Typhoon Hagibis (2019)

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Typhoon Hagibis
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Hagibis 2019-10-07 0701Z.jpg
Typhoon Hagibis near peak intensity approaching the Northern Mariana Islands early on 7 October
Formed4 October 2019
Dissipated20 October 2019
(Extratropical after 13 October)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
Lowest pressure915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg
Fatalities95 total, 7 missing
Damage> $9 billion (2019 USD)
Areas affectedMariana Islands, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Alaska
Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Hagibis (Tagalog: [hɐˈgibis], ha-GHEE-bis) was a large and powerful tropical cyclone that was considered to be the most devastating typhoon to hit the Kantō region of Japan since Ida in 1958. Hagibis caused additional impacts to Japan, after Faxai struck the same region one month prior. The nineteenth named storm and the ninth typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Hagibis developed from a tropical wave located a couple hundred miles north of the Marshall Islands on 2 October. The system reached tropical storm status late on 5 October as it travelled westward. Soon afterwards, Hagibis underwent a period of rapid intensification, which brought Hagibis to its peak intensity on 7 October. After maintaining the peak intensity for about three days, Hagibis began to weaken due to less favorable environment. On 12 October, Hagibis made landfall at Izu Peninsula as a Category 2–equivalent typhoon. Hagibis became extratropical on the following day.

Still recovering from the impacts of Faxai, Hagibis caused widespread damage across Japan, particularly in the Kantō region. As of 20 October 2019, at least 95 people have been confirmed dead and 7 others went missing in Japan. Early on 12 October, Hagibis triggered a tornado in Ichihara City.[1] About half an hour before Hagibis made landfall, a magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chiba Prefecture, worsening the dangerous condition even more.[2]

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

In early October, a poorly-organized and broad area of storms persisted over 1,500 km (930 mi) east of Guam. With favorable atmospheric conditions and warm sea surface temperatures prevailing, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began noting the possibility of tropical cyclogenesis on 4 October,[3] eventually issuing a tropical cyclone formation alert the next day.[4] The system initially remained stationary,[5] consolidating a center of circulation in the lower levels of the atmosphere.[4] The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) declared the disturbance a tropical depression at 00:00 UTC on 5 October.[6] At the time, the system was 1,030 km (640 mi) northeast of Pohnpei, quickly developing cumulonimbus clouds around its center and establishing conducive outflow as it tracked west around the periphery of an area of high pressure.[7][8] The tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm by 18:00 UTC on 5 October while 1,560 km (970 mi) east of Guam,[6] gaining the name Hagibis.[9] A dominant curved rainband had begun to wrap around the center of Hagibis, signifying further organization.[10] On 6 October, the storm made a slight turn towards the west-southwest and began an accelerated period of intensification within low wind shear and atop warm waters,[11][6] reaching severe tropical storm intensity at 12:00 UTC and typhoon strength six hours later as it developed a small eye.[6][12]

Typhoon Hagibis entered a period of explosive intensification on 7 October,[13] with its central pressure falling 55 mbar (hPa; 1.62 inHg) in 12 hours according to the JMA.[6] Estimates from the JTWC suggested a 105 km/h (65 mph)-increase in the storm's maximum winds in 24 hours. During this phase, Hagibis maintained a pinhole eye 9 km (5.6 mi) across, encircled by a highly compact and sharply-defined eyewall.[13] The rate of intensification was among the fastest observed in the Western Pacific.[14] According to the JMA, Hagibis reached its peak intensity at 09:00 UTC on 7 October with a minimum pressure of 915 mbar (hPa; 27.02 inHg) and 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph); Hagibis would maintain this intensity for 72 hours.[6] The JTWC classified Hagibis as a super typhoon early on 7 October,[15] and later assessed peak 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) as Hagibis passed just south of Anatahan in the Northern Mariana Islands.[16] Hagibis was unusually rapid in its trek through the Mariana Islands, traveling with a forward motion of 27–34 km/h (17–21 mph).[17]

Typhoon Hagibis making landfall on Japan, first on the Izu Peninsula and then near Yokohama.

After passing the Mariana Islands, Hagibis began an eyewall replacement cycle, which caused the rapid intensification phase to end. As the primary eyewall began to erode,[18] the JTWC downgraded the system slightly to a high-end Category 4 system at 00:00 UTC on 8 October. Several hours later, Hagibis re-intensified into a Category 5 equivalent system upon completing the eyewall replacement cycle. Hagibis began to weaken on 10 October, as sea surface temperatures decreased and wind shear increased. Mild strengthening was forecast shortly after Hagibis downgraded to a Category 3 typhoon, but that failed to occur as it neared land and its outer rainbands began to erode.

After gradual weakening, Hagibis made landfall on Shizuoka as a Category 2 equivalent system, with 1-minute sustained winds of 155 km/h (96 mph) at around 08:30 UTC on 12 October. While over Japan, Hagibis became disorganized from high wind shear and eventually became extratropical on 13 October.[19]


Guam and the Mariana Islands[edit]

Evacuation orders for Guam and the Mariana Islands were made on 7 October. U.S. president Donald Trump approved an emergency declaration for these islands ahead of Hagibis. The islands of Saipan, Tinian, Alamagan, and Pagan had been issued typhoon warnings.[20]


Shelves in shops around Tokyo were quickly cleared, as people bought supplies ahead of Hagibis making landfall.

Forecasts across eastern, western, and northern Japan called for strong winds and torrential rain that would likely cause flooding and mudslides.[21] JR Group, Japan Airlines, and All Nippon Airways suspended services.[22] JMA weather forecaster, Yasushi Kajiwara, said, "It is a level 5 situation; some sort of disaster may have already taken place. People are strongly advised to act to protect their lives right away."[23] Evacuation orders have been issued to more than 800,000 households across 11 prefectures.[24] Over 230,000 people took the advice to head to evacuation shelters.[25]

The typhoon had effects on several major sporting events occurring in Japan. Three matches of the 2019 Rugby World Cup were cancelled due to Hagibis, including the Pool B matches between New Zealand and Italy, and Canada and Namibia, and the Pool C match between England and France. This marked the first time that matches have been cancelled in the history of the Rugby World Cup.[26][27] All cancelled matches were counted as draws: the cancelled fixture effectively eliminated Italy from the tournament, as they had a chance to potentially qualify for the knockout stage with a sufficient margin of victory against New Zealand.[28]

On 11 October, it was announced that the Saturday practice session for the 2019 Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka Circuit would be cancelled, and the Saturday qualifying session postponed to Sunday morning prior to the race.[29] The F4 Japanese Championship cancelled its round at the circuit as well.[30] Despite the games being played indoors in domed stadiums, Nippon Professional Baseball postponed both Game 4 Climax Series games in the 2019 Pacific League Climax Series and the 2019 Central League Climax Series. Both games were planned to take place on Saturday, October 12, one in Tokorozawa, Saitama, the other in Bunkyō, Tokyo. The games were instead played the next day on Sunday, October 13.[31]


Guam and the Mariana Islands[edit]

The Mariana Islands were glanced by Typhoon Hagibis. Acting Governor Arnold Palacios began giving "all-clear" signals based on information from the National Weather Service and CNMI Emergency Operations Center. Communities have been cleaning up debris and all evacuation centers are now closed. Most utilities have been restored and businesses have been reopening.[32]


An aerial view of flooding in Nagano, Japan.
Costliest known Pacific typhoons
Rank Typhoon Season Damage
(2018 USD)
1 Mireille 1991 $18.4 billion
2 Jebi 2018 $12.6 billion
3 Songda 2004 $12.3 billion
4 Fitow 2013 $11.2 billion
5 Lekima 2019 $9.28 billion
6 Saomai 2000 $9.17 billion
7 Hagibis 2019 $9 billion
8 Prapiroon 2000 $8.93 billion
9 Bart 1999 $8.65 billion
10 Rammasun 2014 $8.5 billion
Source: [1]

Early on 12 October, a tornado struck Ichihara City, which killed one person and left two people injured.[1] In the afternoon, some areas of Japan suffered heavy flooding, with tens of thousands of homes lacking power. The Japan Meteorological Agency warned that high winds could cause further flooding and landslides. The agency issued evacuation advisories in high-risk areas.[33] Over 30 inches (76 cm) of rain fell in parts of Japan. Japan's Fire and Disaster Management Agency stated that at least 95 people have been confirmed dead, 7 people are missing, with 346 people injured by the storm.[34][35] More than 270,000 households have lost power across the country.[36] Ten trains of the Hokuriku Shinkansen Line in Nagano City were inundated by flood waters, leading to a loss of ¥32.8 billion (US$300 million).[37] Insured losses throughout the country are estimated as greater than US$9 billion.[38]

At around 6:22 p.m. JST on 12 October, a magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chiba Prefecture, worsening the dangerous conditions already created by Hagibis.[2]

Hagibis also led to the cancellation of several sporting events, such as qualifying for the Japanese Grand Prix[29] and three world cup rugby matches.[39][40]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Demetriou, Danielle; Ryall, Julian (12 October 2019). "Millions evacuated as Super Typhoon Hagibis slams into Japan - throwing Rugby World Cup into chaos". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b Lovett, Samuel (12 October 2019). "Japan earthquake: 5.7 magnitude tremor strikes main island as deadly typhoon closes in". The Independent. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  3. ^ Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and South Pacific Oceans (04/0600) (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 4 October 2019.
  4. ^ a b Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and South Pacific Oceans (05/0230) (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 5 October 2019.
  5. ^ Warning And Summary (04/1800) (Report). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 4 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Kitamoto, Asanobu (2019). "Typhoon 201919 (HAGIBIS) - Detailed Track Information". Digital Typhoon. Tokyo, Japan: National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  7. ^ Reasoning No. 1 for TD Located at 15.0N 162.7E (RSMC Tropical Cyclone Reasoning). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 5 October 2019.
  8. ^ Reasoning No. 2 for TD Located at 15.3N 161.1E (RSMC Tropical Cyclone Reasoning). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 5 October 2019.
  9. ^ Tropical Storm 1919 Hagibis (1919) Upgraded From Tropical Depression (Report). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 5 October 2019.
  10. ^ Reasoning No. 5 for TS 1919 Hagibis (1919) (RSMC Tropical Cyclone Reasoning). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Meteorological Agency. 5 October 2019.
  11. ^ Aydlett, M. (6 October 2019). "Tropical Storm Hagibis (20W) Special Advisory Number 4A". Tiyan, Guam: National Weather Service Tiyan, Guam. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  12. ^ Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 20W (Hagibis) Warning NR 006 (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 6 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 20W (Hagibis) Warning NR 008 (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 7 October 2019.
  14. ^ Cappucci, Matthew (7 October 2019). "From tropical storm to Category 5 in 18 hours: Super Typhoon Hagibis intensifies at one of the fastest rates on record". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  15. ^ Aydlett, M. (7 October 2019). "Super Typhoon Hagibis (20W) Intermediate Advisory Number 8A". Tiyan, Guam: National Weather Service Tiyan, Guam. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  16. ^ Bukunt, Brandon; Middlebrooke, Mike (8 October 2019). Super Typhoon Hagibis (20W) Intermediate Advisory Number 10 (Report). Tiyan, Guam: National Weather Service Tiyan, Guam.
  17. ^ Guard, Charles (14 October 2019). "Post Tropical Cyclone Report... Super Typhoon Hagibis (20W)". Iowa Environmental Mesonet. Tiyan, Guam: National Weather Service Tiyan, Guam. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning 06Z (Hagibis)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. 8 October 2019. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Super Typhoon Hagibis Storm Activity: Oct 5, 2019 - Oct 12, 2019". wunderground.com. Weather Underground. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  20. ^ Moyler, Hunter (7 October 2019). "TYPHOON HAGIBIS SURGES IN NORTHERN PACIFIC, WILL AFFECT GUAM, MARIANA ISLANDS AND POSSIBLY JAPAN". newsweek.com. Newsweek. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  21. ^ "TYPHOON HAGIBIS IMPACT ON RUGBY WORLD CUP 2019 MATCHES". rugbyworldcup.com. Rugby World Cup. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  22. ^ Zraick, Karen (9 October 2019). "Japan Prepares for Possible Hit by Super Typhoon Hagibis". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  23. ^ Kobayashi, Chie; Wakatsuki, Yoko; Walsh, Carly (12 October 2019). "Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall in Japan, leaving at least one dead". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  24. ^ "Typhoon Hagibis: millions across Japan advised to evacuate". theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  25. ^ Kobayashi, Chie; Wakatsuki, Yoko; Griffiths, James (13 October 2019). "Recovery begins as Japan's Typhoon Hagibis leaves trail of death and destruction". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  26. ^ Zraick, Karen (9 October 2019). "Storm in Pacific Ocean on Path Toward Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  27. ^ de Menezes, Jack (12 October 2019). "Rugby World Cup 2019: Namibia vs Canada cancelled as fans wait nervously over Japan vs Scotland". The Independent. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  28. ^ "O'Shea rues typhoon-forced end to Italy's World Cup". Rugby World Cup. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  29. ^ a b Benson, Andrew (11 October 2019). "Japanese GP typhoon: Qualifying postponed as Typhoon Hagibis nears". BBC News.
  30. ^ "2019 FIA F1 World Championship Japan Grand Prix Support Race FIA-F4 Suzuka Round Special Game canceled due to approaching typhoon". F4 Japanese Championship. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  31. ^ "Baseball: Senga, Makihara lead Hawks to brink of 3rd straight Japan Series". The Mainichi. 12 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  32. ^ "Hagibis finally exits". Saipan News, Headlines, Events, Ads | Saipan Tribune. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Japan floods ahead of biggest typhoon in decades". 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  34. ^ "Hagibis death toll at 86". NHK World News. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  35. ^ Lies, Elaine (17 October 2019). "Abe visits typhoon-hit areas; emperor's parade to be postponed until Nov 10". Japan Today. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  36. ^ "Typhoon Hagibis: Biggest Japan storm in decades makes landfall". BBC News. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  37. ^ "Ten Hokuriku Shinkansen Line trains worth ¥32.8 billion sustain damage after yard is flooded in Typhoon Hagibis". The Japan Times. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  38. ^ Kobayashi, Chie; Zaugg, Julie. "Typhoon Hagibis death toll rises to 72 as thousands are left stranded in the cold without power". CNN. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  39. ^ "Typhoon Hagibis impact on Rugby World Cup 2019 matches". www.worldrugby.org.
  40. ^ "Namibia v Canada match cancelled, Hanazono and Kumamoto matches go ahead". www.worldrugby.org.

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