United States Department of Agriculture

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United States Department of Agriculture
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA logo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Flag of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agency overview
FormedMay 15, 1862; 159 years ago (1862-05-15)
Cabinet status: February 15, 1889
Preceding agency
  • Agricultural Division
JurisdictionU.S. federal government
HeadquartersJamie L. Whitten Building
1301 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C.
38°53′17″N 77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000Coordinates: 38°53′17″N 77°1′48″W / 38.88806°N 77.03000°W / 38.88806; -77.03000
Employees105,778 (June 2007)
Annual budgetUS$151 billion (2017)[1]
Agency executives

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, and food. It aims to meet the needs of commercial farming and livestock food production, promotes agricultural trade and production, works to assure food safety, protects natural resources, fosters rural communities and works to end hunger in the United States and internationally.

Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance.[2] The United States Forest Service is the largest agency within the department, which administers national forests and national grasslands that together comprise about 25% of federal lands.

The Secretary of Agriculture is Tom Vilsack since February 24, 2021.[3]


Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.[4] USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness,[5] where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits have been accessed by those experiencing homelessness.

The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits. The Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 (b) and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation.


Harvey Washington Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (third from the right) with his staff in 1883

The standard history is Gladys L. Baker, ed., Century of Service: The first 100 years of the United States Department of Agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1963).[6]

Origins in the Patent Office[edit]

Early in its history, the American economy was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth became Commissioner of Patents in the Department of State. He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and local agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes."[7] Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the various new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, the preparation of statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture.[citation needed] Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."[8]

In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring.[citation needed]


The first Department of Agriculture Building on the National Mall around 1895
The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C. is the current USDA headquarters.

On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status. Agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first commissioner.[9] Lincoln called it the "people's department."[10]

In 1868, the department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants.[11]

In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed separate bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. Finally, in 1889 the Department of Agriculture was given cabinet-level status.[12]

In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, and other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state.[13]

New Deal era[edit]

By 1933 the department was well established in Washington and very well known in rural America. In the agricultural field the picture was different. Statisticians created a comprehensive data-gathering arm in the Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates. Secretary Henry Wallace, a statistician, further strengthened the expertise by introducing sampling techniques. Professional economists ran a strong Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Most important was the agricultural experiment station system, a network of state partners in the land-grant colleges, which in turn operated a large field service in direct contact with farmers in practically every rural county. The department worked smoothly with a nationwide, well-organized pressure group, the American Farm Bureau Federation. It represented the largest commercial growers before Congress.[14]

As late as the Great Depression, farm work occupied a fourth of Americans. Indeed, many young people who moved to the cities in the prosperous 1920s returned to the family farm after the depression caused unemployment after 1929. The USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, and provided technical advice. Its Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther.[15]

It was revealed on August 27, 2018, that the U.S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U.S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.[16]

Racial discrimination[edit]

As part of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the USDA formally ended racial segregation among its staff.[17]

A March 17, 2006 letter from the GAO about the Pigford Settlement indicated that "the court noted that USDA disbanded its Office of Civil Rights in 1983, and stopped responding to claims of discrimination."[18]

In the 1999 Pigford v. Glickman class-action lawsuit brought by African American farmers, the USDA agreed to a billion-dollar settlement due to its patterns of discrimination in the granting of loans and subsidies to black farmers.[17]

COVID-19 relief[edit]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Congress allocated funding to the USDA for the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program. This provided $16 billion for farmers and ranchers, and $3 billion to purchase surplus produce, dairy, and meat from farmers for distribution to charitable organizations.[19] As part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES) and the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), USDA has up to an additional $873.3 million available in Section 32 funding to purchase a variety of agricultural products for distribution to food banks, $850 million for food bank administrative costs and USDA food purchases.[19]

Organization and Component Staff Level[edit]

USDA's offices and agencies are listed below, with full-time equivalent staff levels according to the estimated FY2019 appropriation, as reported in USDA's FY2020 Congressional Budget Justification.[1]

Component FTE
Staff Offices

Secretary of Agriculture

Deputy Secretary of Agriculture
Agriculture Buildings and Facilities 82
Departmental Administration 385
Hazardous Materials Management 4
Office of Budget and Program Analysis 45
Office of Civil Rights 130
Office of Communications 73
Office of Ethics 20
Office of Hearings and Appeals 77
Office of Homeland Security 58
Office of Inspector General 482
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement 44
Office of the Chief Economist 64
Office of the Chief Financial Officer 1,511
Office of the Chief Information Officer 1,157
Office of the General Counsel 252
Office of the Secretary 113
Farm Production and Conservation

Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation

Farm Service Agency 11,278
Risk Management Agency 450
Natural Resources Conservation Service 10,798
Farm Production and Conservation Business Center 1,879 (FY20 est.)
Rural Development

Under Secretary for Rural Development

Rural Housing Service, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Rural Utilities Service 4,389
Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services

Food and Nutrition Service 1,558
Food Safety

Under Secretary for Food Safety

Food Safety and Inspection Service 9,332
Natural Resources and Environment

Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment

United States Forest Service 30,539
Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7,901
Agricultural Marketing Service 3,694
Research, Education, and Economics

Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics

Agricultural Research Service 6,166
National Institute of Food and Agriculture 358
Economic Research Service 330
National Agricultural Statistics Service 937
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs[20] Foreign Agricultural Service 1,019
Total 93,253
A nutrition researcher considers canned peas

Inactive Departmental Services[edit]

In 2015, then Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack expressed the desire to resign to President Obama. The Washington Post reports that he said "There are days when I have literally nothing to do," he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quit."[22] President Obama did not accept his resignation but assigned him additional tasks of combating opioid addiction, a task usually not assigned to the Department of Agriculture.[22]


Allegations have been made that throughout the agency's history its personnel have discriminated against farmers of various backgrounds, denying them loans and access to other programs well into the 1990s.[23] The effect of this discrimination has been the reduction in the number of African-American farmers in the United States.[24] Many black farmers across the nation experienced discrimination in their dealings with in-state USDA agencies. Across the nation, black farmers alleged, and the USDA later agreed, they were denied access to loans and subsidies provided by the government.[25] On a national level, farm subsidies that were afforded to white farmers were not afforded to black farmers.[26] Since they were denied government loans, emergency or disaster assistance, and other aid, many black farmers lost their farms and homes.[27]

In 1999, the USDA settled a class action lawsuit, the Pigford Case, alleging discrimination against African-American farmers in the late twentieth century. The government's settlement of nearly $1 billion with more than 13,300 farmers was reportedly the largest civil rights claim to date.[28] The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional farmers to have their claims heard, as 70,000 had filed late in the original program.[28] In 2010 the federal government made another $1.2 billion settlement in what is called Pigford II for outstanding claims.[29]

Pigford v. Glickman[edit]

Following long-standing concerns, black farmers joined a class action discrimination suit against the USDA filed in federal court in 1997.[29] An attorney called it "the most organized, largest civil rights case in the history of the country."[30] Also in 1997, black farmers from at least five states held protests in front of the USDA headquarters in Washington, D.C.[31] Protests in front of the USDA were a strategy employed in later years as the black farmers sought to keep national attention focused on the plight of the black farmers. Representatives of the National Black Farmers Association met with President Bill Clinton and other administration officials at the White House. And NBFA's president testified before the United States House Committee on Agriculture.[32]

In Pigford v. Glickman, U.S. Federal District Court Judge Paul L. Friedman approved the settlement and consent decree on April 14, 1999.[29] The settlement recognized discrimination against 22,363 black farmers, but the NBFA would later call the agreement incomplete because more than 70,000 were excluded.[33] Nevertheless, the settlement was deemed to be the largest-ever civil rights class action settlement in American history. Lawyers estimated the value of the settlement to be more than $2 billion.[25] Some farmers would have their debts forgiven.[34] Judge Friedman appointed a monitor to oversee the settlement.[25] Farmers in Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Georgia were among those affected by the settlement.[35]

The NBFA's president was invited to testify before congress on this matter numerous times following the settlement, including before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture on September 12, 2000, when he testified that many farmers had not yet received payments and others were left out of the settlement. It was later revealed that one DoJ staff "general attorney" was unlicensed while she was handling black farmers' cases.[36] NBFA called for all those cases to be reheard.[37] The Chicago Tribune reported in 2004 that the result of such longstanding USDA discrimination was that black farmers had been forced out of business at a rate three times faster than white farmers. In 1920, 1 in 7 U.S. farmers was African-American, and by 2004 the number was 1 in 100. USDA spokesman Ed Loyd, when acknowledging that the USDA loan process was unfair to minority farmers, had claimed it was hard to determine the effect on such farmers.[38]

In 2006 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report highly critical of the USDA in its handling of the black farmers cases.[39] NBFA continued to lobby Congress to provide relief. NBFA's Boyd secured congressional support for legislation that would provide $100 million in funds to settle late-filer cases. In 2006 a bill was introduced into the House of Representatives and later the Senate by Senator George Felix Allen.[40] In 2007 Boyd testified before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary about this legislation.[citation needed] As the organization was making headway by gathering Congressional supporters in 2007 it was revealed that some USDA Farm Services Agency employees were engaged in activities aimed at blocking Congressional legislation that would aid the black farmers.[41] President Barack Obama, then a U.S. Senator, lent his support to the black farmers' issues in 2007.[42] A bill co-sponsored by Obama passed the Senate in 2007.[43]

In early June 2008 hundreds of black farmers, denied a chance to have their cases heard in the Pigford settlement, filed a new lawsuit against USDA.[44] The Senate and House versions of the black farmers bill, reopening black farmers discrimination cases, became law in June 2008.[27] Some news reports said that the new law could affect up to 74,000 black farmers.[45] In October 2008, the GAO issued a report criticizing the USDA's handling of discrimination complaints.[46] The GAO recommended an oversight review board to examine civil rights complaints.[47]

After numerous public rallies and an intensive NBFA member lobbying effort, Congress approved and Obama signed into law in December 2010 legislation that set aside $1.15 billion to resolve the outstanding black farmers' cases.[48] NBFA's John W. Boyd, Jr., attended the bill-signing ceremony at the White House.[citation needed] As of 2013, 90,000 African-American, Hispanic, female and Native American farmers had filed claims. It was reported that some had been found fraudulent, or transparently bogus. In Maple Hill, North Carolina by 2013, the number of successful claimants was four times the number of farms with 1 out of 9 African-Americans being paid, while "claimants were not required [by the USDA] to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm." Lack of documentation is an issue complicated by the USDA practice of discarding denied applications after three years.[49]

Related legislation[edit]

Important legislation setting policy of the USDA includes the:[citation needed]


See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "United States Department of Agriculture FY 2020 Budget Summary" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  2. ^ "History of FNS" (PDF). usda.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  3. ^ Good, Keith (February 24, 2021). "Senate Confirms Tom Vilsack as Secretary of Agriculture • Farm Policy News". Farm Policy News. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  4. ^ "FNS Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)". June 21, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  5. ^ "United States Interagency Council on Homelessness". USICH. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012.
  6. ^ It is not copyright and is online here for free download..
  7. ^ History of Human Nutrition Research in the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Government Printing Office. ISBN 9780160943843.
  8. ^ "Ellsworth, Henry Leavitt, 1791-1858 - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  9. ^ 12 Stat. 387, now codified at 7 U.S.C. § 2201.
  10. ^ Salvador, Ricardo; Bittman, Mark (December 4, 2020). "Opinion: Goodbye, U.S.D.A., Hello, Department of Food and Well-Being". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  11. ^ Evening Star - June 18, 1868 - page 4 - column 4
  12. ^ 25 Stat 659 (February 9, 1889)
  13. ^ David B. Danbom, "The agricultural experiment station and professionalization: Scientists' goals for agriculture." Agricultural History 60.2 (1986): 246-255 online.
  14. ^ David M. Kennedy, Freedom from fear: The American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (1999). p 203.
  15. ^ Ziegelman, Jane; Coe, Andrew (2016). A Square Meal: A Culinary History of the Great Depression. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-221641-0.
  16. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "U.S. government to pay $4.7 billion in tariff-related aid to farmers". U.S. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Johnson, Kimberley S. (2011). "Racial Orders, Congress, and the Agricultural Welfare State, 1865–1940". Studies in American Political Development. 25 (2): 143–161. doi:10.1017/S0898588X11000095. ISSN 1469-8692.
  18. ^ url=https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-06-469r.pdf
  19. ^ a b "USDA Announces Coronavirus Food Assistance Program". www.usda.gov. Archived from the original on May 19, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  20. ^ "Secretary Perdue Announces Creation of Undersecretary for Trade". Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering [BPISAE]: Administrative History". Archives.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  22. ^ a b Jaffe, Greg; Eilperin, Juliet (September 26, 2016). "Tom Vilsack's lonely fight for a 'forgotten' rural America". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  23. ^ "USDA - Problems Continue to Hinder the Timely Processing of Discrimination Complaints" (PDF). General Accounting Office. January 1999.
  24. ^ Brooks, Roy L. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. University of California Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-520-24813-9.
  25. ^ a b c "Judge Approves Settlement for Black Farmers". New York Times. ASSOCIATED PRESS. April 15, 1999. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  26. ^ "ABC World News Tonight (2003)". Abcnews.go.com. November 21, 2003. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  27. ^ a b Ben Evans (June 28, 2008). "Reopening black farmers' suits could cost billions". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  28. ^ a b Pickert, Kate (July 23, 2010). "When Shirley Sherrod Was First Wronged by the USDA". Time. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010.
  29. ^ a b c Tadlock Cowan and Jody Feder (June 14, 2011). "The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 1, 2011.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  30. ^ "PBS The News Hour (1999)". PBS. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  31. ^ Charlene Gilbert, Quinn Eli (2002). Homecoming: The Story of African-American Farmers. Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807009635. Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  32. ^ Treatment of minority and limited resource producers by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: ... U.S. G.P.O. January 1, 1997. ISBN 9780160554100. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  33. ^ M. Susan Orr Klopfer, Fred Klopfer, Barry Klopfer (2005). Where Rebels Roost... Mississippi Civil Rights Revisited. Lulu Press. ISBN 9781411641020. Retrieved December 29, 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  34. ^ "Black Farmers Lawsuit". NPR. March 2, 1999. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  35. ^ "Southern farmers among those affected by court case". Archived from the original on July 11, 2012.
  36. ^ Daniel Pulliam (February 11, 2005). "Unlicensed Hire". GOVEXEC.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2005.
  37. ^ "ABOUT US". nbfa. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  38. ^ Martin, Andrew (August 8, 2004). "USDA discrimination accused of withering black farmers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  39. ^ "Black Farmers Follow Up on USDA Grievances". National Public Radio. April 25, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  40. ^ "Allen Unveils Bill to Help Black Farmers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. September 29, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  41. ^ "Obama: USDA Should Not Undermine Legislation to Help Black Farmers". August 8, 2007. Archived from the original on November 11, 2008.
  42. ^ "The Hill newspaper (2007)". Thehill.com. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  43. ^ Ben Evans (December 17, 2007). "Senate Votes to Reopen Black Farmers' Lawsuits". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
  44. ^ Ben Evans (June 4, 2008). "Black farmers file new suit against USDA". FOXNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  45. ^ "Help Ahead for Black Farmers". NPR. December 31, 2007. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  46. ^ Etter, Lauren (October 23, 2008). "USDA Faulted Over Minority Farmers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  47. ^ Fears, Darryl (October 23, 2008). "USDA Action On Bias Complaints Is Criticized". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  48. ^ CNN Wire Staff (December 9, 2010). "Obama signs measure funding black farmers settlement". CNN.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  49. ^ Sharon LaFraniere (April 25, 2013). "U.S. Opens Spigot After Farmers Claim Discrimination". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2013. ...claimants were not required to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm.

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Gladys L. ed. Century of service: the first 100 years of the United States Department of Agriculture (US Department of Agriculture, 1963), the standard history; online.
  • Benedict, Murray R. "The Trend in American Agricultural Policy 1920-1949". Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft / Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (1950) 106#1: 97–122 online
  • Benedict, Murray R. Farm policies of the United States, 1790-1950: a study of their origins and development (1966) 546pp online; also another copy
  • Cochrane, Willard W. The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis (2nd ed. U of Minnesota Press, 1993) 512pp.
  • Cochrane, Willard W. and Mary Ellen Ryan. American Farm Policy: 1948-1973 (U of Minnesota Press, 1976).
  • CQ. Congress and the Nation (1965-2021), highly detailed coverage of each presidency since Truman; extensive coverage of agricultural policies. online free to borrow
  • Coppess, Jonathan. The Fault Lines of Farm Policy: A Legislative and Political History of the Farm Bill (University of Nebraska Press, 2018). excerpt
  • Gardner, Bruce L. "The federal government in farm commodity markets: Recent reform efforts in a long-term context." Agricultural History 70.2 (1996): 177–195. online
  • Griesbach, Rob (2010). "BARC History: Bureau of Plant Industry" (PDF).
  • Matusow, Allen J. Farm policies and politics in the Truman years (1967) online
  • Orden, David and Carl Zulauf. "Political economy of the 2014 farm bill." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 97.5 (2015): 1298–1311. online
  • Sumner, Daniel A. "Farm subsidy tradition and modern agricultural realities." The 2007 Farm Bill and Beyond (2007): 29–33. online
  • Winters, Donald L. Henry Cantwell Wallace as Secretary of Agriculture, 1921-1924 (1970)
  • Zulauf, Carl, and David Orden. "80 Years of Farm Bills—Evolutionary Reform." Choices (2016) 31#4 pp 1–7 online


  • Zobbe, Henrik. "On the foundation of agricultural policy research in the United States." (Dept. of Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 02–08, Purdue University, 2002) online

Primary sources[edit]

  • Rasmussen, Wayne D., ed. Agriculture in the United States: a documentary history (4 vol, Random House, 1975) 3661pp. vol 4 online

External links[edit]