U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Logo.svg
Logo of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Badge of a U.S. Homeland Security Investigations special agent.svg
HSI Special Agent badge (ICE Deportation Officer badge not shown)
Flag of the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement.png
Flag of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Motto"Protecting National Security and Upholding Public Safety" HSI’s motto: Honor, Service, Integrity
Agency overview
FormedMarch 1, 2003; 16 years ago (2003-03-01)
Preceding agencies
Employees20,000+ (2016)
Annual budget$7.6 billion (FY 2018)[1]
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agencyUnited States
Operations jurisdictionUnited States
Constituting instrument
General nature
Headquarters500 12th Street SW
Washington, D.C., U.S.

Agency executives
Parent agencyUnited States Department of Homeland Security

The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, principally responsible for immigration enforcement, with additional responsibilities in countering transnational crime.[2][3]

ICE's mission is executed through the enforcement of more than 400 federal statutes and focuses on immigration enforcement, preventing terrorism and combating the illegal movement of people and goods.[4][5] ICE has two primary components: Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO).

ICE maintains attachés at major U.S. diplomatic missions overseas. ICE does not patrol American borders; rather, that role is performed by the United States Border Patrol, a unit of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, which is a sister agency of ICE.[6][7][8]

The agency has not had a Senate-confirmed director since Sarah Saldaña stepped down on January 20, 2017.[9] The former Acting Director of ICE, Matthew Albence, began on April 13, 2019. On May 5, 2019, President Donald Trump announced via Twitter that he would nominate Mark Morgan to succeed Albence,[10] and Morgan assumed office as Acting Director on May 28, 2019. On June 27, 2019, it was announced Morgan will leave to become Acting Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on July 5, 2019. Albence resumed his role as Acting Director on July 5, 2019.[11]


ICE headquarters building in Washington, D.C.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement was formed under the Homeland Security Act of 2002, following the events of September 11, 2001. With the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, the functions and jurisdictions of several border and revenue enforcement agencies were combined and consolidated into U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Consequently, ICE is the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security and the second largest contributor to the nation's Joint Terrorism Task Force.

The agencies that were either moved entirely or merged in part into ICE included the criminal investigative and intelligence resources of the United States Customs Service, the criminal investigative, detention and deportation resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the Federal Protective Service. The Federal Protective Service was later transferred from ICE to the National Protection and Programs Directorate effective October 28, 2009. In 2003, Asa Hutchinson moved the Federal Air Marshals Service from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to ICE,[12] but Michael Chertoff moved them back to the TSA in 2005.[13]


U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for identifying and eliminating border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security vulnerabilities. There is an estimate of about more than 20,000 ICE employees in approximately 400 offices within the United States and 46 other countries.[14]

The organization is composed of two law enforcement directorates (HSI and ERO) and several support divisions each headed by a director who reports to an Executive Associate Director.[15] The divisions of ICE provide investigation, interdiction and security services to the public and other law enforcement partners in the federal and local sectors.

The Director of ICE is appointed at the sub-cabinet level by the President of the United States, confirmed by the U.S. Senate, and reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security.[16][17]


  • Director (until July 2010 the title has been "Assistant Secretary")[18]
    • Deputy Director
      • Enforcement and Removal Operations
        • Removal Division
        • Secure Communities and Enforcement Division
        • Immigration Health Services Division
        • Mission Support Division
        • Detention Management Division
        • Local Field Offices
      • Homeland Security Investigations
        • Domestic Operations Division
        • Intelligence Division
        • International Operations Division
        • Mission Support
        • National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center
        • National Security Investigations Division
      • Management and Administration

Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)[edit]

HSI Special Response Team (SRT) members training using armored vehicle at Fort Benning in Georgia.

HSI special agents investigate violations of more than 400 U.S. laws that threaten the national security of the United States such as counter-proliferation and export violations, human rights violations/war crimes, human smuggling, art theft, human trafficking, drug smuggling and trafficking, arms trafficking, document and benefit fraud, the manufacturing and sale of counterfeit immigration and identity documents, transnational gangs, financial crimes including money laundering and bulk cash smuggling, trade-based money laundering (including trade finance and Kimberley Process investigations), computer crime, including child exploitation, intellectual property rights/trade fraud, import/export enforcement, trafficking of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and other merchandise, mass-marketing fraud, and international Cultural Property and Antiquities crimes.[19] HSI agents can be requested to provide security for VIPs, and also augment the U.S. Secret Service during overtaxed times such as special security events and elections.

HSI was formerly known as the ICE Office of Investigations (OI). HSI special agents investigate the largest range of crimes and have the statutory authority to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (Title 8), U.S. customs laws (Title 19), general federal crimes (Title 18), the Controlled Substances Act (Title 21), as well as Titles 5, 6, 12, 22, 26, 28, 31, 46, 49, and 50 of the U.S. Code.


The Office of Intelligence is a subcomponent of HSI that employs a variety of special agents and Intelligence Research Specialists to facilitate HSI's tactical and strategic intelligence demands. Collectively, these intelligence professionals collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence for use by the operational elements of DHS. The Office of Intelligence works closely with the intelligence components of other federal, state, and local agencies. Many HSI field offices assign intelligence analysts to specific groups, such as financial crimes, counter-proliferation, narcotics, or document fraud; or they can be assigned to a residential intelligence unit, known as a Field Intelligence Group (FIG). HSI agents assigned to FIGs generally focus on Human Intelligence (HUMINT) collection.

International Operations[edit]
HSI Rapid Response team
HSI Rapid Response Team members provide medical care to a simulated casualty during the RRT Field Familiarization and Disaster Response Training exercise September 20, 2012, at Nellis Air Force Base, NE

International Operations, formerly known as the Office of International Affairs (OIA), is a subcomponent of HSI with agents stationed in 60 locations around the world. HSI's foreign offices, known as Attaché Offices, work with foreign governments to identify and combat transnational criminal organizations before they threaten the United States. IO also facilitates domestic HSI investigations by providing intelligence from host countries, conducting collateral investigations, and facilitating international investigations conducted by field offices within the United States.

Special Response Teams[edit]

Seventeen HSI field offices maintain a Special Response Team (SRT) that operates as a federal SWAT element for the office's area of responsibility (AOR).[20] SRT was founded under the U.S. Customs Service as the Warrant Entry and Tactical Team (WETT) and were renamed to SRT in 1998.[20] The SRT handles HSI's high-risk arrest and search warrants, barricaded subjects, rural area operations, VIP protection, sniper coverage for high-risk operations, and security for National Security Events. HSI's active SRTs are located in Tampa, Miami, Arizona (Phoenix), New Orleans, Houston, New York, Boston, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Antonio, San Juan, Detroit, San Francisco, El Paso, Chicago, San Diego and Washington, D.C. There is also a team of instructors and coordinators stationed full-time in Columbus, Georgia. These teams primarily deploy to handle high-risk operations, but also assist in events such as Hurricane Katrina, the Haiti earthquake 2010, and other natural disasters around the globe.

SRT is a collateral duty open to HSI agents assigned to an office with a certified team. To qualify, candidates must pass a physical fitness test, qualify with multiple firearms by shooting 90% or better in full tactical gear, and pass an oral interview process. If a candidate passes these stages and is voted on the local team, they are then designated "Green Team" members and allowed to train with the certified team members. Green Team members are eventually sent to the SRT Initial Certification Course at the Office of Firearms and Tactical Programs, Tactical Operations Unit (OFTP/TOU) Fort Benning, Georgia, where they must pass additional physical fitness, firearms, scenario-based and written assessments.[21] Out of approximately 6,500 special agents, there are currently only approximately 250 certified SRT members nationwide.

HSI SRTs often conduct training exercises with various federal, state and local teams, and also assist other teams during national events or large-scale operations that require multiple high-risk scenarios to be conducted simultaneously. The working relationship between the SRTs and the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Special Operations Command has led to SOCOM providing the SRTs with excess Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAPs), firearms, and other gear designed for the U.S. Tier One groups.

Enforcement and Removal Operations based on U.S environment (ERO)[edit]

ICE ERO officers deporting a man to Mexico

ERO is responsible for enforcing the nation's immigration laws and ensuring the departure of removable immigrants from the United States. ERO uses its detention and deportation officers to identify, arrest, and remove immigrants who violate U.S. immigration law. Deportation officers are responsible for the transportation and detention of immigrants in ICE custody to include the removal of immigrants to their country of origin. Deportation officers arrest immigrants for violations of U.S. immigration law, monitor cases during deportation proceedings, supervise released immigrants, and remove immigrants from the United States.[22] Deportation officers operate strategically placed Fugitive Operations Teams whose function is to locate, apprehend, and remove immigrants who have absconded from immigration proceedings and remain in the United States with outstanding warrants for deportation. ERO manages the Secure Communities program which identifies removable immigrants located in jails and prisons. Fingerprints submitted as part of the normal criminal arrest and booking process will automatically check both the Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) of the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division and the Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) of the Department of Homeland Security's US-VISIT Program.

ERO was formerly known as the Office of Detention and Removal Operations (DRO).

Office of State, Local and Tribal Coordination (OSLTC)[edit]

OSLTC is ICE's primary outreach and communications component for state, local and tribal stakeholders. It is responsible for building and improving relationships, and coordinating activities with state, local, territorial, and tribal law enforcement agencies and through public engagement. It also fosters and sustains relationships with federal, state and local government officials and coordinates ICE ACCESS programs (Agreements of Cooperation in Communities to Enhance Safety and Security).

Office of the Principal Legal Advisor (OPLA)[edit]

OPLA provides legal advice, training and services to support the ICE mission and defends the interests of the United States in the administrative and federal courts, including representing the government of foreign nationals for the purpose of removal (previously known as "deportation") process.

Office of Professional Responsibility[edit]

OPR is responsible for investigating allegations of misconduct involving employees of ICE.

Former units[edit]

The Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) was aligned into ICE shortly after the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. On October 16, 2005, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff officially approved the transfer of the Federal Air Marshal Service from the Bureau of Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE) to the TSA as part of a broader departmental reorganization to align functions consistent with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) "Second Stage Review" findings for:

  • consolidating and strengthening aviation law enforcement and security at the Federal level;
  • creating a common approach to stakeholder outreach; and
  • improving the coordination and efficiency of aviation security operations.

As part of this realignment, the Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service also became the Assistant Administrator for the TSA Office of Law Enforcement (OLE), which houses nearly all TSA law enforcement services.

The Federal Protective Service (FPS) was moved from the General Services Administration (GSA) to ICE upon the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The FPS was later moved out of ICE to the National Protection Programs Directorate.

Originally a part of the U.S. Customs Service's Office of Investigations, the Office of Air and Marine (then called the Air and Marine Interdiction Division) was transferred to ICE in 2003 during the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, becoming the Office of Air and Marine Operations. Due in part to a 500 million dollar budgetary dispute between CBP and ICE, in 2004 ICE Air and Marine Operations was transferred to U.S. Customs and Border Protection. CBP Air and Marine still works closely with ICE to support the agency's domestic and international law enforcement operations.[23][24][25][26]

The Office of Detention Policy and Planning was responsible developing and maintaining ICE's National Detention Standards, which set out detailed rules for how immigration detainees were to be treated differently than criminal inmates.[27] In April 2017, President Donald Trump decided to close the office and to stop including the standards in new jail contracts.[27]

Assistant Secretaries and Directors[edit]

No. Picture Name Took office Left office President
Assistant Secretary
1 Michael J. Garcia - official portrait.jpg Michael J. Garcia March 2003 September 2005 George W. Bush
John P. Clark
September 2005 January 2006
2 Julie myers lg.jpg Julie Myers January 4, 2006 November 14, 2008
John torres lg.jpg John P. Torres
November 17, 2008 May 12, 2009
Barack Obama
3 John t. morton ice director.jpg John T. Morton May 12, 2009 July 31, 2013 Barack Obama
John Sandweg
August 1, 2013 February 21, 2014
Thomas-winkowski-md.jpg Thomas Winkowski
Acting as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary
March 16, 2014 December 23, 2014
4 Saldana.jpg Sarah Saldaña December 23, 2014 January 20, 2017
DanRagsdale1.jpg Daniel Ragsdale
January 20, 2017 January 30, 2017 Donald Trump
Thomas D. Homan.jpg Thomas Homan
January 30, 2017 June 29, 2018
Ronald Vitiello official photo.jpg Ronald Vitiello
June 30, 2018 April 12, 2019
Matthew Albence official photo.jpg Matthew Albence
April 13, 2019 May 27, 2019
ICE Director Mark Morgan.jpg Mark Morgan
May 28, 2019 July 5, 2019
Matthew Albence official photo.jpg Matthew Albence
July 5, 2019 Present


HSI Special Response Team (SRT) drug raid during Operation Pipeline in Arizona.

Newly hired ICE law enforcement personnel receive their training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. To meet division specific academic and practical instruction, the ICE Academy varies in length from 4 to 6 months depending on the position. Furthermore, following graduation, all ICE law enforcement personnel undergo additional post academy training, as well as career-continuous training. Specific course curriculum is kept confidential, but both ERO and HSI new hires undergo training related to basic law enforcement tactics, immigration law, firearms training, emergency response driving, and Constitutional law. HSI agents also receive training regarding U.S. customs law, warrant service, advanced tactics, undercover operations, criminal interrogation, weapons of mass destruction, and other subjects routinely encountered by HSI agents in the field. ERO deportation officers undergo several weeks of intensive Spanish language training prior to graduating.

Transnational gangs[edit]

ICE special agent detaining a suspect

In February 2005, ICE began Operation Community Shield, a national law enforcement initiative that targets violent transnational street gangs through the use of ICE's broad law enforcement powers, including the unique and powerful authority to remove criminal immigrants, including illegal immigrants and legal permanent residents.[28][29]

Deportation case samples[edit]

  • In September 2016, ICE deported Rwanda national Leopold Munyakazi, a suspect of Rwandan genocide.[30]
  • January 31, 2018, ICE deported Amer "Al" Adi Othman of Ohio in a "highly irregular rebuke of Congressional Authority" according to Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio. Othman was deported to Jordan despite having lived in the United States for nearly 40 years, married and having two children. Othman was to be Ryan's guest at the State of the Union Address on January 30, 2018, and due to his ongoing detention, his seat was left empty.[31]
  • August 21, 2018 ICE deported Jakiw Palij, who was a Nazi guard at the Trawniki concentration camp. Dubbed by authorities as the last surviving Nazi in the U.S., a judge ordered his deportation in 2004. No country was willing to accept him, until 2018 when Germany accepted him.[32][33]

Immigration law[edit]

Immigration and Nationality Act Section 287(g) allows ICE to establish increased cooperation and communication with state, and local law enforcement agencies. Section 287(g) authorizes the Secretary of Homeland Security to enter into agreements with state and local law enforcement agencies, permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions, pursuant to a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), provided that the local law enforcement officers receive appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers. Under 287(g), ICE provides state and local law enforcement with the training and subsequent authorization to identify, process, and when appropriate, detain immigration offenders they encounter during their regular, daily law-enforcement activity.[34]

The 287(g) program is one of several ICE ACCESS (ICE "Agreements of Cooperation in Communities to Enhance Safety and Security") programs that increase collaboration between local law enforcement and immigration enforcement agents.[35]

ICE-HSI has played a key role in investigating and arresting citizens suspected of possessing and distributing child pornography.[36]

Detention centers[edit]

ICE operates detention centers throughout the United States that detain illegal immigrants who are apprehended and placed into removal proceedings. About 34,000 people are held in immigration detention on any given day,[37] in over 500 detention centers, jails, and prisons nationwide.[38] Due to the United States detention bed quota, mandated by congress, that number will increase rather than decrease. The quota mandates at least 34,000 beds available for immigrants on any given day.[39][40]

In 2006, the T. Don Hutto Residential Center opened specifically to house non-criminal families. Other significant facilities are located in Lumpkin, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Elizabeth, New Jersey; Oakdale, Louisiana; Florence, Arizona; Miami, Florida; Tacoma; York, Pennsylvania; Batavia, New York; Aurora, Colorado; Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, and all along the TexasMexico border.

List of detention centers[41]
Alabama Etowah County Detention Center
Arizona Central Arizona Detention Center

Eloy Detention Center
Federal Corrections Institute Phoenix
La Palma Correctional Center
Florence Correctional Center
Florence Service Processing Center

California Adelanto Detention Center

Contra Costa West County Detention Facility
Otay Mesa Detention Center
Rio Cosumnes Correctional Center
Mesa Verde ICE Processing Facility
James A. Musick Facility
Imperial Regional Detention Facility
Theo Lacy Facility
Sacramento County Jail
Santa Ana City Jail
FCI Victorville II
West County Detention Center
Yuba County Jail

Florida Baker County Detention Facility

Broward Transitional Center
Glades County Detention Center
Krome Detention Center
Wakulla County Jail

Georgia Atlanta City Detention Center

Irwin County Detention Center
North Georgia Detention Center
Stewart Detention Center

Illinois Jefferson County Justice Center

McHenry County Jail
Tri-County Detention Center

Iowa Hardin County Jail
Kentucky Boone County Jail
Louisiana LaSalle Detention Center

Oakdale Detention Center
South Louisiana Detention Center

Maryland Worcester County Jail
Massachusetts Bristol County Jail

Plymouth County Correctional Facility
Suffolk County Jail

Michigan Calhoun County Jail

Monroe County Jail

Minnesota Freeborn County Jail

Ramsey County Jail
Sherburne County Jail

New Mexico Albuquerque Immigration Office

Otero County Processing Center

Texas Dallas Immigration Detention Center

T. Don Hutto Residential Center
El Paso Processing Center
Houston Immigration Detention Center
Johnson County Detention Center
Laredo Detention Center
Polk County Detention Center
Port Isabel Detention Center
Rolling Plains Detention Center
South Texas ICE Processing Center
West Texas Detention Facility

Washington Tacoma Northwest Detention Center

Deaths in detention[edit]

From October 2003 to 2007, a total of 107 deaths occurred in ICE detention centers. In January 2010, The New York Times and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) obtained documents detailing the circumstances of these deaths, under the Freedom of Information Act. "The documents show how officials—some still in key positions—used their role as overseers to cover up evidence of mistreatment, deflect scrutiny by the news media or prepare exculpatory public statements after gathering facts that pointed to substandard care or abuse," The New York Times reported.[42] The deaths in detention included the following cases:

  • Boubacar Bah, a 52-year-old tailor from Guinea, was left in an isolation cell for more than 13 hours after falling and suffering a head fracture before an ambulance was called. His family was not notified for five days of his injury.[43] A video shows Bah in the medical unit, before medical personnel sent him to the isolation cell. In the tape, his hands are handcuffed behind his back, he is face down, and he calls out repeatedly in his native language, Fulani: "Help, they are killing me!" Telephone and email records show that ten agency managers based in Newark and Washington discussed how to avoid the cost of his care and unwanted media attention. They considered sending Bah back to Guinea and reviewing his canceled work permit to see if it would be possible to get Medicaid or disability benefits. Eventually, they decided to release him to cousins in New York who objected that they had no way to care for Bah; however, days before this release was planned, Bah died.[42]
  • Nery Romero was a 22-year-old Salvadoran immigrant with no previous history of mental illness who committed suicide in his cell in the Bergen County Jail in New Jersey. At the time of his detention, he was recovering from surgery in which metal pins had been placed in his leg, seriously broken in a motorcycle accident, and was taking strong prescription painkillers. According to Romero's cellmates and family, authorities failed to provide Romero with painkillers despite his repeated requests.[42] In a letter written to his mother shortly before his death, Romero stated: "I'm in hell. They don't give me nothing for my pain."[44]
  • Sandra Kenley of Barbados, who did not receive treatment for a uterine fibroid tumor, died at the Hampton Roads Regional Jail in Portsmouth, Virginia in December 2006. An autopsy determined the cause of her death was acute coronary insufficiency due to hypertensive cardiovascular disease.[45][44]
  • Abdoulai Sali died of an untreated kidney ailment in the Piedmont Regional Jail in Virginia.[44]
  • Young Sook Kim died at the New Mexico Regional Jail in Albuquerque of pancreatic cancer in September 2006. She had asked for weeks to receive medical care, and died the day after she was taken to a hospital.[46]
  • Roxana Hernandez, a 33-year-old transgender woman from Honduras who arrived as a member of Migrant Caravan, died two weeks into her custody.[47] She exhibited symptoms of pneumonia and dehydration and was taken to an Albuquerque hospital and later died.[48]

Corporate contracts[edit]

Engineering and construction firm Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR) released a press statement on January 24, 2006, that the company had been awarded a no-bid contingency contract from the Department of Homeland Security to support its ICE facilities in the event of an emergency. The maximum total value of the contract is $385 million and consists of a one-year base period with four one-year options. KBR held the previous ICE contract from 2000 through 2005. The contract provides for establishing temporary detention and processing capabilities to expand existing ICE Detention and Removal Operations Program facilities in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the U.S., or to support the rapid development of new programs. The contract may also provide migrant detention support to other government organizations in the event of an immigration emergency, the company said.

ICE Air[edit]

ICE Air is the aviation division of ICE that charters aircraft or books commercial flights to send deportees back to their home countries.[49] There are 10 aircraft used to send deportees and has a working list of 185 countries.[49]

Deportees have legs and arms secured while boarding, handcuffs are removed during flight and all shackles removed upon disembarking.

Sanctuary cities[edit]

Mayors of Denver, Houston, Chicago, Atlanta and Baltimore said that they will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids.[50]


Sexual abuse[edit]

The Intercept published a report by the DHS Office of Inspector General revealing that 1,224 sexual abuse complaints while in immigration custody were filed between January 2010 and June 2017. Contrary to ICE's claims, only 2% of these complaints were investigated.[51][52]

Record number of deportations[edit]

Between 2009 and 2016, the Barack Obama administration oversaw the deporting of a record 2.4 million immigrants, earning him the nickname "Deporter-In-Chief" by Janet Murguía, the president of National Council of La Raza.[53][54] According to ICE data, about 40% of those deported by ICE in 2015 had no criminal conviction, while majority of those convicted were guilty of minor charges.[55]

Separation of migrant children from their families[edit]

A crowd of protesters hold a sign saying "Immigrants Stay Trump Pence Must Go"
A protest against US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in Philadelphia, June 2018

As part of the 2018 Trump administration's zero tolerance policy, nearly 3,000[56] minors were separated from their parents, or the adults accompanying them, while trying to illegally cross the U.S.-Mexico border and placed in detention camps.[57][58] Rolling Stone likened these centers to "prisons" while The Houston Chronicle reported that a movement swelled online to call them "concentration camps."[59][60] Similarly, former First Lady of the United States Laura Bush compared the images of the centers to U.S. Japanese internment camps during the Second World War.[61] 16 out of 34[62] of the centers located in Texas had previously been cited by Texas officials for more than 150 health violations.[63][relevant? ] The former head of US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, John Sandweg, was critical of child separation, telling NBC News, "You could easily end up in a situation where the gap between a parent's deportation and a child's deportation is years," and that many children might never see their parents again.[64]

This policy in particular has led to the Abolish ICE movement gaining traction in June 2018.

Detention of U.S. citizens[edit]

From 2012 to early 2018, ICE wrongfully arrested and detained 1,488 U.S. citizens, including many who spent months or years in immigration detention.[65] A 2018 Los Angeles Times investigation found that ICE's reliance on incomplete and error-prone databases and lax investigations led to the erroneous detentions.[65] From 2008 to 2018, ICE was sued for wrongful arrest by more than two dozen U.S. citizens, who had been detained for periods ranging from one day to over three years. Some of the wrongfully detained U.S. citizens had been arrested by ICE more than once.[65]

See also[edit]

Comparable international agencies[edit]


  1. ^ Cristobal Ramón, Interior Enforcement Under the Trump Administration by The Numbers: Part One, Removals, Bipartisan Policy Project (June 19, 2019).
  2. ^ "What We Do". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  3. ^ "Enforcement and Removal Operations". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  4. ^ "What We Do | ICE". U.S. Immigration and Customs and Enforcement. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
  5. ^ "Enforcement and Removal Operations". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  6. ^ Nixon, Ron; Qiu, Linda (July 3, 2018). "What Is ICE and Why Do Critics Want to Abolish It?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  7. ^ "Calls to Abolish ICE Not 'Open Borders'". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. July 3, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  8. ^ Folley, Aris (June 29, 2018). "ICE chief to protesters: We're not the ones separating families". Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  9. ^ Kanno-Youngs, Zolan; Tackett, Michael (May 5, 2019). "Trump Names Mark Morgan, Former Head of Border Patrol, to Lead ICE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  10. ^ Alvarez, Priscilla (April 11, 2019). "ICE acting deputy director tapped to lead agency". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  11. ^ Uria, Daniel (June 27, 2019). "Mark Morgan to replace John Sanders as acting U.S. border chief". UPI. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  12. ^ Goo, Sara Kehaulani; Goo, Sara Kehaulani (June 19, 2003). "Air Marshals Seek a Flight Out of TSA to New Agency" – via washingtonpost.com.
  13. ^ ""The Federal Air Marshal Service will be moved from the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) bureau to the Transportation Security Administration"".
  14. ^ "Who We Are | ICE". Ice.gov. March 25, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  15. ^ "ICE Leadership". Ice.gov. January 1, 1970. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  16. ^ "Leadership: Assistant Secretary John T. Morton". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. May 21, 2009. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ "Leadership". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  18. ^ "John T. Morton is appointed assistant secretary of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  19. ^ Mejia, Brittny (March 19, 2019). "ICE's investigative arm fears it might have a branding problem". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  20. ^ a b James, Nathan (September 3, 2015). Federal Tactical Teams (Report). Congressional Research Service. CRS Report for Congress, R44179.
  21. ^ "Special response teams prep for high risk situations at Ft. Benning". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (Press release). November 30, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  22. ^ "ICE Office of Detention and Removal (ERO) ICE Detention and Deportation Officer Conrad Agagan". Ice.gov. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.{
  23. ^ "2000 Archived Press Releases". Customs and Border Protection. March 16, 2001. Archived from the original on December 23, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. ^ "Management Mess – Features – Magazine". GovExec.com. March 1, 2006. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  25. ^ "CBP Today – October/November 2004 – Welcome Air and Marine Operations". Customs and Border Protection. October 31, 2004. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  26. ^ "Wasted Year". GovExec.com. March 2006. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  27. ^ a b Dickerson, Caitlin (April 14, 2017). "Trump Plan Would Curtail Protections for Detained Immigrants". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  28. ^ Office of Investigations-Operation Community Shield Archived May 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "Operation targets criminal immigrant gangs". msnbc.com. March 11, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  30. ^ "US deports Rwanda genocide suspect Leopold Munyakazi". BBC News. September 28, 2016.
  31. ^ "Youngstown businessman Amer Othman Adi deported to Jordan". Cleveland.com. January 30, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  32. ^ Durkin, Erin (August 22, 2018). "'It finally happened': the long fight to expel America's last known Nazi". the Guardian. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  33. ^ "US deports Nazi camp guard to Germany". BBC News. August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  34. ^ Budzinski, Joe (September 30, 2006). "287g training from ICE sought by many U.S. jurisdictions – novatownhall blog". Novatownhall.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ "Office of State and Local Coordination: ICE ACCESS". Ice.gov. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. ^ "Teacher faces charges of pornography". MassLive.com. November 29, 2006. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ Bernstein, Nina. "In-Custody Deaths". New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  38. ^ Anil Kalhan (2010). "Rethinking Immigration Detention". Columbia Law Review Sidebar. 110: 42–58. SSRN 1556867.
  39. ^ "Detention Bed Quota". National Immigrant Justice Center. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  40. ^ "Little-Known Immigration Mandate Keeps Detention Beds Full". NPR.org. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  41. ^ "Detention Facility Locator". Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  42. ^ a b c Nina Bernstein (January 10, 2010). "Officials Hid Truth About Immigrant Deaths in Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  43. ^ Nina Bernstein (May 5, 2008). "Few Details on Immigrants Who Died in Custody". New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  44. ^ a b c "Documents: Deaths in Immigration Detention". The New York Times. January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  45. ^ Bryant, Janie. "Sister files suit over care of detainee who died in jail". Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  46. ^ Nina Bernstein (June 26, 2007). "Deaths of immigrants in U.S. held for deportation spark scrutiny". New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  47. ^ "22 immigrants died in ICE detention centers during the past 2 years". NBC News. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  48. ^ CNN, Nicole Chavez. "Transgender woman in migrant caravan dies in ICE custody". CNN. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  49. ^ a b "A rare look inside a deportation flight – CNN Video".
  50. ^ "U.S. Cities Prepare For Planned ICE Raids". NPR. July 13, 2019.
  51. ^ "Immigration detention and sexual abuse". Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  52. ^ "At Largest ICE Detention Center in the Country, Guards Called Attempted Suicides "Failures"".
  53. ^ "Low-Priority Immigrants Still Swept Up in Net of Deportation". The New York Times. June 25, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  54. ^ "National Council Of La Raza Dubs Obama 'Deporter-In-Chief'". NPR. March 4, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  55. ^ Young, Elliott (February 27, 2017). "The Hard Truths About Obama's Deportation Priorities". HuffPost. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  56. ^ "The Trump administration just admitted it doesn't know how many kids are still separated from their parents". Vox. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  57. ^ Touchberry, Ramsey (June 15, 2018). "Almost 45 children a day are being taken from their families and placed in immigrant detention centers: Report". Newsweek.
  58. ^ Kendzior, Sarah (June 17, 2018). "The unspeakable cruelty of Trump's child-migrant camps". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  59. ^ Bort, Ryan (June 14, 2018). "This Is the Prison-Like Border Facility Holding Migrant Children". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  60. ^ Ramirez, Fernando (June 15, 2018). "Movement to call migrant detention centers 'concentration camps' swells online". The Houston Chronicle.
  61. ^ Bush, Laura (June 17, 2018). "Opinion Laura Bush: Separating children from their parents at the border 'breaks my heart'". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  62. ^ "Shelters for immigrant children near capacity in Texas". KHOU. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  63. ^ Touchberry, Ramsey (June 12, 2018). "Texas immigrant children shelters had 150 health violations in the past year". Newsweek.
  64. ^ Joseph, Rebecca (June 19, 2018). "Separations of children, parents at U.S. border could be permanent: Former immigration director". GlobalNews.
  65. ^ a b c Paige St. John & Joel Rubin, ICE held an American man in custody for 1,273 days. He's not the only one who had to prove his citizenship, Los Angeles Times (April 27, 2018).

External links[edit]

International agencies comparable to ICE