Army National Guard

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Army National Guard
Seal of the United States Army National Guard.svg
Seal of the Army National Guard
Active As state-funded militia under various names: 1636–1903
As federal reserve forces called the Army National Guard: 1903–present
Country  United States
Size 343,000 (proposed end strength for Fiscal Year 2018)
Part of  United States Army
Seal of the United States National Guard.svg United States National Guard
Garrison/HQ Army National Guard Readiness Center, Arlington Hall
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Nickname(s) Army Guard, The Guard
Anniversaries 13 December 1636 (founding)
Website www.army.mil/nationalguard
Commanders
Director of the Army National Guard LTG Timothy J. Kadavy
Chief, National Guard Bureau Gen Joseph L. Lengyel

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states, territories and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the Army National Guard of the United States. The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, and the District of Columbia, and operates under their respective governors.[1]

The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area.[2]

Activation[edit]

The Army National Guard as currently authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, and Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.[1] The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, and through him to the Secretary of the Army.[3]

Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States.[4][5] If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army.[6][7][8] Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors.[9] Governors generally cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency.[10] (See Perpich v. Department of Defense.)

The President may also call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws.[11] The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States. The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it. This function is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, and in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, and administer federal programs, policies, and resources for the National Guard.[12]

The Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is approximately $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, construction, equipment maintenance and other activities.[13]

History[edit]

Presidents who served in Army National Guard[edit]

Of the 45 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2017, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in the militia or Army National Guard.

(Note: President George W. Bush served in the National Guard in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and he was the first Air National Guard member to attain the presidency.)[59]

Prominent members[edit]

Directors[edit]

National Guard Bureau organizational chart depicting command and reporting relationships.
Army National Guard staff organizational chart
Raymond H. Fleming, first Director, Army National Guard.
Timothy J. Kadavy is the current director of the Army National Guard

Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1948, which included the Air National Guard, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions, Army and Air, each headed by a major general who reported to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Each Director's position was later upgraded to a lieutenant general's assignment. The Army National Guard is also authorized a deputy director. Originally a brigadier general, the post was later upgraded to major general. Individuals who served as director or deputy director and subsequently served as NGB Chief include: Fleming; McGowan; Greenlief; Weber; Temple; Rees (acting); and Grass.

The Director of the Army National Guard oversees a staff which aids in planning and day-to-day organization and management. In addition to a chief of staff, the Director's staff includes several special staff members, including a chaplain and protocol and awards specialists. It also includes a primary staff, which is organized as directorates, divisions, and branches. The directorates of the Army National Guard staff are arranged along the lines of a typical American military staff: G-1 for personnel; G-2 for intelligence; G-3 for plans, operations and training; G-4 for logistics; G-5 for strategic plans, policy and communications; G-6 for communications; and G-8 for budgets and financial management.

The following is a list of the Directors of the Army National Guard since the creation of the position:

Deputy Directors[edit]

Judd H. Lyons, Deputy Director, Army National Guard, 2013–2015.

The individuals who have served as Deputy Director since 1970 are:

Units and formations[edit]

Deployable Army units are organized as table of organization and equipment (TOE) or modified table of organization (MTOE) organizations. Non-deployable units, such as a state's joint force headquarters or regional training institute are administered as table of distribution and allowance (TDA) units.[88]

Commands[edit]

Divisions[edit]

In addition to many deployable units which are non-divisional, the Army National Guard's deployable units include eight Infantry divisions.[89] These divisions, their subordinate brigades or brigades with which the divisions have a training oversight relationship, and the states represented by the largest units include:[90]

28th Division
29th Division
34th Division
35th Division
36th Division
38th Division
40th Division
42nd Division

Multifunctional Support Brigades[edit]

The Army National Guard fields 37 multifunctional support brigades.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades[edit]

Field Artillery Brigades[edit]

Sustainment Brigades[edit]

Military Intelligence Brigades[edit]

Functional Support Brigades & Groups[edit]

Engineer Brigades[edit]

Air Defense Artillery Brigades[edit]

Signal Brigades[edit]

Military Police Brigades[edit]

Theater Aviation Brigades[edit]

Other Brigades[edit]

Groups[edit]

Regular Army – Army National Guard Partnership[edit]

In 2016, the Army and the Army National Guard began a training and readiness initiative that aligned some Army brigades with National Guard division headquarters, and some National Guard brigades with Army division headquarters. Among others, this program included the National Guard's 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team becoming affiliated with the Army's 10th Mountain Division[91] and the National Guard's 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment affiliating with the Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team.[92] In addition, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division began an affiliation with the National Guard's 36th Infantry Division.[93]

In addition, United States Army Reserve units participating in the program include:

Army units partnering with Army National Guard headquarters include:

By state[edit]

Myles Deering, State Adjutant General of Oklahoma, 2009–2014.

The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.[94]

Legacy units and formations[edit]

Shoulder sleeve insignia of 47th Infantry Division, inactivated 1991.
Shoulder sleeve insignia of 50th Armored Division, inactivated 1993.

Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:

See also[edit]

Comparable organizations

References[edit]

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External links[edit]