35th Infantry Division (United States)
|35th Infantry Division|
35th ID Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
|Branch||United States Army|
|Part of||Army National Guard|
|Headquarters||Fort Leavenworth, Kansas|
|Nickname(s)||"Sante Fe Division"|
|Website||35th Infantry Division|
The 35th Infantry Division (Santa Fe Division) is an infantry unit in the Army National Guard, and is currently commanded by Major General Victor Braden. The division was reactivated and, the Headquarters and Headquarters Company, federally recognized on 25 August 1984 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
- 1 Formation
- 2 Shoulder sleeve insignia
- 3 History
- 4 Current structure
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Shoulder sleeve insignia
The division's shoulder patch, a white Santa Fe cross on a blue disc with a green border, was originally approved for the 35th Division on 29 October 1918.
The Santa Fe cross was a symbol used to mark the Santa Fe Trail, an area where the unit trained, and was designated as an identifying device for the unit by Headquarters, 35th Division General Orders 25, dated March 27, 1918. The organization is referred to as the Santa Fe Division.
World War I
- Activated: 5 August 1917 (National Guard Division from Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska)
- Overseas: 7 May 1918
- Major Operations: Meuse-Argonne Offensive
- Casualties: Total 7,296, (KIA 1,018, WIA 6,278)
- Commanders: Maj. Gen. William M. Wright (25 August 1917), Brig. Gen. Lucien Grant Berry (18 September 1917), Maj. Gen. William M. Wright (10 December 1917), Brg. Gen. Nathaniel F. McClure (15 June 1918), Maj. Gen. Peter E. Traub (2 November 1918), Brg. Gen. Thomas B. Dugan (25 November 1918), Maj. Gen. Peter E. Traub (7 December 1918), Brg. Gen. Thomas B. Dugan (27 December 1918)
- Returned to U.S. and inactivated: April 1919.
Actions during World War I
On 11 May 1918, the 35th Division arrived at Le Havre, France and served first, a brigade at a time, in the Vosges between 30 June and 13 August. The whole division served in the Gerardmer sector, Alsace, 14 August to 1 September; Meuse-Argonne, 21 to 30 September; Sommedieu sector, 15 October, to 6 November. Men of the division were ninety-two days in quiet sectors and five in active; advanced twelve and one half kilometres against resistance, captured 781 prisoners, and lost 1,067 killed and 6,216 wounded. The 35th Division had, as an officer, Captain Harry Truman, 33rd President of the United States, who commanded Battery D of the 129th Field Artillery Regiment.
World War I order of battle
Units of the 35th Division included:
- Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 35th Division
- Headquarters, 69th Infantry Brigade
- Headquarters, 70th Infantry Brigade
- Headquarters, 60th Field Artillery Brigade
- 128th Field Artillery (75 mm)
- 129th Field Artillery (75 mm)
- 130th Field Artillery (155 mm)
- 110th Trench Mortar Battery
- 128th Machine Gun Battalion
- 110th Engineers
- 110th Field Signal Battalion
- 110th Train Headquarters and Military Police
World War II
- Activated: 23 December 1940 (National Guard Division from Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska)
- Arrived ETO: 25 May 1944
- Landed Omaha Beach: 5–7 July 1944
- Campaigns: Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe
- Days of combat: 264
- Distinguished Unit Citations: 6
- Awards: Medal of Honor-1 ; Distinguished Service Cross-44 ; Distinguished Service Medal-1 ; Silver Star-688 ; Legion of Merit-10; Distinguished Flying Cross-1 ; Soldiers Medal-22 ; Bronze Star Medal-3,435 ; Air Medal-133.
- Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ralph E. Truman (December 1940 – October 1941), Maj. Gen. William H. Simpson (October 1941–April 1942), Maj. Gen. Maxwell Murray (May 1942 – January 1943), Maj. Gen. Paul W. Baade (January 1943 to inactivation.)
- Returned to U.S.: 10 September 1945.
- Inactivated: 7 December 1945.
Actions during World War II
The 35th Infantry Division arrived in England on 25 May 1944 and received further training. It landed on Omaha Beach, Normandy July 5–7, 1944 and entered combat on 11 July, fighting in the Normandy hedgerows, north of St. Lo. The division beat off twelve German counterattacks at Emelie before entering St. Lo on 18 July. After mopping up in the St. Lo area, it took part in the offensive action southwest of St. Lo, pushing the Germans across the Vire on 2 August, and breaking out of the Cotentin Peninsula. While en route to an assembly area, the division was "flagged off the road," to secure the Mortain-Avranches corridor and to rescue the 30th Division's "Lost Battalion" August 7–13, 1944.
Then racing across France through Orleans and Sens, the division attacked across the Moselle on 13 September, captured Nancy on 15 September, secured Chambrey on 1 October, and drove on to the German border, taking Sarreguemines and crossing the Saar on 8 December. After crossing the Blies River on 12 December, the division moved to Metz for rest and rehabilitation on 19 December. The 35th moved to Arlon, Belgium December 25–26, and took part in the fighting to relieve Bastogne, throwing off the attacks of four German divisions, taking Villers-laBonne-Eau on 10 January, after a 13-day fight and Lutrebois in a 5-day engagement. On 18 January 1945, the division returned to Metz to resume its interrupted rest.
In late January, the division was defending the Foret de Domaniale area. Moving to the Netherlands to hold a defensive line along the Roer on 22 February, the division attacked across the Roer on 23 February, pierced the Siegfried Line, reached the Rhine at Wesel on 10 March, and crossed 25–26 March. It smashed across the Herne Canal and reached the Ruhr River early in April, when it was ordered to move to the Elbe April 12. Making the 295-mile dash in two days, the 35th mopped up in the vicinity of Colbitz and Angern, until 26 April 1945 when it moved to Hanover for occupational and mopping-up duty, continuing occupation beyond VE-day. The division left Southampton, England, on 5 September, and arrived in New York City on 10 September 1945.
- Total battle casualties: 15,822
- Killed in action: 2,485
- Wounded in action: 11,526
- Missing in action: 340
- Prisoner of war: 1,471
World War II order of battle
Units of the 35th Infantry Division included:
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 35th Infantry Division
- 134th Infantry
- 137th Infantry
- 320th Infantry
- Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 35th Division Artillery
- 127th Field Artillery Battalion (155 mm)
- 161st Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
- 216th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
- 219th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
- 60th Engineer Battalion
- 110th Medical Battalion
- 35th Reconnaissance Troop
- Headquarters, Special Troops, 35th Infantry Division
Assignments in the ETO
- 5 May 1944: XV Corps, Third Army.
- 8 July 1944: Third Army, but attached to the XIX Corps of First Army.
- 27 July 1944: V Corps.
- 1 August 1944: Third Army, Twelfth United States Army Group, but attached to the V Corps of First Army.
- 5 August 1944: Third Army, 12th Army Group.
- 6 August 1944: XX Corps.
- 9 August 1944: Third Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to the VII Corps of First Army.
- 13 August 1944: XII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
- 23 December 1944: Third Army, 12th Army Group.
- 24 December 1944: XX Corps.
- 26 December 1944: III Corps.
- 18 January 1945: XX Corps.
- 23 January 1945: XV Corps, Sixth United States Army Group.
- 30 January 1945: XVI Corps, Ninth Army, attached to the British 21st Army Group, 12th Army Group.
- 4 April 1945: XVI Corps, Ninth Army, 12th Army Group.
- 13 April 1945: XIX Corps for operations, and the XIII Corps for administration.
- 16 April 1945: XIII Corps.
Cold War to present
On Dec. 7, 1945, the division was inactivated. During the next year and into 1947, the division was reestablished as a Kansas and Missouri National Guard division. In 1954 the division consisted of the 137th, 138th (Missouri), and 140th Infantry Regiments (Missouri); 185th, 194th, 554th, and 556th Field Artillery Battalions; the 113th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion; the 195th Tank Battalion; and signals, engineer, reconnaissance, military police, other combat support units, plus combat service support units. After the Pentomic reorganization, the division's five battle groups were the 1-137 Infantry; 2-137 Infantry; 1-138 Infantry; 2-138 Infantry; and 1-140 Infantry. But the division was inactivated, along with three other National Guard divisions, in 1963.
In early 1983, the Army began the process organize the 35th as a mechanized infantry division from Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Colorado and Kentucky National Guard units. The division headquarters was established Sept. 30, 1983, at Fort Leavenworth. The division was formally reactivated as the 35th Infantry Division (Mechanized) was reactivated on 25 August 1984 from the 67th Infantry Brigade (Mechanized) of Nebraska, the 69th Infantry Brigade (Mechanized) of Kansas, and the 149th Armored Brigade from Kentucky. It continues in service today.
In 1984-85, the 69th Infantry Brigade was reported to comprise the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 137th Infantry Regiment, the 1st Battalion, 635th Armored Regiment, 1st Battalion, 127th Field Artillery Regiment, E Troop, 114th Cavalry, and the 169th Engineer Company.
On 1 October 1987 the division's aviation units were reorganized, and the 135th Aviation was established. Two battalions of the regiment joined the division's aviation component.
The 35th Infantry Division Headquarters commanded Task Force Eagle's Multi-National Division North in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of SFOR-13 (Stabilization Force 13) with the NATO peacekeeping mandate under the Dayton Peace Accords. The headquarters were located at Eagle Base in the town of Tuzla. Brigadier General James Mason was the commander. He later went on to command the division. The division headquarters received the Army Superior Unit Award for its service in Bosnia. Division liaison officers served in the towns of Mostar, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Zenica and Doboj.
A detachment of the 35th Infantry Division was the headquarters element for Task Force Falcon of Multi-National Task Force East (MNTF-E) for the NATO Kosovo Force 9 (KFOR 9) mission. The 35th provided command and control from 7 November 2007 until 7 July 2008, when they were succeeded by the 110th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, Missouri Army National Guard.
35th Infantry Division exercises training and readiness oversight of the following elements, but they are not organic:
- Special Troops Battalion, 35th Infantry Division
- 33d Infantry Brigade (Illinois National Guard)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company
- 2d Squadron, 106th Cavalry Regiment
- 2d Battalion, 130th Infantry Regiment
- 1st Battalion, 178th Infantry Regiment
- 2d Battalion, 122d Field Artillery Regiment
- Brigade Engineer Battalion
- 634th Support Battalion
- 39th Infantry Brigade (Arkansas National Guard)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company
- 1st Squadron, 134th Cavalry Regiment
- 1st Battalion, 153d Infantry Regiment
- 2nd Battalion, 153d Infantry Regiment
- 1st Battalion, 206th Field Artillery Regiment
- Brigade Engineer Battalion
- 39th Support Battalion
- 45th Infantry Brigade (Oklahoma National Guard)
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 67th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade
- Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 130th Field Artillery Brigade
- 2d Battalion, 130th Field Artillery Regiment
- 1st Battalion, 161st Field Artillery Regiment
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Combat Aviation Brigade, 35th Infantry Division
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 110th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 218th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade
The Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 287th Sustainment Brigade was also assigned to the division up until 2014. It was deactivated in 2016.
In popular culture
- Formations of the United States Army during World War I
- Formations of the United States Army during World War II
- Formations of the United States Army during the War on Terrorism
- Meuse-Argonne order of battle
- Normandy order of battle
- Rhineland order of battle
- Ardennes-Alsace order of battle
- Clair Kenamore, military historian
- "35th Infantry Division"
- Tafanelli 2014, p. 48.
- Wilson 1999, p. 346.
- Clark, pp. 9-22.
- Wilson 1999, pp. 345-346.
- Wilson 1999, p. 345.
- Wyllie, pp. 224-225.
- The Army Almanac, pp. 536-538.
- Heavey, pp. 95 & 99.
- Wilson 1998, pp. 47-78.
- Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths (Statistical and Accounting Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1 June 1953)
- Presenting the 35th Infantry Division in World War II, 1941-1945, pp. 222-23
- Stanton, pp. 117-118
- Wilson 1998, pp. 180-206.
- Tim Aumiller, Infantry Division Components, 76.
- Aumiller, 112.
- JonathanKoester (2015-06-09). "'Screw-up' NCO highlights history of Midwest's storied 35th Infantry Division". NCO Journal. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- David Isby and Charles Kamps Jr., Armies of NATO's Central Front, Jane's Publishing Company, 1985, p.383.
- Isby and Kamps, 1985, 383.
- Maj. Les A. Melnyk, News analysis: Guard transformation taking shape, Army News Service, 13 January 2006
- AUSA, Torchbearer Special Report, 7 November 2005; http://www.ausa.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/ILW%20web-ExclusivePubs/Torchbearer/TBearComp1v12.pdf
- "35th Infantry Division". Kansas Adjutant General's Department. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Presenting the 35th Infantry Division in World War II, 1941-1945. Atlanta, Ga.: Albert Love Enterprises. 1946.
- Clark, Brig. Gen. Harvey C. (1920). Report of the Adjutant General of Missouri: January 1, 1917 December 31, 1920. Jefferson City, Mo.
- Heavey, Brig. Gen. John W. (1918). Report of the Acting Chief of the Militia Bureau. Washington, D.C.: GPO.
- Stanton, Shelby L. (2006). World War II Order of Battle, U.S. Army (Ground Force Units). Washington, D.C.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0157-0.
- Tafanelli, Maj. Gen. Lee E. (2014). Report of the Adjutant General of Kansas (PDF). Topeka, Kan. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States. Washington, D.C.: GPO. 1950.
- Wilson, John B. (1999). Armies, Corps, Divisions, and Separate Brigades (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, U.S. Army. ISBN 0-16-049994-1. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Wilson, John B. (1998). Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, U.S. Army. ISBN 0-16-049571-7. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Wyllie, Col. Robert E. (1921). Orders, Decorations and Insignia, Military and Civil; With the History and Romance of their Origin and a Full Description of Each (PDF). New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Kenamore, Clair (1919). From Vauquois Hill to Exermont: A History of the Thirty-Fifth Division of the United States Army. St. Louis, Mo.: Guard Publishing.
- Faubus, Orval Eugene (1993) [1st pub. River Road Press:1971]. In This Faraway Land: A Personal Journal of Infantry Combat in World War II (Revised ed.). Little Rock, Ark.: Pioneer Press. ISBN 0-0960225-3-1. LCCN 93-85871.
- Huston, James A. (2003) [Orig. pub. Courier Press:1950]. Biography of a Battalion: The Life and Times of an Infantry Battalion in Europe in World War II (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-2694-0.
- Official website
- 35th Infantry Division on Facebook
- 35th Infantry Division Association
- 35th Infantry Division in World War II, 1941–1945
- 35th Infantry Division Memory
- LoneSentry.com (Attack! The Story of the 35th Infantry Division)
- Presenting the 35th Infantry Division in World War II 1941 - 1945 (unit history)