The Tyrrhenian Sea (/ /; Corsican: Mari Tirrenu, French: Mer Tyrrhénienne [mɛʁ tiʁenjɛn], Italian: Mar Tirreno [mar tirˈrɛːno], Neapolitan: Mar Tirreno, Sardinian: Mare Tirrenu, Sicilian: Mari Tirrenu) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy.
The maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres (12,418 ft).
The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and Eurasian Plates meet; therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the southern part of the sea, north of Sicily.
- In the Strait of Messina: A line joining the North extreme of Cape Paci (15°42′E) with the East extreme of the Island of Sicily, Cape Peloro (38°16′N).
- On the Southwest: A line running from Cape Lilibeo (West extreme of Sicily) to the South extreme of Cape Teulada (8°38′E) in Sardinia.
- In the Strait of Bonifacio: A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa (41°14′N) in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno (41°23′N) in Corsica.
- On the North: A line joining Cape Corse (Cape Grosso, 9°23′E) in Corsica, with Tinetto Island ( ) and thence through Tino and Palmaria islands to San Pietro Point ( ) on the coast of Italy.
There are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea (north to south):
|Corsica Channel||between Tuscany and Corsica||about 80 kilometres (50 mi)||Ligurian Sea|
|Strait of Bonifacio||between Corsica and Sardinia||11 kilometres (6.8 mi)||Mediterranean Sea (proper)|
|no name||between Sardinia and Sicily||about 290 kilometres (180 mi)||Mediterranean Sea (proper)|
|Strait of Messina||between Sicily and Calabria on the toe of Italy||3 kilometres (1.9 mi)||Ionian Sea|
Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia and led by the prince Tyrrhenus. The Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the "Sea of the Etruscans".
Note that even though the phrase "port of Rome" is frequently used, there is in fact no port in Rome. Instead, the "port of Rome" refers to the maritime facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km (42 miles) to the northwest of Rome, not too far from its airport.
Giglio Porto is a small island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio and sank. The ship was recently removed and towed to Genoa.
In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus. The winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, and the Sirocco and Ostro from the south.
- "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- Sartori, Renzo (2003). "The Tyrrhenian back-arc basin and subduction of the Ionian lithosphere" (PDF). Episodes 26 (3): 217–221.[dead link]
- "The Origins of the Etruscans". San José State University. Retrieved December 2010.