The sodium/phosphate cotransporter is a member of the phosphate:Na+ symporter (PNaS) family within the TOG Superfamily of transport proteins as specified in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB).
Sodium/phosphate cotransporters are also known as:
- Na+-Pi cotransport proteins (aPi-2a)
- Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters
- Phosphate:Na+ symporters
The Phosphate:Na+ Symporter (PNaS) family (TC# 2.A.58) includes several closely related, functionally characterized, sodium-dependent, inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter (NPT) proteins from mammals. Other organisms that possess PNaS family members include many in eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal phyla. Bacterial sodium:phosphate symporters, NptA of Vibrio cholerae (TC#2.A.58.1.2) and YjbB of E. coli (TC# 2.A.58.2.1) have been functionally characterized.
The well-characterized mammalian proteins are found in renal (IIa isoform) and intestinal (IIb isoform) brush border membranes and are about 640 amino acyl residues long with 8-12 putative TMSs. The N- and C-termini both reside in the cytoplasm, and a large hydrophilic loop is localized between trans-membrane segments (TMSs) 3 and 4. While IIa isoforms are pH-dependent, IIb isoforms are pH-independent. The IIa sodium phosphate symporter isoform is a functional monomer, but it interacts with PDZ proteins which probably mediate apical sorting, parathyroid hormone-controlled endocytosis and/or lysosomal sorting of internalized transporters.
The transport reaction catalyzed by the mammalian proteins is:
- Pi (out) + 3 Na+ (out) ⇌ Pi (in) + 3 Na+ (in).
Human PNaS proteins
There are several known sodium-dependent phosphate transporters found in humans. For example, the protein 2A is encoded by the solute carrier family 34, member 1 (SLC34A1) gene and facilitates uptake of phosphate for normal cellular functions including cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. The PNaS family is also called the SLC34 family.
Other known sodium-dependent phosphate transporters found in humans include (but are not limited to):
- Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type I (TC# 2.A.1.14):
- Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type II (TC# 2.A.58):
- Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III (TC# 2.A.20):
- Lebens, M; Lundquist, P; Söderlund, L; Todorovic, M; Carlin, NI (August 2002). "The nptA gene of Vibrio cholerae encodes a functional sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter homologous to the type II cotransporters of eukaryotes.". Journal of Bacteriology. 184 (16): 4466–74. doi:10.1128/jb.184.16.4466-4474.2002. PMC . PMID 12142417.
- Motomura, K; Hirota, R; Ohnaka, N; Okada, M; Ikeda, T; Morohoshi, T; Ohtake, H; Kuroda, A (2011). "Overproduction of YjbB reduces the level of polyphosphate in Escherichia coli: a hypothetical role of YjbB in phosphate export and polyphosphate accumulation.". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 320 (1): 25–32. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02285.x. PMID 21488939.
- de la Horra C, Hernando N, Lambert G, Forster I, Biber J, Murer H (Mar 2000). "Molecular determinants of pH sensitivity of the type IIa Na/P(i) cotransporter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (9): 6284–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.9.6284. PMID 10692425.
- Köhler K, Forster IC, Lambert G, Biber J, Murer H (Aug 2000). "The functional unit of the renal type IIa Na+/Pi cotransporter is a monomer". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (34): 26113–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003564200. PMID 10859311.
- Saier, Milton. "Transporter Classification Database: 2.A.58 The Phosphate:Na+ Symporter (PNaS) Family". tcdb.org.
- Gisler SM, Stagljar I, Traebert M, Bacic D, Biber J, Murer H (Mar 2001). "Interaction of the type IIa Na/Pi cotransporter with PDZ proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (12): 9206–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008745200. PMID 11099500.
- "Entrez Gene: Solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 1".
- Yin BW, Kiyamova R, Chua R, Caballero OL, Gout I, Gryshkova V, Bhaskaran N, Souchelnytskyi S, Hellman U, Filonenko V, Jungbluth AA, Odunsi K, Lloyd KO, Old LJ, Ritter G. "Monoclonal antibody MX35 detects the membrane transporter NaPi2b (SLC34A2) in human carcinomas". Cancer Immun. 8: 3. PMC . PMID 18251464.
- Tenenhouse HS (Feb 1999). "X-linked hypophosphataemia: a homologous disorder in humans and mice". Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 14 (2): 333–41. doi:10.1093/ndt/14.2.333. PMID 10069185.
- Murer H, Hernando N, Forster I, Biber J (Oct 2000). "Proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption: molecular mechanisms". Physiological Reviews. 80 (4): 1373–409. PMID 11015617.
- Fenollar-Ferrer C, Forster IC, Patti M, Knoepfel T, Werner A, Forrest LR (May 2015). "Identification of the first sodium binding site of the phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIa (SLC34A1)". Biophysical Journal. 108 (10): 2465–80. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2015.03.054. PMC . PMID 25992725.
- Transporter Classification Database
- Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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