Types of road

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Asphalt road in Norway

A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been surfaced or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads have been adapted to a large range of structures and types in order to achieve a common goal of transportation under a large and wide range of conditions. The specific purpose, mode of transport, material[1][2] and location of a road determine the characteristics it must have in order to maximize its usefulness. Following is one classification scheme.

Taxonomy of road[edit]

Marohn distinguishes between roads that are designed for mobility which he terms "roads" and those that are function to "build a place", build community wealth and provide access to land. He argues the value of a road in terms of both community wealth and mobility is maximised when the road speed is either low or high, but not at midpoints such as 45mph. He refers to this low-value midpoint of speed and land access as a stroad.[3]: 69 

Types of roads[edit]

Lower capacity roads[edit]

Tree tunnel in Florida

Street[edit]

Primitive roads[edit]

Hollow way on the side of La Meauffe, witness of the battle of the hedges in 1944)

Large roads[edit]

E20 highway, Denmark
Highway A7 during rush-hour

Private roads[edit]

Glenbervie House driveway

Intersecting roads[edit]

Roundabout

Material type[edit]

Roads also may be classified based on their pavement material types. For instance, the Long-Term Pavement Performance database includes more than 30 types of pavement types for roads in the US and Canada.[2][4][5] However, a more generic classification of roads based on material type is as follows.[5][6]

Other thoroughfares[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Piryonesi, Sayed Madeh (November 2019). Piryonesi, S. M. (2019). The Application of Data Analytics to Asset Management: Deterioration and Climate Change Adaptation in Ontario Roads (Doctoral dissertation) (Thesis).
  2. ^ a b Elkins, G.E., Schmalzer, P., Thompson, T., and Simpson, A. 2003. Long-Term Pavement Performance Information Management System Pavement Performance Database User Reference Guide.
  3. ^ Marohn, Charles L., Jr. (2021). Confessions of a recovering engineer : transportation for a strong town (1st ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey. ISBN 978-1-119-69929-3. OCLC 1253442641.
  4. ^ Piryonesi, S. M.; El-Diraby, T. E. (2020) [Published online: December 21, 2019]. "Data Analytics in Asset Management: Cost-Effective Prediction of the Pavement Condition Index". Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 26 (1): 04019036. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000512. S2CID 213782055.
  5. ^ a b Piryonesi, Sayed Madeh (November 2019). Piryonesi, S. M. (2019). The Application of Data Analytics to Asset Management: Deterioration and Climate Change Adaptation in Ontario Roads (Doctoral dissertation) (Thesis).
  6. ^ Way, N.C., Beach, P., and Materials, P. 2015. ASTM D 6433–07: Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys.
  7. ^ "shunpike". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 15 May 2019. A side road taken, instead of a turnpike or expressway, to avoid tolls or to travel at a leisurely pace.

External links[edit]