A type rating is a regulating agency's certification of an airplane pilot to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of the initial license and aircraft class training. What aircraft require a type rating is decided by the local aviation authority. In many countries pilots of single-engined aircraft under a certain maximum weight (5,700 kg or 12,500 lb, typically) do not require a type rating for each model, all or most such aircraft being covered by one class rating instead. There are exceptions to this, e.g. under Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) regulations the piston version of the Piper Malibu does require its own type rating. In New Zealand and South Africa there is no class rating, each aircraft model requiring its own rating. Countries which have adopted the class rating system for small aircraft typically require additional training and license endorsement for complexity features such as conventional undercarriage (tailwheels), variable-pitch propellers, retractable undercarriage, etc.
Starting in 2006, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States requires co-pilots (second-in-command, or SIC) to have a 'SIC Type Rating' for aircraft requiring a crew of two, and otherwise requires a type rating to act as pilot-in-command (PIC) to fly internationally, or over international airspace. This is in order to remain compliant with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This is outlined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 §61.55 (14 CFR 61.55). Such a type rating is not required for operations completely within the United States. Obtaining a SIC Type Ratings is significantly less rigorous than obtaining a 'full' or Pilot in command (PIC) type rating.
An instrument rating is required for some type ratings.
In the United States some type ratings can be issued with a "visual flight rules (VFR) only" limitation when the type rating checkride was conducted without instrument flight rules (IFR) approaches or operations, but only VFR maneuvers and procedures. This is most typical in older aircraft (i.e. Ford Trimotor, N-B25, B17, etc.)
- EASA list of class and type ratings
- List of FAA Type Ratings TYPE RATING IS NOT ONLY APLICALE TO PILOTS, AS A MATTER OF FACT THE TYPE RATING MUST BE GRANTED TO MECHANICS MAINTAINING THE AIRCRAFT, TYPE RATING TRAINING IS PROVIDED IN SEVERAL LEVELS. LEVEL I TRAINING, WHICH IS GRANTING 10 DAYS OF CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION TO THE MECHANIC IN ORDER TO SHOW HIM BASIC SERVICING AND RUTINARY PROCEDURES IN THE TYPE PLANE, THE LEVEL II WHICH IS GRANTING TO THE MECHANIC AT LEAST 80 HOURS OF CLASSROOM, AND MORE DETAILED LINE PROCEDURES TO SUPPORT THE PLANE, AND LEVEL III, WHICH IS GRANTED TO THE MECHANICS WHOSE PERFORM BASE MAINTENANCE TO TYPE PLANE, AND THEY WILL BE LEARNING TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES, EXCHANGING UNITS,AND OTHER MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES RELATED TO A BASE MAINTENANCE.
FAR 147 TYPE RATING ORGANIZATIONS EASA 147-66 TYPE RATING ORGANIZATION
NOTE: AVIATION IS NOT ONLY A PILOT THAT CAN FLY AN AIRPLANE, AVIATION INVOLVES MANY PEOPLE MAKING THE PLANE COME AND GO FLYING.