U.S. Dollar Index

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  US Dollar Index (DXY)
  USD/Canadian dollar exchange rate
  EUR/USD (inverted) exchange rate
  USD/JPY exchange rate
  USD/SEK exchange rate
  USD/CHF exchange rate
US Dollar Index and major financial events

The U.S. Dollar Index (USDX, DXY, DX, or, informally, the "Dixie") is an index (or measure) of the value of the United States dollar relative to a basket of foreign currencies,[1] often referred to as a basket of U.S. trade partners' currencies.[2] The Index goes up when the U.S. dollar gains "strength" (value) when compared to other currencies.[3]

The index is designed, maintained, and published by ICE (Intercontinental Exchange, Inc.), with the name "U.S. Dollar Index" a registered trademark.[4][5]

It is a weighted geometric mean of the dollar's value relative to following select currencies:


USDX started in March 1973, soon after the dismantling of the Bretton Woods system. At its start, the value of the U.S. Dollar Index was 100.000. It has since traded as high as 164.7200 in February 1985, and as low as 70.698 on March 16, 2008.

The make up of the "basket" has been altered only once, when several European currencies were subsumed by the euro at the start of 1999. Some commentators have said that the make up of the "basket" is overdue for revision as China, Mexico, South Korea and Brazil are major trading partners presently which are not part of the index whereas Sweden and Switzerland are continuing as part of the index.[citation needed]

Year (last business day) DXY close Factors[6]
1967 121.79 Gold standard kept dollar at $35/oz.
1968 121.96 Consumer price index (CPI) begins to break out.
1969 121.74 Dollar hit 123.82 on 9/30.
1970 120.64 Recession of 1969-1970 ends.
1971 111.21 President Richard Nixon announces the closing of the gold window and the institution of wage-price controls.
1972 110.14 Beginning of stagflation in response to the Nixon shock.
1973 102.39 Gold standard ended; 1973 oil crisis takes place. Index created in March.
1974 97.29 Nixon resigns as a result of the Watergate scandal; Gerald Ford becomes president.
1975 103.51 Interest rate lowered.
1976 104.56 Jimmy Carter elected president. 1976 sterling crisis[7]
1977 96.44 Effective Federal Funds Rate goes below 5%.
1978 86.50 Fed raised rate to 20% to stop inflation.
1979 85.82 1979 oil crisis takes place.
1980 90.39 Ronald Reagan elected president after a recession began during Carter's last year as president.
1981 104.69 Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 passed by Congress; signed into law by President Reagan in August 1981.
1982 117.91 Recession ended.
1983 131.79 Emergency increases in taxes and defense spending are put into place; this was caused by the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982.
1984 151.47 Fed funds rate crosses over 11%.
1985 123.55 Record of 163.83 on March 5; Plaza Accord
1986 104.24 Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 and Tax Reform Act of 1986 signed into law by President Reagan; Internal Revenue Code enacted.
1987 85.66 Black Monday.
1988 92.29 Fed raised rates; Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act passed; George H. W. Bush elected president.
1989 93.93 Yield curve inverts.
1990 83.89 Early 1990s recession begins; Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 passed.
1991 84.69 Persian Gulf War takes places during the second year of the recession.
1992 93.87 NAFTA approved by H. W. Bush; Bill Clinton elected president.
1993 97.63 Balanced Budget Act and Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 both passed.
1994 88.69 Marrakesh Agreement signed; United States becomes a founding member of the World Trade Organization.
1995 84.83 Fed raised rate.
1996 87.86 Welfare reform.
1997 99.57 1997 Asian financial crisis; LTCM reform approved.
1998 93.95 1998 Russian financial crisis; Clinton impeached by House of Representatives.
1999 101.42 Clinton acquitted by the Senate; Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act passed.
2000 109.13 Dot-com bubble collapses; George W. Bush elected President after a Supreme Court battle over the election recount in Florida.
2001 117.21 Recession took place from March–November 2001; Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 passed; dollar rose to 118.54 on 12/24 after the September 11 attacks.
2002 102.26 Euro launched as a hard currency at $.90.
2003 87.38 United States invasion of Iraq; Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 passed.
2004 81.00 American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 passed.
2005 90.96 War on Terror doubled debt; dollar weakened; Hurricane Katrina affects Louisiana.
2006 83.43 Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 passed.
2007 76.70 Euro rose to $1.47; Great Recession began in December 2007.
2008 82.15 Record low of 71.30 on 3/17; Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 passed; Public Law 110-343 goes into effect in October 2008; Barack Obama elected president.
2009 77.92 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 passed; ECB lowered rates; first period of quantitative easing (QE1) begins; 2009 flu pandemic begins in Mexico (pandemic ended in August 2010).
2010 78.96 Second period of quantitative easing (QE2) begins; Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed; beginning of Arab Spring in November 2010
2011 80.21 Syrian civil war and Libyan Crisis begin; Osama bin Laden killed; Operation Twist initiated; European sovereign debt crisis begins; Budget Control Act of 2011 passed.
2012 79.77 Third period of quantitative easing (QE3) begins; Hurricane Sandy affects the northeastern states; American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 passed.
2013 80.04 United States budget sequestration in 2013 necessary to address the United States fiscal cliff; 2013 United States government shutdown occurs; West Africa Ebola virus epidemic begins.
2014 90.28 2010s oil glut; Euromaidan crisis in Ukraine; Greek debt crisis reaches its midpoint.
2015 98.69 Fed raised rates; European migrant crisis accelerates; Donald Trump announces his candidacy for President.
2016 102.21 2016 Brexit referendum takes place in the United Kingdom; Donald Trump elected president.
2017 92.12 EU strengthened; Hurricane Harvey affects Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas; Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 passed.
2018 96.17 Trump tariffs began to be imposed; First North Korean–US summit takes place; Hurricane Florence affects North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia; Hurricane Michael affects Florida, Alabama, and Georgia; Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and several other progressive Democratic candidates elected in the midterm elections; 2018–2019 United States federal government shutdown occurs.
2019 96.54 Trump seen on North Korean soil; Lebanese liquidity crisis begins; Fed begins acting as role in investor to provide funds in the repo markets; Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed on October 27; first case of COVID-19 discovered in China; Trump impeached by House of Representatives on December 18.
2020 93.27 Qasem Soleimani killed on January 3; Trump acquitted of impeachment on February 11; COVID-19 declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11; George Floyd protests begin on May 31.
2021 89.21 First dip below 90 since 2018; Increased pandemic stimulus payment prospects after Democrats take Senate control in the Georgia runoff election.
2022 110.05 Fed raised rates; increased pandemic by Omicron Variant and the imminent end of the pandemic. Also Russian invasion of Ukraine and energy crisis.

Trade-weighted USD Index[edit]

  Trade-weighted US dollar index
  USD / Japanese Yen
  USD / Canadian dollar
  USD / Mexican peso
  USD / Euro

The trade-weighted US dollar index is a currency index created by the Federal Reserve to measure the exchange rate of the United States dollar compared to the nations that it trades with the most, the more trade a country has with the United States the more that exchange rate weighs on the index. The index was created in 1998 during the creation of the Euro.[8]


ICE provides live feeds for Dow Futures that appear on Bloomberg.com and CNN Money. USDX is updated whenever U.S. Dollar markets are open, which is from Sunday evening New York City local time (early Monday morning Asia time) for 24 hours a day to late Friday afternoon New York City local time.


The U.S. Dollar Index is calculated with this formula:[9] USDX = 50.14348112 × EURUSD-0.576 × USDJPY0.136 × GBPUSD-0.119 × USDCAD0.091 × USDSEK0.042 × USDCHF0.036


US Dollar Index futures are traded for 21 hours a day on the ICE platform with futures having a March/June/September/December quarterly expiration cycle.[10] It is also available indirectly in exchange-traded funds (ETFs), options, contracts for difference and mutual funds.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "U.S. Dollar Index - USDX". Investopedia. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  2. ^ "US Dollar Index Hits 12-Year High As ECB Unveils €1 Trillion Stimulus". FXTimes. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  3. ^ "US Dollar Index". FXStreet. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  4. ^ "U.S. Dollar Futures". Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017. The U.S. Dollar Index, together with all rights, title and interest in and related to the U.S. Dollar Index, including all content included therein (including, without limitation, its formulation, components, values, weightings and methods of calculation), and all related intellectual property and property rights, is the exclusive property of ICE Futures U.S., Inc.
  5. ^ United States Patent and Trademark Office. "Trademark Search, Serial Number 74350026". Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  6. ^ "US Dollar Index®, What It Is, and Its History". Archived from the original on March 24, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  7. ^ "The 1976 currency crisis". April 26, 2016. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  8. ^ "Trade-Weighted Dollar Definition". Archived from the original on October 5, 2022. Retrieved October 5, 2022.
  9. ^ "U.S. Dollar Index® Contracts" (PDF). 2018. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 1, 2021. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  10. ^ "ICE Futures and Options". www.theice.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2021.

External links[edit]