Typhoon Hagibis (2019)
|Typhoon (JMA scale)|
|Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||4 October 2019|
|Dissipated||20 October 2019|
|(Extratropical after 13 October)|
|Highest winds||10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph) |
1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
|Lowest pressure||915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg|
|Fatalities||95 total, 7 missing|
|Damage||> $9 billion (2019 USD)|
|Areas affected||Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Alaska|
|Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season|
Typhoon Hagibis (Tagalog: [hɐˈgibis], ha-GHEE-bis) was a large and powerful tropical cyclone that was considered to be the most devastating typhoon to hit the Kantō region of Japan since Ida in 1958. Hagibis caused additional impacts to Japan, after Faxai struck the same region one month prior. The nineteenth named storm and the ninth typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Hagibis developed from a tropical wave located a couple hundred miles north of the Marshall Islands on 2 October. The system reached tropical storm status late on 5 October as it travelled westward. Soon afterwards, Hagibis underwent a period of rapid intensification, which brought Hagibis to its peak intensity on 7 October. After maintaining the peak intensity for about three days, Hagibis began to weaken due to less favorable environment. On 12 October, Hagibis made landfall at Izu Peninsula as a Category 2–equivalent typhoon. Hagibis became extratropical on the following day.
Still recovering from the impacts of Faxai, Hagibis caused widespread damage across Japan, particularly in the Kantō region. As of 20 October 2019[update], at least 95 people have been confirmed dead and 7 others went missing in Japan. Early on 12 October, Hagibis triggered a tornado in Ichihara City. About half an hour before Hagibis made landfall, a magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chiba Prefecture, worsening the dangerous condition even more.
In early October, a poorly-organized and broad area of storms persisted over 1,500 km (930 mi) east of Guam. With favorable atmospheric conditions and warm sea surface temperatures prevailing, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began noting the possibility of tropical cyclogenesis on 4 October, eventually issuing a tropical cyclone formation alert the next day. The system initially remained stationary, consolidating a center of circulation in the lower levels of the atmosphere. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) declared the disturbance a tropical depression at 00:00 UTC on 5 October. At the time, the system was 1,030 km (640 mi) northeast of Pohnpei, quickly developing cumulonimbus clouds around its center and establishing conducive outflow as it tracked west around the periphery of an area of high pressure. The tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm by 18:00 UTC on 5 October while 1,560 km (970 mi) east of Guam, gaining the name Hagibis. A dominant curved rainband had begun to wrap around the center of Hagibis, signifying further organization. On 6 October, the storm made a slight turn towards the west-southwest and began an accelerated period of intensification within low wind shear and atop warm waters, reaching severe tropical storm intensity at 12:00 UTC and typhoon strength six hours later as it developed a small eye.
Typhoon Hagibis entered a period of explosive intensification on 7 October, with its central pressure falling 55 mbar (hPa; 1.62 inHg) in 12 hours according to the JMA. Estimates from the JTWC suggested a 105 km/h (65 mph)-increase in the storm's maximum winds in 24 hours. During this phase, Hagibis maintained a pinhole eye 9 km (5.6 mi) across, encircled by a highly compact and sharply-defined eyewall. The rate of intensification was among the fastest observed in the Western Pacific. According to the JMA, Hagibis reached its peak intensity at 09:00 UTC on 7 October with a minimum pressure of 915 mbar (hPa; 27.02 inHg) and 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph); Hagibis would maintain this intensity for 72 hours. The JTWC classified Hagibis as a super typhoon early on 7 October, and later assessed peak 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) as Hagibis passed just south of Anatahan in the Northern Mariana Islands. Hagibis was unusually rapid in its trek through the Mariana Islands, traveling with a forward motion of 27–34 km/h (17–21 mph).
After passing the Mariana Islands, Hagibis began an eyewall replacement cycle, which caused the rapid intensification phase to end. As the primary eyewall began to erode, the JTWC downgraded the system slightly to a high-end Category 4 system at 00:00 UTC on 8 October. Several hours later, Hagibis re-intensified into a Category 5 equivalent system upon completing the eyewall replacement cycle. Hagibis began to weaken on 10 October, as sea surface temperatures decreased and wind shear increased. Mild strengthening was forecast shortly after Hagibis downgraded to a Category 3 typhoon, but that failed to occur as it neared land and its outer rainbands began to erode.
After gradual weakening, Hagibis made landfall on Shizuoka as a Category 2 equivalent system, with 1-minute sustained winds of 155 km/h (96 mph) at around 08:30 UTC on 12 October. While over Japan, Hagibis became disorganized from high wind shear and eventually became extratropical on 13 October.
Guam and the Mariana Islands
Evacuation orders for Guam and the Mariana Islands were made on 7 October. U.S. president Donald Trump approved an emergency declaration for these islands ahead of Hagibis. The islands of Saipan, Tinian, Alamagan, and Pagan had been issued typhoon warnings.
Forecasts across eastern, western, and northern Japan called for strong winds and torrential rain that would likely cause flooding and mudslides. JR Group, Japan Airlines, and All Nippon Airways suspended services. JMA weather forecaster, Yasushi Kajiwara, said, "It is a level 5 situation; some sort of disaster may have already taken place. People are strongly advised to act to protect their lives right away." Evacuation orders have been issued to more than 800,000 households across 11 prefectures. Over 230,000 people took the advice to head to evacuation shelters.
The typhoon had effects on several major sporting events occurring in Japan. Three matches of the 2019 Rugby World Cup were cancelled due to Hagibis, including the Pool B matches between New Zealand and Italy, and Canada and Namibia, and the Pool C match between England and France. This marked the first time that matches have been cancelled in the history of the Rugby World Cup. All cancelled matches were counted as draws: the cancelled fixture effectively eliminated Italy from the tournament, as they had a chance to potentially qualify for the knockout stage with a sufficient margin of victory against New Zealand.
On 11 October, it was announced that the Saturday practice session for the 2019 Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka Circuit would be cancelled, and the Saturday qualifying session postponed to Sunday morning prior to the race. The F4 Japanese Championship cancelled its round at the circuit as well. Despite the games being played indoors in domed stadiums, Nippon Professional Baseball postponed both Game 4 Climax Series games in the 2019 Pacific League Climax Series and the 2019 Central League Climax Series. Both games were planned to take place on Saturday, October 12, one in Tokorozawa, Saitama, the other in Bunkyō, Tokyo. The games were instead played the next day on Sunday, October 13.
Guam and the Mariana Islands
The Mariana Islands were glanced by Typhoon Hagibis. Acting Governor Arnold Palacios began giving "all-clear" signals based on information from the National Weather Service and CNMI Emergency Operations Center. Communities have been cleaning up debris and all evacuation centers are now closed. Most utilities have been restored and businesses have been reopening.
Early on 12 October, a tornado struck Ichihara City, which killed one person and left two people injured. In the afternoon, some areas of Japan suffered heavy flooding, with tens of thousands of homes lacking power. The Japan Meteorological Agency warned that high winds could cause further flooding and landslides. The agency issued evacuation advisories in high-risk areas. Over 30 inches (76 cm) of rain fell in parts of Japan. Japan's Fire and Disaster Management Agency stated that at least 95 people have been confirmed dead, 7 people are missing, with 346 people injured by the storm. More than 270,000 households have lost power across the country. Ten trains of the Hokuriku Shinkansen Line in Nagano City were inundated by flood waters, leading to a loss of ¥32.8 billion (US$300 million). Insured losses throughout the country are estimated as greater than US$9 billion.
- Typhoon Ida (1958)
- Typhoon Francisco (2013)
- Typhoon Jebi (2018)
- Typhoon Faxai (2019)
- Typhoon Yutu (2018)
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