
2772 No.144 Harima Zōsen 23 November 1944 Sunk by USS Besugo at east of Malay Peninsula, 2 February 1945.
2773 - 2774 No.146 and No.148 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2775 No.150 Harima Zōsen 24 December 1944 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 4 July 1947. Sunk as target at 35°28′N 123°25′E / 35.467°N 123.417°E / 35.467; 123.417, 18 August 1947.
2776 No.152 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2777 No.154 Harima Zōsen 7 February 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 4 September 1947. Scrapped on 1 March 1948.
2778 No.156 Harima Zōsen 8 March 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 4 September 1947. Scrapped on 11 December 1947.
2779 No.158 Harima Zōsen 13 April 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United States, 25 July 1947. Scrapped on 31 December 1947.
2780 No.160 Harima Zōsen 16 August 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 8 September 1947. Scrapped on 21 February 1948.
2781 - 2792 Even numbers from No.162 to No.184 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2793 No.186 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15 February 1945 Sunk by aircraft at Amami Ōshima, 2 April 1945.
2794 No.188 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2795 No.190 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 21 February 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 31 March 1948.
2796 No.192 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 28 February 1945 Decommissioned on 25 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31 July 1947, and renamed Tsuan. Decommissioned 1952.
2797 No.194 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15 March 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 6 July 1947, and renamed Weihai. Captured by People's Liberation Army, 23 April 1949, and renamed Tsinan (219). Decommissioned 1982.
2798 No.196 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 March 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 5 July 1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-33 (1947), dispatch ship Turgai (1954). Decommissioned on 11 March 1958 and scrapped.
2799 No.198 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31 March 1945 Decommissioned on 5 October 1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31 July 1947. Captured by People's Liberation Army, May 1949, and renamed Sian (220). Decommissioned 1982.
2800 No.200 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 20 April 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 1 July 1948.
2801 No.202 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 7 July 1945 Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Scrapped on 1 January 1948.
2802 No.204 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 11 July 1945 Decommissioned on 20 November 1945. Scrapped on 31 January 1948.
2803 - 2843 Even numbers from No.206 to No.286 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
60 vessels All canceled before being named.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Conway p206-207
  2. ^ ""coast defense ships." The Japanese used this curious rating to denote a multi-purpose vessel." Worth P. 208
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Conway p. 207
  5. ^ a b c d e http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq39-1.htm
  6. ^ a b [2]

References[edit]

  • Worth, Richard, Fleets of World War II, Da Capo Press (2001), ISBN 0-306-81116-2
  • Conway's All the World's Fighting ships 1922-1946 (1980) ISBN 0-85177-146-7

External links[edit]