Remains of Roman Tyras, near the mediaeval Genoese walls of the Maurocastro.
|Location||Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Odessa Oblast, Ukraine|
|Builder||Settlers from Miletus|
|Founded||Approximately 600 BC|
|Abandoned||Late 4th century AD|
|Periods||Archaic Greek to Roman Imperial|
Tyras (Ancient Greek: Τύρας) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by colonists from Miletus, probably about 600 BC. The city was situated some 10 km from the mouth of the Tyras River, which is now called the Dniester. The surrounding native tribe was called the Tyragetae. The ruins of Tyras are now located in the modern city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in the Odessa Oblast of Ukraine.
Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC Tyras fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and it was destroyed by the Getae about 50 BC.
In 56 AD, it seems to have been restored by the Romans under Nero and henceforth formed part of the province of Lower Moesia. There exists a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus.
Indeed the autonomous caulking of coins in the city, called by the Romans Alba Julia, lasted from the time of the emperor Domitianus (81 AD) up to the end of the board of the emperor Alexander Severus (235 AD) with little breaks. The coins of Tyras of this period represented copper with the portraits of the members of the Imperial house for the province of the Roman Empire.
In Tyras was stationed a small unit of the Roman Classis Flavia Moesica.
Soon after the time of Alexander Severus, it was partially destroyed by the Goths, but archeological findings show that Romans remained there until the end of the 4th century (under Theodosius I). Later the Byzantines renamed the city, destroyed by barbarian invasions, with the new name Maurokastron (meaning "black fortification").
Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions are also mostly concerned with trade.
- E. H. Minns. Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, Volume I.
- Kleiman, I. B. (2001). "Defensive Structures on the Territory of Tyras". In Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. North Pontic Archaeology: Recent Discoveries and Studies. Colloquia Pontica 6. Leiden: Brill. pp. 53–66. ISBN 9789004120419.
- Karyshkovskij, Petr O.; Kleiman, Isaac B. (1994). The City of Tyras: A Historical and Archaeological Essay. Odessa: Polis Press. ISBN 9785770745313.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
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