Tyumen Oblast

Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tyumen Oblast
Тюменская область
Flag of Tyumen Oblast
Tyumen Oblast, including the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (pink)
Tyumen Oblast, including the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (pink)
Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000
Federal districtUral[1]
Economic regionWest Siberia[2]
Administrative centerTyumen
 • BodyOblast Duma
 • GovernorAleksandr Moor[3]
 • Total160,122 km2 (61,823 sq mi)
 • Total3,823,910
 • Estimate 
 • Rank28th
 • Density24/km2 (62/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-TYU
License plates72
OKTMO ID71000000
Official languagesRussian[8]

Tyumen Oblast (Russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, romanizedTyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia. It is located in Western Siberia, and is administratively part of the Urals Federal District. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs: Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen Oblast, including its autonomous okrugs, is the third-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 3,395,755 (2010).[5]

Tyumen is the largest city and capital of Tyumen Oblast, and the first Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains.

Tyumen Oblast is the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the country, and has experienced an oil boom since the early 2000s. The rapid growth of the fuel industry has made the oblast by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average since 2006.[9]


The territory covers 160,100 km2. The Tyumen Oblast was founded on August 14, 1944. It includes two autonomous okrugs of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug (which is the okrug that border the region) and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Yugra). The territory is located in the basin of the river. The biggest rivers are the Tura, Tobol, Pyshma, Iset, Tavda, Ishim, Agan, Irtysh, Tanama, and Noska. The hydro-geographical system is characterized with the prevalence of small rivers as well as the significant bogginess of their catchment areas and numerous lakes.[citation needed] It borders Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the north, Omsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast in the East, Kazakhstan (North Kazakhstan Region), Kurgan Oblast and Sverdlovsk Oblast in the west.


Extreme climatic conditions characterise most parts of the territory, especially the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Beloyarsky and Berezovsky areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug Yugra[10] within the Far North and other areas and urban districts of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Uvat area equated to them.

The climate is arctic, subarctic and humid continental in the north, center and south, respectively. The average January temperature ranges from −17 °C or 1.4 °F in Tyumen Oblast to −27 °C or −16.6 °F in the north. The duration of the period affected by frost ranges from 130 days per year in Tyumen to 210 or more in the tundra region.


The region contains more than 70,000 watercourses with a length of more than 10 km for a total length of 584,400 km. The largest navigable rivers are the Ob (185 cu km / yr) and Irtysh (36.5 cu km / yr). In the region there are about 70 thousand lakes. In the north and central parts are widespread thermokarst lakes and predominately marsh in the south.


The Red Book of Tyumen Oblast listed 711 rare and endangered species. In the list of specially protected areas of the south region there are 99 sites, including one international and three federal.

Time zone[edit]

Tyumen Oblast is in the Ekaterinburg time zone. Displacement concerning UTC makes +5:00. Concerning Moscow time the time zone has a constant displacement of +2 hours and is designated in Russia correspondingly as MSK + 2. Ekaterinburg time for most of the Tyumen region is different from the lap time by one hour, to a lesser (western) part, including the city of Tyumen, - for two hours.

Fauna and flora[edit]

There are variety of fauna and flora in this oblast. In the northern part can be found ptarmigan, walrus and Arctic fox.[11] Polar bears also occur in the extreme north; the genetic make-up of this Polar bear sub-population is genetically distinct from other circumpolar regions.[12]


Tyumen Oblast Administration building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tyumen CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.[citation needed]

Tyumen Oblast Duma

The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Tyumen Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Tymen Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Tyumen Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.[citation needed]

Natural resources[edit]

The autonomous regions are concentrated the bulk of the country's oil and gas. The total volume of exploration drilling has exceeded 45 million meters. Oil production is concentrated in the Middle Ob. Gas is produced mainly in the northern areas. Large oil fields are located in the Khanty-Ugra: Samotlor Field, Ob, Fyodorovskoye Field, Mamontovskoye, Krasnoleninskoye; gas - in the Yamalo-Nenets District: Urengoy Field, Bear, Yamburg Field. The depth from 700 m to 4 km. Produced peat, sapropel, quartz sand, limestone. Explored about 400 deposits of raw materials for the production of building materials [source not specified 252 days].

Ore minerals and precious stones discovered on the eastern slope of the Subpolar and Polar Urals (in particular, the deposits of Lead, copper, chromite).

The area is rich in fresh water resources, which are represented by large rivers - the Ob, Irtysh, Tobol, lakes (650 ths.) - Black (224 km2), Big Uvat (179 km2), etc., groundwater, that contain more than half of Russian stocks. iodine (30 mlg / l) and bromine (40-50 mlg / l)

Over 44% of the land reserves in the south of the region are covered with forests. 43 million hectares are covered by forests. The forest resources area is the third largest in the Russian Federation after the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Irkutsk Region. The main forest forming species are pine, birch, spruce, fir, aspen and larch. The total timber reserves are estimated at 5.4 billion cubic meters.

In the south of the Tyumen region are about ten hot (37-50 °C) geothermal sources, having balneological properties. Sources are popular not only among residents of Tyumen, but in neighboring regions as well: the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan, and Chelyabinsk regions.

The region has large peat reserves. Large deposits of vivianite (ferric phosphate) (approximately 20% of world reserves) have been discovered in particular peat deposits, the usage of which may meet the phosphate fertilizers demand of the agriculture.

There are deposits of quartz sands, brick and expanded clays, sapropels and limestone. The region has large fresh and mineral water reserves. There are great prospects for oil field development.


As of 2016, the Nominal GDP in Tyumen Oblast(including Khanty–Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous regions) reached ₽5,9 trillion[13][14]$104 billion ($28,000 per capita).

Tyumen is a service center for gas and oil industries: the Oblast has the highest level of oil and gas production of any region in Russia. Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell, Salym Petroleum Development N.V.[15] have representative offices in Tyumen. It has been suggested that the importance of these industries has caused the high levels of economic inequality observed in the region.[16]

The largest companies in the region include Sibur (revenues of $6.41 billion in 2017), Antipinsky Refinery ($3.19 billion), the local branch of Schlumberger ($365.08 million).[17]


The center park of the city

The Tyumen region produces milk, meat, eggs, potatoes and vegetables.

Transport infrastructure[edit]

Abalakskoe pole

Transport is presented by the motor, railway, aviation and river communication system. The railway takes the leading position in freight traffic .

The river port is also a cargo center and a link between rail, road and air transport .

Roshchino International Airport is undergoing construction as of 2017, with development of a new terminal .

Administrative divisions[edit]


Life expectancy at birth in Tyumen Oblast
Historical population
Source: Census data

Population: 3,395,755 (2010 Russian census);[18] 3,264,841 (2002 Census);[19] 3,080,621 (1989 Soviet census).[20]

Ethnic groups

There were thirty-six recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each in Tyumen Oblast, making this one of the most multicultural oblasts in Russia. The national composition at the time of the 2010 Census was:[5]

Vital statistics for 2022:[22][23]

  • Births: 17,783 (11.5 per 1,000)
  • Deaths: 17,124 (11.2 per 1,000)

Total fertility rate (2022):[24]
1.72 children per woman

Life expectancy (2021):[25]
Total — 70.14 years (male — 65.43, female — 74.88)

Religion in Tyumen Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[26][27]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Orthodox
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

According to a 2012 official survey[26] 28.9% of the population of Tyumen Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Eastern Orthodox Churches, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are members of Protestant churches. 6% of the population is composed of Muslims, 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 34% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 11% is atheist, and 3.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[26]


A minor planet 2120 Tyumenia discovered in 1967 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after the Tyumen Oblast.[28]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Tyumen Oblast. Vladimir Vladimirovich Yakushev, Governor of Tyumen Oblast (in Russian)
  4. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. (The rank is given without the autonomous okrugs' populations; the population and percentages are given for the territory of the oblast with the autonomous okrugs)
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ "Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  10. ^ ↑ Постановлением Правительства РФ от 03.03.2012 N 170 «Об отнесении Берёзовского и Белоярского районов Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа — Югры к районам Крайнего Севера» Берёзовский и Белоярский районы Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа — Югры с 01.01.2013 г. отнесены к районам Крайнего Севера.
  11. ^ Bruce Forbes, The End of the Earth: Threats to the Yamal Region's Cultural and Biological Diversity [1]
  12. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Валовой региональный продукт::Мордовиястат". Mrd.gks.ru. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  14. ^ "• EUR RUB average annual exchange rate 1999-2016 | Statistic". Statista.com. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  15. ^ "Компания "Салым Петролеум Девелопмент Н.В." (СПД) — совместное предприятие, созданное в 1996 году для освоения Салымской группы нефтяных месторождений в Западной Сибири. Акционерами СПД являются на паритетных началах "Шелл Салым Девелопмент Б.В." и ОАО "Газпром нефть"". www.spdnv.ru. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  16. ^ Buccellato, T; T. Mickiewicz (2009). "Oil and Gas: A Blessing for the Few. Hydrocarbons and Inequality in Russia" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 61 (3): 385–407. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/09668130902753275. S2CID 153796510.
  17. ^ Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  18. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  19. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  20. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  21. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  22. ^ "Information on the number of registered births, deaths, marriages and divorces for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  23. ^ "Birth rate, mortality rate, natural increase, marriage rate, divorce rate for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  24. ^ Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on August 10, 2023. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
  25. ^ "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  26. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  27. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  28. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.