Typhoon Hagupit (2014)

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Typhoon Hagupit (Ruby)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Hagupit 2014-12-04 0438Z.jpg
Typhoon Hagupit shortly before peak intensity on December 4
Formed November 30, 2014
Dissipated December 12, 2014
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
1-minute sustained: 285 km/h (180 mph)
Lowest pressure 905 hPa (mbar); 26.72 inHg
Fatalities 22 confirmed
Damage $113.6 million (2014 USD)
Areas affected Caroline Islands, Palau, Philippines, Vietnam
Part of the 2014 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Hagupit, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ruby, was the second most intense tropical cyclone in 2014. Hagupit particularly impacted the Philippines in early December while gradually weakening, killing 18 people and causing $114 million (2014 USD) in the country.[1] Prior to making landfall, Typhoon Hagupit was considered the worst threat to the Philippines in 2014, but it was significantly smaller than 2013's Typhoon Haiyan.[2]

Hagupit developed into the 22nd tropical storm of the annual typhoon season on December 1, 2014 and became that year’s eleventh typhoon the next day.[3][4] Under a favorable environment, the typhoon underwent rapid deepening and reached peak intensity northwest of Palau on December 4, with a clear eye.[5] Hagupit slightly weakened but restrengthened on December 5, but subsequently started to weaken again, due to subsidence associated with an upper-level trough.[6]

The typhoon made first landfall over the province of Eastern Samar in the Philippines on December 6, and then made three other landfalls over the country.[7] For land interaction and the slow movement, Hagupit weakened into a tropical storm on December 8.[8] When arriving at the South China Sea on December 9, deep convection of the storm diminished significantly.[9] The system could not overcome the hostile environment and weakened into a tropical depression on December 11, before it eventually dissipated southeast of Ho Chi Minh City on December 12.[10]

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical disturbance formed about 130 km (80 mi) north of the equator and about 530 km (330 mi) south-southwest of Kosrae in the afternoon of November 29, as well as the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the next day for consolidating under favorable upper-level conditions.[11][12] Early on December 1, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded it to a tropical depression, so did the JTWC with the 22W designation.[13][14] Only six hours later, the JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm and named it Hagupit, and the JTWC also upgraded it to a tropical storm, owing to a consolidating low-level circulation center (LLCC) with the tightly curved banding wrapping into.[3][15] However, the RSMC best track data indicated that the system had been already a tropical depression since November 30 and a tropical storm early on December 1.[16] With low vertical wind shear and excellent radial outflow, Hagupit consolidated further on December 2, so it was upgraded to a severe tropical storm by the JMA and a typhoon by the JTWC at noon.[4][17] Late on the same day, the JMA upgraded it to a typhoon when it began to track west-northwestward along the southern periphery of the subtropical ridge.[18]

A swath of GPM/GMI precipitation rates over Typhoon Hagupit

Remaining in a favorable environment, Hagupit underwent rapid deepening in the afternoon on December 3, as the JTWC upgraded it to a super typhoon when the system depicted a significant eye.[19]

The PAGASA named the typhoon Ruby as it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility early on December 4.[20] Simultaneously, Hagupit presented the very tightly curved and deep convective banding with a clear 35 km (25 mi) eye, which 1-minute maximum sustained winds reached 285 km/h (180 mph), equivalent to Category 5 of the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).[21] The JTWC also forecast that Hagupit would become as strong as Typhoon Haiyan, but it failed to intensify further.[22] The JMA analysed that Hagupit had reached peak intensity at 06:00 UTC, with the 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 215 km/h (130 mph) and the central pressure at 905 hPa (26.72 inHg).[5] However, the system then started an eyewall replacement cycle and due to moderate easterly vertical wind shear, became less symmetric, with the bulk of the deep convection displaced over the western semi-circle.[23]

Typhoon Hagupit weakening over the Philippines on December 7

As Hagupit slowed down and continued a weakening trend, the eye became cloud-filled early on December 5, and the typhoon was no longer equivalent to Category 5 of the SSHWS.[24][25] Because of a robust poleward outflow channel into the mid-latitude westerlies to the north, the eye was clearer and surrounded by a symmetric annulus of intense convection afterwards, and the JMA also indicated the brief intensification at noon.[26] Moreover, a slight break in the steering and the zonal flow along the southern periphery of the mid-latitude trough lacked the dynamics to influence Hagupit, making the typhoon move westward very slowly.[27] Outflow in the southeast quadrant got hampered due to subsidence associated with an upper-level trough, resulting a cloud-filled eye again. Thus, Hagupit weakened further, as well as the JTWC downgraded it to a typhoon early on December 6.[6][28] At 21:15 PST (13:15 UTC), Typhoon Hagupit made landfall over Dolores, Eastern Samar, when the 10-minute maximum sustained winds were at 165 km/h (105 mph).[7][16] A half of day later, the system made the second landfall over Cataingan, Masbate and turned west-northwestward.[29]

Owing to land interaction and the slow movement, the JMA downgraded Hagupit to a severe tropical storm on December 7, at 21:00 UTC.[30] The JTWC also downgraded Hagupit to a tropical storm early on December 8, right before this fragmented system made its third landfall over Torrijos, Marinduque.[31][32] After the fourth landfall over San Juan, Batangas at 17:45 PST (09:45 UTC), the JMA downgraded Hagupit to a tropical storm at noon.[8][33] On 9 December, deep convection over the LLCC weakened significantly when Hagupit arrived at the South China Sea and turned westward, although good poleward outflow channel tapping into the mid-latitude westerlies helped the system sustain its minimal tropical storm intensity.[9] Soon after that, due to a marginally favorable environment, deep convection over the partially exposed LLCC increased again.[34] Hagupit briefly intensified in the afternoon on December 9, under moderate vertical wind shear offset by vigorous poleward outflow into the strong westerly flow to the north.[35] However, deep convection began to be displaced from the partially exposed LLCC one day after.[36]

On December 11, despite favorable poleward outflow, Hagupit was not able to overcome upper-level subsidence in the southeastern quadrant and increasing vertical wind shear, as low-level northeasterly winds became completely out of phase with the upper-level.[37] Consequently, the JMA downgraded it to a tropical depression, so did the JTWC.[10][38] When the LLCC of Hagupit was displaced from the deep convection, and was rapidly unraveling early on December 12, the JTWC issued its final warning on Hagupit.[39] Hagupit eventually dissipated southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, before noon on December 12.[40][41]

Preparations[edit]

PSWS Map in the Philippines during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit (Ruby)

Typhoon Hagupit, also known as Typhoon Ruby, entered the area late on December 3, in the same time it was upgraded into a Category 5 super typhoon. With this, the NDRRMC reported that schools were suspended in the areas: Samar, Biliran and Tacloban during December 4–5.[42] On December 5, the NDRRMC had put up Signal Warnings No. 1 and 2 from the lower part of Luzon to the upper part of Mindanao. Rough seas and gale force winds were warned over the seaboards over the eastern part of the country.[43] The Department of Health will be under Code Red alert at DOH-retained hospitals in regions expected to be hit by the typhoon starting on December 6.[44] In the same time, PAGASA has put up a Signal No. 3 warnings over Samar and they are expecting a storm surge up to 4 metres high.[45] Residents in at least 42 areas in Bicol and Visayas may have to take precautionary measures against possible storm surges due to Ruby. As of 7:30 a.m. Project NOAH said three of the 42 are under Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) 3, 11 are under SSA 2, and the rest are under SSA 1. SSA 3 involves waves of up to four meters above sea level; SSA 2 three meters; and SSA 1 two meters.[46] It was also reported that schools and businesses were closed from December 5–6 in places in Visayas and southern Luzon.[47]

Because of a slow-moving typhoon, preparations were further warned in areas such as southern Luzon and western Visayas. The PAGASA and NDRRMC warned that classes and businesses were suspended again during December 8–9 in Regions III, IV-A, IV-B and NCR.[48] Early on December 8, the PAGASA had issued a Signal No. 2 warning over Metro Manila and the MMDA has also been put on red alert because of the typhoon.[49] On 8 December, the NDRRMC had reported that other regions such as Regions I, V, VII and CARAGA has no classes during December 8–9.[50]

Impact[edit]

As a weakening Category 3 typhoon, Hagupit first made landfall over Dolores, Eastern Samar on December 6.[51] Because of a slow-moving storm, Signal Warning No. 3 were still up in places in most of Visayas. The next day, Hagupit made its second landfall over Cataingan, Masbate.[52] Early on December 8, the storm generated a storm surge over Calauag, Quezon.[53]

As of December 12, at least 18 people had been confirmed dead by the typhoon, leaving nearly 916 injured according to the NDRRMC.

Retirement[edit]

The name Ruby was the replacement for the now retired Typhoon Reming in 2006. But despite being used for the first time, and because the typhoon caused over PHP 1 billion in damages, the PAGASA has announced that the name Ruby would be retired from its naming lists.[54] The name Rosita has been selected by PAGASA to replace Ruby for the 2018 season.[55][56]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Total damages figure includes agriculture, infrastructure, casualties, etc. damages.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "SitRep No. 27 re Effects of Typhoon "Ruby" (Hagupit)" (PDF). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. 2014-12-19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
  2. ^ Freedman, Andrew (4 December 2014). "Super Typhoon Hagupit poses deadly risks to Philippines, raises specter of Haiyan". Mashable. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 1, 2014 0600Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 2, 2014 1200Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  5. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 4, 2014 0600Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 21". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  7. ^ a b "RubyPH Update: as of 09:15 PM, 06 December 2014". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-08T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 33". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  10. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-11T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Track file of Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit)" (TXT). U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  12. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  13. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 1, 2014 0000Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  14. ^ "Tropical Depression 22W (Twentytwo) Warning Nr 001". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Twentytwo) Warning Nr 02". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  16. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Best Track Name 1422 Hagupit (1422)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 07". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  18. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 2, 2014 1800Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  19. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 12". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  20. ^ "Weather Bulletin Number Two". PAGASA. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  21. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 13". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  22. ^ "Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 013". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 15". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  24. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-05T00:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 17". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  26. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-05T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  27. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 19". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  28. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-06T00:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  29. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin No. 14". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-07T21:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  31. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 29". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  32. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin No. 18". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  33. ^ "RubyPH Update: as of 05:45 PM, 08 December 2014". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  34. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 35". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  35. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 38". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  36. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 40". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  37. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 41". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 13 December 2014.[dead link]
  38. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 43". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 13 December 2014.[dead link]
  39. ^ "Tropical Depression 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 45". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  40. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-12-12T06:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  41. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-12-12T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  42. ^ "SitRep No. 01 re Preparedness Measures for TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  43. ^ "SitRep No. 03 re Preparedness Measures for TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  44. ^ "All hands on deck in govt hospitals in areas threatened by Ruby". Trisha Macas. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  45. ^ "Signal No. 3 up over three provinces as Ruby moves toward Eastern Visayas". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  46. ^ "Storm surge warnings up in 42 areas". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  47. ^ "List of class and work suspensions for Dec. 5 and 6". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  48. ^ "List of Dec. 8–9 class suspensions due to Typhoon Ruby". GMA News. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  49. ^ "Signal No. 2 raised over Metro Manila; NCR to feel Ruby's effects Monday evening". GMA News. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  50. ^ "SitRep No. 09 re Effects of TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  51. ^ "Typhoon Ruby makes first landfall in Dolores, Eastern Samar". Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  52. ^ "Ruby makes second landfall, seven areas under Signal No. 3". GMA News. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  53. ^ "Ruby generates storm surge in Calauag, Quezon". Trisha Macas, GMA News. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  54. ^ "Ruby faces removal from storm list". Sun Star. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  55. ^ "Pagasa kills names of killer typhoons". Philippine Daily Inquirer. February 8, 2015. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  56. ^ "Philippine Tropical Cyclone Names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved February 1, 2015.

External links[edit]