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|Typhoon (JMA scale)|
|Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||September 10, 2012|
|Dissipated||September 19, 2012|
|(Extratropical after September 18, 2012)|
|Highest winds||10-minute sustained: 205 km/h (125 mph) |
1-minute sustained: 285 km/h (180 mph)
|Lowest pressure||900 hPa (mbar); 26.58 inHg|
|Damage||$378.8 million (2012 USD)|
|Areas affected||Palau, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, China, Russia|
|Part of the 2012 Pacific typhoon season|
Typhoon Sanba, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Karen, was the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide in 2012. The sixteenth named storm and tenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Sanba formed as a tropical depression east of The Philippines on September 10. The storm gradually intensified as it moved generally northward in an area favorable for tropical development. The system was soon upgraded to a tropical storm less than a day after formation and subsequently further to a typhoon on September 12. Later that day, Sanba entered a phase of explosive intensification, quickly strengthening and gaining annular characteristics. On September 13, the system attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h),[nb 1] and a barometric pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg), becoming the strongest typhoon in the Western Pacific Ocean since Megi in 2010. Accelerating towards more northerly latitudes, a period of gradual weakening ensued afterwards as its eye expanded. It made landfall on South Korea late on September 17 as a typhoon before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone the following day. Sanba's remnants tracked into the Primorsky Krai region of eastern Russia before they were last noted on September 19.
Passing just to the west of Japan, Sanba caused extensive losses to agriculture, forestry, and fishing industries on the islands of Okinawa Prefecture. Further inland on Kōchi and Gifu Prefectures, heavy rains damaged agricultural regions and washed out numerous roads. Losses on both prefectures totalled to ¥1.55 billion (US$1.98 million).[nb 2] Upon its landfall on the Korean Peninsula on September 17, it became the first time in 50 years that the peninsula had been struck by at least four typhoons in a single year. In South Korea, torrential rainfall also washed out road systems and inundated crop land, as well as damaged infrastructure. Losses there associated with Sanba totaled to ₩389 billion (US$347.5 million). In North Korea, the heavy precipitation worsened preexisting flood conditions initially started by Tropical Storm Khanun two months prior. Overall, throughout the typhoon's nine-day trek, Sanba caused US$378.8 million in losses and killed six people.
A low-pressure area formed east of Palau on September 9 and gradually drifted westward. Early on September 10, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded it to a tropical depression, before the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system later that day and also upgraded it to a tropical depression late on the same day, as Sanba started to become more organized, with the banding of thunderstorms strengthened, and wrapped more tightly into the low level circulation center .
As the system entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility early on September 11, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) started to advisories on the system and named it Karen. At the same time, the JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm and named it Sanba, and the JTWC also upgraded it to a tropical storm later.
On September 17, at 01:00 (UTC) Sanba made landfall over Korea.
In Kōchi Prefecture, 222 hectares (548 acres) of agricultural land was damaged by the storm, with losses reaching ¥50 million (US$640,000). Throughout Okinawa, damage to agriculture, forestry, and fisheries amounted to ¥900 million (US$11.5 million). Heavy rains from the storm in Gifu Prefecture triggered numerous landslides and caused significant flooding that washed out hundreds of roads. Losses in the prefecture reached ¥1.5 billion (US$19.2 million).
Across South Korea, heavy rains from the storm washed out numerous roads and flooded cropland. Numerous structures along rivers were damaged or destroyed by flooding. Losses from the typhoon reached ₩389 billion (US$347.5 million).
- All winds are in ten-minute sustained standards, as per the Japan Meteorological Agency, unless otherwise stated.
- All monetary values are based on the value of its respective currency during 2012.
- "Tropical Cyclone Alert 091900". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Tropical Cyclone Advisory 100000". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert 101400". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Tropical Cyclone Warning 001 - Tropical Storm Sanba". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Weather Bulletin Number ONE". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Tropical Cyclone Advisory 110000". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- 行政ファイル：台風１６号の県内被害は５０００万円 ／高知. 毎日新聞 (in Japanese). Yahoo! News. September 20, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- 台風１６号被害 ９億円超 県内引き続き調査. 琉球新報 (in Japanese). Yahoo! News. September 20, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- 多園尚樹 (September 25, 2012). 台風１６号被害、西濃中心に１５億円 (in Japanese). Chunichi Shimbun. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
- 태풍 산바 피해액 389억 원 (in Korean). 경남도민일보. September 25, 2012. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
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