Typhoon Kammuri (2019)

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Typhoon Kammuri (Tisoy)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Kammuri 2019-12-02 0000Z.jpg
Typhoon Kammuri nearing the Philippines on December 3
FormedNovember 24, 2019
DissipatedDecember 6, 2019
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 165 km/h (105 mph)
1-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure950 hPa (mbar); 28.05 inHg
Fatalities17
Damage$9.82 million (2019 USD)
Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Kammuri[a] (Japanese: かんむり; Rōmaji: kanmuri),[b] known in the Philippines as Typhoon Tisoy,[c] was a very powerful typhoon which affected the Bicol Region of the Philippines in early December 2019. The twenty-eighth named storm and sixteenth typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Kammuri developed from a tropical wave situated a couple hundred miles south of the Mariana Islands. From November 25 up until November 27, the system tracked westward at a steady pace and rate of intensification, first making minor impacts in Guam. On November 28, the system intensified into a typhoon as environmental conditions became marginally conducive for significant development. From November 29 up until late December 1, Kammuri was unable to strengthen to previous estimates due to its near stationary movement as a result of weak steering currents, upwelling itself consequently. On December 2, the system tracked westward at a much faster speed of 12 mph (19 km/h) and rapidly intensified before making landfall in the Bicol Region of the Philippines at peak intensity as a category 4-equivalent typhoon.

Upon exiting the Philippines, Kammuri significantly weakened as wind shear increased and interaction with the Philippine islands caused the structure of the system to degrade rapidly, and throughout December 3, it stayed as a category 1-equivalent typhoon, with its outer rainbands barely on land. By December 4, Kammuri drifted over the South China Sea as a weakening tropical storm. On December 6, Kammuri dissipated.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On November 23, 2019, a low pressure system developed to the southeast of Guam. It then began to show signs of development and earned a defined circulation, developing into a tropical depression on November 25, with the JTWC assigning it as 29W. The depression then began to develop banding features to the northeast of its center, confirming intensification and allowing it to earn the name Kammuri.[a] Kammuri then passed south of Guam, and further intensified into a severe tropical storm on November 27, and then into a typhoon the next day. As the weak typhoon continued west, upwelling of itself due to its quasi-stationary movement combined with moderate wind shear hindered significant intensification of Kammuri over the next three days. It eventually entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) with PAGASA assigning the name Tisoy[c] on November 30. After entering the PAGASA's area of responsibility, Kammuri began to show signs of intensification again, and PAGASA noted the possibility of Kammuri making landfall in the Philippines as a somewhat powerful typhoon.[1] After very slowly moving west and on approach to the Philippines, the system began to accelerate towards the Philippines and then began to rapidly intensify by the time it came within 200 miles of the coast of Catanduanes, due to the lowering of wind shear and increasing ocean heat content; all of which combined to counteract the upwelling. It became a category 2 typhoon and soon after, a category 3 typhoon. Kammuri reached its peak intensity as a low-end category 4-equivalent typhoon on 07:00 UTC on December 2, and PAGASA reported that Kammuri had made its first landfall over Gubat, Sorsogon at 11:00 pm, 2 December, very shortly after reaching its peak intensity.[2][3]

Typhoon Kammuri crossing through the Philippines during the morning of December 3.

Through midnight and early morning of December 3, Kammuri crossed the Bicol Region and weakened due to land interaction.[4] It made another landfall at 4:00 am PST over San Pascual town in Burias Island.[5][6][3] Moving in a generally westward direction, Kammuri weakened into a Category 3 after land interaction and developed a new eye, moving very close to the Bondoc Peninsula[7] before making its third and fourth landfalls at 8:30 am PST over Torrijos, Marinduque[8][3][9] and at 12:30 pm PST over Naujan, Oriental Mindoro, respectively.[10] Continued land interaction weakened Kammuri to a Category 2-equivalent typhoon before it exited the Philippine landmass. The center of the typhoon was reported to be over the Mindoro Strait by late afternoon.[11][12] Soon after, the system continued to weaken and became a Category 1-equivalent typhoon as it entered the South China Sea. Kammuri’s structure then began to suffer, with wind shear tearing apart convection on the western portion of the storm as it weakened back into a tropical storm while drifting over the South China Sea. By 11:00 am PST, December 5, PAGASA issued its last bulletin on Kammuri as it exited the PAR.[13]

Preparations[edit]

At their 119th Climate Forum, PAGASA discussed the possible threat of Kammuri to the Philippines and the potential landfall of Kammuri in the Bicol-Quezon Area during the 2019 Southeast Asian Games as a powerful typhoon.[14] On November 28, PAGASA stated in a press conference that appropriate measures and linkaging with the 2019 SEA Games organizers have been in place in preparation for the typhoon, such as storm chasers and mobile radars dispatched to competition venues in Metro Manila and Central Luzon.[15] SEA Games organizers also reported that a contingency plan has been set up in preparation for Kammuri.[16][17] By the afternoon of November 30, the day of the opening of the SEA Games, the agency assigned Kammuri with the local name Tisoy as it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) and raised its first warnings over Eastern Samar and Northern Samar provinces.[18][19][20]

On November 30, local governments in Bicol Region started preparing in anticipation of Kammuri's arrival.[17] Signal 1, 2, and 3 warnings were issued as the storm began to come close to Luzon.[21] Over 200,000 people were evacuated ahead of Kammuri due to fears of flooding and landslides.[22] Flights and operations at Ninoy Aquino International Airport were suspended for twelve hours starting at 11:00 p.m. PST on December 3, 2019, and ending at 11:00 a.m. on December 4.[23]

Impacts[edit]

In the 12th severe weather bulletin issued by PAGASA on December 2, 2019, reported that prior to its first landfall, the southern eyewall of Typhoon Kammuri brought violent winds and intense rainfall over the neighboring province of Northern Samar.[24] Photos and video footage from the towns of Mapanas and Gamay, both located on Northern Samar's Pacific side, show severe flooding and high winds from the typhoon.[25][26] Hours later, Kammuri made its first landfall near Gubat, Sorsogon with winds equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane.[27] The typhoon's damages is about $9.82 million due to strong winds and rains in Eastern Luzon and Northern Visayas

2019 Southeast Asian Games[edit]

The 2019 Southeast Asian Games, held in the Philippines this year, had several matches and events either cancelled or re-scheduled due to Kammuri.[28] Ramon Agregado, the organising committee's head of the Subic cluster of venues, stated, "The windsurfing has been cancelled until we have a more accurate picture of the weather."[28] Duathlon events that were scheduled for Tuesday, December 3, took place on Monday, December 2.[28]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The name is the Japanese word for the constellation Corona Borealis
  2. ^ Although romanized as kanmuri, it is pronounced as [kã̠mːɯ̟ᵝɾʲi], like KAHM-mə-ree with a sustained [m] sound. This justifies the typhoon name's official spelling as Kammuri.
  3. ^ a b The name is a Filipino word commonly used to refer to Filipino mestizo. It is pronounced as [tɪˈsoɪ], like ti-SOY.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Acor Arceo (November 29, 2019). "Typhoon Kammuri set to enter PAR on November 30". Rappler.
  2. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #14 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 2, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Press Briefing: Typhoon "#TISOYPH" Update Tuesday, 11 AM December 3, 2019". PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  4. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #15 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  5. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #16 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "Press Briefing: Typhoon "#TISOYPH" Update Tuesday, 5 AM December 3, 2019". YouTube. PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  7. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #17 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  8. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #18 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  9. ^ "'Tisoy' makes third landfall". CNN Philippines. December 3, 2019.
  10. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #19 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  11. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #20 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  12. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #21 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 3, 2019.
  13. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #26 (FINAL) on Tropical Depression "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 5, 2019.
  14. ^ DOST-PAGASA Weather Report (November 26, 2019). "119th CLIMATE OUTLOOK FORUM". PAGASA – via YouTube.
  15. ^ DOST-PAGASA Weather Report (November 28, 2019). "PRESS CONFERENCE: TYPHOON "KAMMURI" Thursday 11AM, November 28, 2019". PAGASA – via YouTube.
  16. ^ Ishak, Fadhli (November 29, 2019). "Typhoon Kammuri headed for Manila". New Straits Times.
  17. ^ a b "Typhoon Tisoy enters PAR, parts of Bicol gird for landfall". ABS-CBN News. November 30, 2019.
  18. ^ "PAGASA-DOST update on TY Kammuri's entrance to PAR".
  19. ^ "Typhoon Tisoy enters PAR on SEA Games opening". The Philippine Star. November 30, 2019.
  20. ^ Arceo, Acor (November 30, 2019). "Typhoon Tisoy enters PAR". Rappler.
  21. ^ Berlinger, Joshua (December 2, 2019). "Thousands evacuated as typhoon strengthens and makes landfall in Philippines". CNN. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  22. ^ "200,000 evacuated as Typhoon Kammuri lashes Philippines". Aljazeera. December 2, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  23. ^ "Typhoon Kammuri slams into Philippines, forcing thousands to flee". BBC. December 2, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  24. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #12 for Typhoon "Tisoy" (Kammuri)" (PDF). PAGASA. December 2, 2019.
  25. ^ Borbon, Christian (December 2, 2019). "Photos: Typhoon Kammuri hits the Philippines with heavy rains". Gulf News.
  26. ^ Gladys Castillo Vidal (December 2, 2019). "Wild Winds Whip Across Gamay Town as Typhoon Kammari Hits Philippines". Storyful Rights Management – via YouTube.
  27. ^ Kahn, Brian (December 2, 2019). "The Only Cyclone on Earth Right Now Is a Category 4 Monster Slamming the Philippines". Gizmodo. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  28. ^ a b c Clark (December 1, 2019). "Evacuations in Philippines as Typhoon Kammuri affects SEA Games events". CNA. Retrieved December 3, 2019.

External links[edit]