United States Armed Forces

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United States Armed Forces
Mark of the United States Army.svg Emblem of the United States Marine Corps.svg Emblem of the United States Navy.svg
Mark of the United States Air Force.svg Seal of the United States Space Force.svg Seal of the United States Coast Guard.svg
Marks of the U.S. Armed Forces' service branches
Founded14 June 1775; 245 years ago (1775-06-14)[a]
Service branches
HeadquartersThe Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief President Donald Trump
Secretary of Defense Mark Esper
Secretary of Homeland Security Chad Wolf (acting)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff GEN Mark A. Milley, USA
Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen John E. Hyten, USAF
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman SEAC Ramón Colón-López, USAF
Manpower
Military age17 with parental consent, 18 for voluntary service.[b]
ConscriptionMale only (inactive since 1973)
Available for
military service
17 million[4], age 18–25 (2016)
Reaching military
age annually
2 million[5] (2016)
Active personnel1,388,545[6] (ranked 3rd)
Reserve personnel849,450[7]
Deployed personnel165,000
Expenditures
BudgetUS$738 billion (2020)[8] (ranked 1st)
Percent of GDP3.42% (2019)[9]
Industry
Domestic suppliersList
Related articles
HistoryMilitary history of the United States
RanksCommissioned officer

Warrant officer

Enlisted

The United States Armed Forces[10] are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and Coast Guard.[11][12] The president of the United States is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All six armed services are among the eight uniformed services of the United States.[13]

From the time of its inception, the U.S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. It played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the separatist military of the Confederate States. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II, created the modern U.S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the secretary of defense; and created the Department of the Air Force and the National Security Council. It was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, and merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, and Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense.

The U.S. Armed Forces are one of the largest military forces in terms of personnel. It draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past, it has not been used since 1973. The Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, and requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U.S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service.

The U.S. Armed Forces are considered the world's most powerful military.[14] The military budget of the United States was US$693 billion in 2019, the highest in the world.[15] In 2018, that accounted for 36 percent of the world's defense expenditures. The U.S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States.[16] The U.S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U.S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, and the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U.S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest maritime force.[17][18] The U.S. as of FY2019 has about 14,061 aircraft in its military inventory.[19]

History[edit]

The history of the U.S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. The Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, and Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.

These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784. The United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors. The 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The president is the U.S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief.

The United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947; it traces its origin to the formation of the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps, which was formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947. The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was formerly considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952.[20]

The United States Space Force was established as an independent service on 20 December 2019. It is the sixth branch of the U.S. military and the first new branch since the establishment of the independent U.S. Air Force in 1947.[21] It traces its origin to the formation of the Air Force Space Command, which was formed 1 September 1982 and was a major command of the United States Air Force.

Structure[edit]

Structure of the National Command Authority

The United States Armed Forces are led by the president of the United States, which Article Two of the United States Constitution names them as the "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States." The United States Armed Forces are split between two cabinet departments, with the Department of Defense serving as the primary cabinet department for military affairs and the Department of Homeland Security responsible for administering the United States Coast Guard.

The military chain of command flows from the president of the United States to the secretary of defense (for services under the Defense Department) or secretary of homeland security (for services under the Department of Homeland Security), ensuring civilian control of the military. Within the Department of Defense the military departments, the Department of the Army, United States Department of the Navy, and Department of the Air Force, are civilian led entities that oversee the coequal military service branches organized within. The military departments and services are responsible for organizing, training, and equipping forces, with the actual chain of command flowing through the unified combatant commands.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff and commandant of the Coast Guard in January 2017.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff, although outside the operational chain of command, is the senior-most military body in the United States Armed Forces. It is led by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is the military head of the armed forces and principle advisor to the president and secretary of defense on military matters. Their deputy is the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Other members include the chief of staff of the Army, commandant of the Marine Corps, chief of naval operations, chief of staff of the Air Force, chief of space operations, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau. The commandant of the Coast Guard is not an official member of the Joint Chiefs, but sometimes attends meetings as the one of the military service chiefs. The Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman is the most senior enlisted member in the United States Armed Forces.[22]

Leadership of the Armed Forces, to include the president of the United States, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Homeland Security and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are members of the United States National Security Council, which advises the president on national security, military, and foreign policy matters. The National Security Advisor and Deputy National Security Advisor may also be members of the United States Armed Forces. The National Security Council Deputies Committee also includes the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Homeland Security Council, which advises the president on homeland security, includes the president of the United States, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Homeland Security and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Homeland Security Advisor may also be a member of the armed forces. Military leadership, including the Secretary of Defense, United States Secretary of Homeland Security, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff also sit on the National Space Council.

Military service branches[edit]

The United States Armed Forces is comprised of six coequal military service branches. Five of the branches, the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Air Force, and United States Space Force are organized under the Department of Defense's military departments. The United States Coast Guard is nominally under the Department of Homeland Security, but may be transferred to the Department of Defense's Department of the Navy (which is the civilian entity that oversees the coequal U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy) at the direction of the president or congress. With the exception of the Coast Guard, the military services only organize, train, and equip forces. The unified combatant commands are responsible for operational control of non-service retained forces.

United States Army[edit]

Logo of the United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the civilian-led Department of the Army, which is led by the Secretary of the Army. The military head of the U.S. Army is the chief of staff of the Army, who is assisted by the vice chief of staff of the United States Army and sergeant major of the Army. It was founded on 14 June 1775 as the Continental Army.

The five core competencies of the Army are to conduct:[23]

  1. Prompt and sustained land combat
  2. Combined arms operations
    1. Combined arms maneuver and wide area security
    2. Armored and mechanized operations
    3. Airborne and air assault operations
  3. Special operations
  4. Set and sustain the theater for the joint force
  5. Integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land
U.S. Army Soldiers with 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division return fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan on 31 March 2011.

The U.S. Army is composed of the Regular Army, United States Army Reserve, and United States Army National Guard. The U.S. Army is organized into four army commands, which conduct the majority of the service's organize, train, and equip functions, ten Army service component commands, which command forces attached to the combatant commands, and twelve direct reporting units. The Army also organizes its personnel into 21 different basic branches.[24]

U.S. Army M1A2 Abrams tanks from the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, on Feb. 3, 2005.

The four army commands are:

The U.S. Army's field structure is broken into several subdivisions under its commands:[25]

  • Army group Nato.svg Army group: Only used during large scale wars or as part of multinational commands, consist of four to five field armies and 400,000 to 1 million soldiers. Usually responsible for directing campaigns in a certain geographical area and commanded by a general.
  • Army Nato.svg Field army: Consists of two or more corps or more than four divisions and consists of up to 90,000 soldiers commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
  • Corps Nato.svg Corps: Consists of two to five divisions and 20,000 to 45,000 soldiers commanded by a lieutenant general. A corps is the highest level of command that provides operational direction for combat operations, with higher levels concerned with administration rather than operations.
  • Division Nato.svg Division: Consists of three to four brigades and 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers commanded by a major general and are subdivided into airborne, armored, infantry, and mountain divisions. Each division conducts major tactical operations and sustained battlefield operations.
  • Brigade Nato.svg Brigade / Regiment / Group: Consists of two to three battalions and 3,000 to 5,000 soldiers commanded by a colonel. Armored and Ranger units are organized into regiments and Special Forces are organized into groups. In 2016, the Army reorganized its brigades into brigade combat teams, which are autonomous modular brigades that most commonly include one combat arms brigade and its assigned support and fire units.
  • Battalion Nato.svg Battalion / Squadron: Consist of four to six companies and consist of up to 1,000 soldiers commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Battalions are organized into combat arms battalions, combat support, and combat service support battalions by unit type. Armored and air cavalry are organized into squadrons. Battalions and squadrons conduct independent operations of limited scope and duration.
  • Company Nato.svg Company / Battery / Troop: Consist of three to four platoons and a few dozen to 200 soldiers commanded by a captain. Artillery is organized into batteries and armored and air cavalry units are organized into troops. Companies, batteries, and troops are tactical-sized unit that can perform a battlefield function on its own.
  • Platoon Nato.svg Platoon: Consists of two to three squads and up to 36 soldiers led by a first lieutenant or second lieutenant.
  • Fireteam Nato.svg Squad / Section: Consists of two teams and four to ten soldiers led by a staff sergeant.
  • Fireteam Nato.svg Team: Consists of four soldiers and led by a sergeant or corporal.

United States Marine Corps[edit]

The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the maritime land force service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the civilian-led Department of the Navy, which is led by the Secretary of the Navy. The military head of the U.S. Marine Corps is the commandant of the Marine Corps, who is assisted by the assistant commandant of the Marine Corps and sergeant major of the Marine Corps. The Marine Corps was founded on 10 November 1775 as the Continental Marines and disbanded in 1783, before being reestablished as the United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1789.[26]

U.S. Marines with India Company, Battalion Landing Team, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit run on the beach during an amphibious assault demonstration.

The Marine Corps is responsible for amphibious warfare and expeditionary warfare operations, having a very close relationship with its coequal sister service, the United States Navy. The U.S. Marine Corps is composed of the Regular Marine Corps and the United States Marine Corps Reserve. The central unit of the Marine Corps is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force, which consist of a command element, ground combat element, aviation combat element, and logistics combat element. The Marine Corps is divided in the Fleet Marine Force and the Supporting Establishment.

The Fleet Marine Force includes:

A U.S. Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft attached to VMX-22 prepares to land on the amphibious assault ship USS America in the Pacific Ocean.

The U.S. Marine Corps' Marine Air-Ground Task Force structure is broken into several levels under the Fleet Marine Force:[27]

  • Corps Nato.svg Marine Expeditionary Force: The largest type of Marine Air-Ground Task Force, consists of a marine division, air wing, and logistics group under a headquarters group and 20,000 to 90,000 marines and sailors commanded by a lieutenant general. The principal warfighting organization of the Marine Corps during larger crisis or contingencies, MEFs' are self-sufficient for 60 days.[28][29]
  • Brigade Nato.svg Marine Expeditionary Brigade: The medium type of Marine Air-Ground task Force, consists of a reinforced infantry regiment, reinforced composite marine aircraft group, and task organized logistics combat regiment under a command element and 20,000 marines and sailors commanded by a brigadier general. Forward deployed MEUs provide an expeditionary force in readiness and are self-sufficient for 30 days.[30]
  • Regiment Nato.svg Marine Expeditionary Unit: The light type of Marine Air-Ground task Force, consists of a reinforced infantry battalion, reinforced composite aviation squadron, and task organized combat logistics battalion command element and 2,600 marines and sailors commanded by a colonel. Forward deployed MEUs provide an expeditionary force in readiness, capable of commencing missions on a six-hour timeline and are self-sufficient for 15 days.[31]

The U.S. Marine Corps' unit structure is broken into several subdivisions under the Fleet Marine Force[32]:

United States Navy[edit]

Logo of the United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the civilian-led Department of the Navy, which is led by the Secretary of the Navy. The military head of the U.S. Navy is the chief of naval operations, who is assisted by the vice chief of naval operations and master chief petty officer of the Navy. The Navy was founded on 13 October 1775 as the Continental Navy, which was disbanded on 1 August 1785 before being reestablished as the modern U.S. Navy on 20 January 1794.[33]

The five enduring functions of the Navy are:[34]

  1. Sea control
  2. Power projection
  3. Deterrence
  4. Maritime security
  5. Sealift.

The U.S. Navy is composed of the Regular Navy and United States Navy Reserve. The U.S. Navy is organized into eight navy component commands, which command operational forces, fifteen shore commands, which support the fleets' operating forces, five systems commands, which oversee the technical requirements of the Navy, and nine type commands, which administratively manage units of a certain type.

USS Nebraska Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine in the Atlantic Ocean.

The navy component commands are:[35]

The U.S. Navy's unit structure is broken into several subdivisions under the operating force:[36]

The U.S. Navy's unit structure is broken into several subdivisions under the type command structure. For Naval Air Forces:[37]

  • Regiment Nato.svg Carrier air wing / Wing: Consists of four strike fighter squadrons, one electronic attack squadron, one carrier airborne early warning squadron, on helicopter sea combat squadron, one helicopter maritime strike squadron, and one fleet logistic support squadron under the command of a captain.
  • Battalion Nato.svg Squadron: Consists of several aircraft under the command of a commander.

United States Air Force[edit]

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the civilian-led Department of the Air Force, which is led by the Secretary of the Air Force. The military head of the U.S. Air Force is the chief of staff of the Air Force, who is assisted by the vice chief of staff of the United States Air Force and chief master sergeant of the Air Force. It achieved independence on 18 September 1947 from the U.S. Army, but directly traces its history through the United States Army Air Forces, United States Army Air Corps, United States Army Air Service, the Division of Military Aeronautics, Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, to the birth of Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps on 1 August 1907.

F-22A Raptors in flight.

The five core missions of the Air Force are:[38]

  1. Air superiority
  2. Global integrated intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
  3. Rapid global mobility
  4. Global strike
  5. Command and control

The U.S. Air Force is composed of the Regular Air Force, United States Air Force Reserve, and United States Air National Guard. The U.S. Air Force is organized into nine major commands, which conduct the majority of the service's organize, train, and equip functions and command forces attached to the combatant commands.[39]

U.S. Air Force B-2A Spirit stealth bombers flying with Royal Air Force F-35B Lightning II stealth fighters.

The Air Force's major commands are:

The U.S. Air Force's field structure is broken into several subdivisions under its major commands:[40]

  • Army Nato.svg Numbered air force / Named air force: Consists of multiple wings with a geographic or functional assignment commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
  • Brigade Nato.svg Wing: Consists of two or more groups commanded by a brigadier general or colonel. Wings typically contain an operations group, maintenance group, mission support group, and a medical group. There are two types of wings: composite wings or objective wings. Composite wings operate more than one kind of aircraft and may be designated as self-contained units designed for quick air intervention anywhere in the world. Objective wings are based on a single purpose, such as an operational, air base, or specialized mission.
  • Regiment Nato.svg Group: Consists of two or more squadrons whose mission are similar or complementary commanded by a colonel.
  • Battalion Nato.svg Squadron: Consist of two or more flights commanded by a lieutenant colonel or major.
  • Company Nato.svg Flight: Consists of individual airmen, sections, or shops commanded by a captain.
  • Fireteam Nato.svg Element / Section: Consists of two or more airmen led by a staff sergeant or senior airman.

United States Space Force[edit]

The United States Space Force (USSF) is the space service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the civilian-led Department of the Air Force, which is led by the Secretary of the Air Force. The military head of the U.S. Space Force is the chief of space operations, who is assisted by the vice chief of space operations and senior enlisted advisor of the Space Force. It achieved independence on 20 December 2020 from the U.S. Air Force, but directly traces its history through Air Force Space Command to 1 September 1982, with even earlier history traced to the Western Development Division established on 1 July 1954.

The Sodium Guidestar at the Directed Energy Directorate's Starfire Optical Range for real-time, high-fidelity tracking and imaging of satellites.

The five core competencies of the Space Force are:[41]

  1. Space security
  2. Combat power projection
  3. Space mobility and logistics
  4. Information mobility
  5. Space domain awareness
Boeing X-37B spaceplane after deorbiting and landing.

The U.S. Space Force is composed of the Regular Space Force, not yet having organized a reserve component outside of the Air Force. The Space Force is organized into one field command and one center, with the intent to fully organize into three field commands, activating Space Systems Command to replace the Space and Missile Systems Center and Space Training and Readiness Command to institutionalize its training, education, and doctrine development.[42]

The Space Force's field command and center is:

The Space Force's field structure is broken into several subdivisions under its field commands:[43]

  • Brigade Nato.svg Delta / Garrison / Wing : Consists of two or more squadrons, or attached Air Force mission support and medical groups for garrisons and wings and a Space Force operations group for wings as well, commanded by a brigadier general or colonel. Deltas are responsible for executing a specific mission, while garrisons are responsible for instillations support and management. Space Force wings are a legacy organizational structure inherited from the Air Force that manage a singular base and mission under one organization and are being phased out in favor of deltas and garrisons.
  • Regiment Nato.svg Operations group: Consists of two or more squadrons whose mission are similar or complementary commanded by a colonel. Space Force operations groups are a legacy organizational structure inherited from the Air Force wing structure and are being phased out and replaced with deltas.
  • Battalion Nato.svg Squadron: Consist of two or more flights commanded by a lieutenant colonel.
  • Company Nato.svg Flight / Crew: Consists of individual space professionals or shops commanded by a captain, first lieutenant, or second lieutenant.

United States Coast Guard[edit]

Service mark of the United States Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and law enforcement service branch of the United States Armed Forces and part of the Department of Homeland Security, which is led by the Secretary of Homeland Security. It is the only military branch outside the Department of Defense, but can be transferred to the civilian-led Department of the Navy, which is led by the Secretary of the Navy, in the case that congress stipulates that when declaring war or the president directs.[44] The military head of the U.S. Coast Guard is the commandant of the Coast Guard, who is assisted by the vice commandant of the Coast Guard and master chief petty officer of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard was founded as a military service branch on 4 August 1790 as the United States Revenue-Marine, before being renamed on 31 July 1894 as the United States Revenue Cutter Service. On 28 January 1915 it was merged with the civilian United States Life-Saving Service to form the United States Coast Guard. In 1939, the civilian United States Lighthouse Service was merged into the Coast Guard. The Revenue-Marine, and later the Coast Guard, were organized under the Department of the Treasury, transferring to the Department of the Navy during World War I and World War II. In 1967 it was transferred to the Department of Transportation, where it would reside until 2003 when it was permanently transferred to the Department of Homeland Security.

USCGC Bertholf underway.

The eleven missions of the Coast Guard are:[45]

  1. Port and waterway security
  2. Drug interdiction
  3. Aids to navagation
  4. Search and rescue
  5. Living marine resources
  6. Marine safety
  7. Defense readiness
  8. Migrant interdiction
  9. Marine environmental protection
  10. Ice operations
  11. Law enforcement

The U.S. Coast Guard is composed of the Regular Coast Guard and United States Coast Guard Reserve. The U.S. Coast Guard is organized into two area commands.[46]

Unified combatant commands[edit]

Unified combatant commands areas of responsibility

Unified combatant commands are joint military commands consisting of forces from multiple military departments, with their chain of command flowing from the president, to the secretary of defense, to the commanders of the combatant commands. There are eleven unified combatant commands that come in two types. Geographic commands, such as Africa, Central, European, Indo-Pacific, Northern, Southern and Space commands are responsible for planning and operations in a certain geographic area. Functional commands, such as Cyber, Special Operations, Strategic, and Transportation commands are responsible for a functional activity that crosses geographic boundaries. Each service organizes, trains, and equips forces that are then presented to the unified combatant commands through service component commands. Special Operations Command and Cyber Command also present theater special operations commands or joint force headquarters – cyber to other combatant commanders. Army or Marine Corps components are typically duel hatted as the joint force land component, Navy components are typically duel hatted as the joint force maritime component, and Air Force components are typically duel hatted as the joint force air component, with the theater special operations command duel hatted as the joint force special operations component, and Space Force component sometimes duel hatted as the joint force space component.[47]

United States Africa Command[edit]

Seal of United States Africa Command

United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in Africa, except for Egypt, which is under United States Central Command. Africa Command is headquartered in Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. Africa Command was created due to the rising strategic importance of Africa, and to harmonize military eff in Africa with the United States Department of State and other U.S. agencies, activated on 1 October 2007 as a sub-unified command of United States European Command, beortsfore becoming an independent combatant command on 1 October 2008. Prior to the establishment of United States Africa Command, military operations on the continent were the responsibility of United States European Command for North Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa, United States Central Command for East Africa, and United States Pacific Command for the Indian Ocean and African islands off the coast.[48]

United States Africa Command includes one combined joint task force:

United States Africa Command's service components are:

United States Central Command[edit]

Seal of United States Central Command

United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in the Middle East, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia, except for Israel, which is under United States European Command. Central Command is headquartered in MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa, Florida, with a forward headquarters at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar. Central Command was established on 1 January 1983, growing out of United States Readiness Command's Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, which itself was established on 1 March 1980 . Prior to its establishment, military operations in the Middle East were the responsibility of United States European Command, and before that United States Strike Command.[51]

United States Central Command includes two subordinate units:

United States Central Command's service components are:

United States Cyber Command[edit]

Seal of United States Cyber Command

United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM or CYBERCOM) is the functional combatant command responsible for United States military operations in cyberspace. Cyber Command is headquartered in Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, sharing leadership, personnel, and resources with the National Security Agency and Central Security Service. Cyber Command was established on 21 May 2010 as a sub-unified command under United States Strategic Command, becoming an independent combatant command on 4 May 2018. Cyber Command traces its history through Strategic Command's Joint Functional Component Command – Network Warfare, Joint Task Force – Global Network Operations, Joint Task Force–Computer Network Operations, to Space Command's Joint Task Force–Computer Network Defense on 1 December 1998. Prior to the establishment of Cyber Command, cyber operations were the responsibility of Strategic Command, and before that Space Command. Cyber Command supports the other combatant commands by providing Joint Force Headquarters–Cyber elements.[53]

United States Cyber Command's service components are:

United States European Command[edit]

Seal of United States European Command

United States European Command (USEUCOM or EUCOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in Europe, Russia, Greenland, and Israel. European Command is headquartered in Patch Barracks, Stuttgart, German, and shares a commander with NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. European Command was established on 1 August 1952.[55]

United States European Command's service components are:

United States Indo-Pacific Command[edit]

Seal of United States Indo-Pacific Command

United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM or INDOPACOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in the Pacific, Asia, India, and Antarctica. Indo-Pacific Command is headquartered in Camp H. M. Smith, Oahu, Hawaii. Indo-Pacific Command was established on 1 January 1947 as United States Pacific Command, assuming the responsibilities of United States Far East Command and Alaskan Command on 1 July 1957. Pacific Command was rennamed on Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018 in recognition of the greater strategic role of the India.[57]

Indo-Pacific Command has two subordinate unified commands, two direct reporting units, and one standing joint task force:

United States Indo-Pacific Command's service components are:

United States Northern Command[edit]

Seal of United States Northern Command

United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM or NORTHCOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations and the defense of North America. Northern Command is headquartered in Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado and shares a commander and some staff with the combined U.S.–Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command. Northern Command was established on 1 October 2002 in direct response to the 9/11 Attacks.[59]

Northern Command has one sub-unified command and three joint task forces:

United States Northern Command's service components are:

United States Southern Command[edit]

Seal of United States Southern Command

United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM or SOUTHCOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Southern Command is headquartered in Doral, Florida. Southern Command was established on 11 June 1963, replacing Caribbean Command.[61]

Southern Command has three joint task forces:

United States Southern Command's service components are:

United States Space Command[edit]

Seal of United States Space Command

United States Space Command (USSPACECOM or SPACECOM) is the geographic combatant command responsible for United States military operations in outerspace. Space Command is headquartered in Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. Space Command was reestablished on 29 August 2019, being first established as a unified combatant command on 23 September 1985 before being inactivated on 1 October 2002 and having space activities folded into Strategic Command. While at strategic command, space operations were handled by the Joint Force Space Component Command, Joint Functional Component Command for Space, and Joint Space Operations.

United States Space Command has one subordinate combined command and one joint task force:

United States Space Command's service components are:

United States Special Operations Command[edit]

Seal of United States Special Operations Command

United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the functional combatant command responsible for United States military special operations. Special Operations Command is headquartered in MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Special Operations Command was established on 16 April 1987.

United States Special Operations Command has one subordinate component command and seven theater special operations commands:

United States Space Command's service components are:

United States Strategic Command[edit]

Seal of United States Strategic Command

United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM or STRATCOM) is the functional combatant command responsible for United States military nuclear and missile defense operations. Strategic Command is headquartered in Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. Strategic Command was established on 1 June 1992, replacing the specified command function of Strategic Air Command.[63]

United States Strategic Command's service components are:

United States Transportation Command[edit]

Seal of United States Transportation Command

United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM or TRANSCOM) is the functional combatant command responsible for United States military mobility and transport operations. Transportation Command is headquartered in Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. Strategic Command was established on 1 July 1987, replacing the specified command function of Strategic Air Command.[64]

United States Strategic Command's service components are:

Budget[edit]

A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2018, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI

The United States has the world's largest military budget. In the fiscal year 2019, $693 billion in funding were enacted for the DoD and for "Overseas Contingency Operations" in the War on Terrorism.[15] Outside of direct DoD spending, the United States spends another $218 to $262 billion each year on other defense-related programs, such as Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security, nuclear weapons maintenance and DoD.

In FY2016 $146.9 billion was allocated for the Department of the Army, $168.8 billion for the Department of the Navy, $161.8 billion for the Department of the Air Force, and $102.8 billion for DoD-wide spending.[65] By function, $138.6 billion was requested for personnel, $244.4 billion for operations and maintenance, $118.9 billion for procurement, $69.0 billion for research and development, $1.3 billion for revolving and management funds, $6.9 billion for military construction, and $1.3 billion for family housing.[65]

Personnel[edit]

The U.S. Armed Forces is the world's third largest military by active personnel, after the Chinese's People's Liberation Army and the Indian Armed Forces, consisting of 1,359,685 servicemembers in the regular armed forces with an additional 799,845 servicemembers in the reserves as of 28 February 2019.[66]

While the United States Armed Forces is an all-volunteer military, conscription through the Selective Service System can be enacted at the president's request and Congress' approval, with all males ages 18 through 25 who are living in the United States are required to register with the Selective Service.[67] Although the constitutionality of registering only males for Selective Service was challenged by federal district court in 2019, its legality was upheld by a federal appeals court in 2020.[68]

As in most militaries, members of the U.S. Armed Forces hold a rank, either that of officer, warrant officer or enlisted, to determine seniority and eligibility for promotion. Those who have served are known as veterans. Rank names may be different between services, but they are matched to each other by their corresponding paygrade.[69] Officers who hold the same rank or paygrade are distinguished by their date of rank to determine seniority, while officers who serve in certain positions of office of importance set by law, outrank all other officers in active duty of the same rank and paygrade, regardless of their date of rank.[70] In 2012, it was reported that only one in four persons in the United States of the proper age meet the moral, academic and physical standards for military service.[71]

Personnel by service[edit]

February 2018 Demographic Reports and end strengths for reserve components.[65][72][73][74][75][76]

Component Military Enlisted Officer Male Female Civilian
 U.S. Army 471,513 376,206 90,785 465,784 69,345 299,644
 U.S. Marine Corps 184,427 163,092 21,335 181,845 15,551 20,484
 U.S. Navy 325,802 267,286 54,114 265,852 62,168 179,293
 U.S. Air Force 320,811 255,605 61,054 270,462 50,750 174,754
 U.S. Space Force 2,501 2,411 90
 U.S. Coast Guard 42,042 32,782 8,239
Total active 1,347,106 1,137,916 236,826 1,219,510 210,485 681,232
Seal of the United States Army National Guard.svg Army National Guard 336,879 291,865 45,014
Seal of the United States Army Reserve.svg U.S. Army Reserve 190,699 153,064 37,635
MarforresLogo.jpg U.S. Marine Corps Reserve 38,473 34,079 4,394
United States NR Seal.svg U.S. Navy Reserve 57,650 43,596 14,054
US-AirNationalGuard-2007Emblem.svg Air National Guard 106,549 91,274 15,275
AFR Shield.svg Air Force Reserve 68,216 54,658 13,558
United States Coast Guard Reserve emblem.png U.S. Coast Guard Reserve 6,142 5,086 1,056
Total reserves 807,562 673,622 130,986
Other DoD personnel 108,833

Stationing[edit]

Overseas[edit]

As of 31 December 2010, U.S. Armed Forces troops were stationed in 150 countries; the number of non-contingent deployments per country ranges from 1 in Suriname to over 50,000 in Germany.[77] Some of the largest deployments are: 103,700 in Afghanistan, 52,440 in Germany (see list), 35,688 in Japan (USFJ), 28,500 in South Korea (USFK), 9,660 in Italy and 9,015 in the United Kingdom. These numbers change frequently due to the regular recall and deployment of units.

U.S. global military presence

Altogether, 77,917 military personnel are located in Europe, 141 in the former Soviet Union, 47,236 in East Asia and the Pacific, 3,362 in North Africa, the Near East and South Asia, 1,355 in sub-Saharan Africa and 1,941 in the Western Hemisphere excluding the United States itself.

Domestic[edit]

Including U.S. territories and ships afloat within territorial waters As of 31 December 2009, a total of 1,137,568 personnel were on active duty within the United States and its territories (including 84,461 afloat).[78] The vast majority (941,629 personnel) were stationed at bases within the contiguous United States. There were an additional 37,245 in Hawaii and 20,450 in Alaska while 84,461 were at sea, 2,972 in Guam and 179 in Puerto Rico.

Personnel categories[edit]

Enlisted[edit]

Service members of the U.S. Armed Forces at an American football event: (left to right) U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and U.S. Army personnel

Prospective service members are often recruited from high school or college, the target age ranges being 18–35 in the Army, 18–28 in the Marine Corps, 18–34 in the Navy, 18–39 in the Air Force and 18–27 (up to age 32 if qualified for attending guaranteed "A" school) in the Coast Guard. With the permission of a parent or guardian, applicants can enlist at age 17 and participate in the Delayed Entry Program (DEP), in which the applicant is given the opportunity to participate in locally sponsored military activities, which can range from sports to competitions led by recruiters or other military liaisons (each recruiting station's DEP varies).

After enlistment, new recruits undergo basic training (also known as "boot camp" in the Marine Corps, Navy and Coast Guard), followed by schooling in their primary Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), rating and Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) at any of the numerous training facilities around the United States. Each branch conducts basic training differently. The Marine Corps sends all non-infantry MOS's to an infantry skills course known as Marine Combat Training prior to their technical schools. Air Force Basic Military Training graduates attend Technical Training and are awarded their Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) at the apprentice (3) skill level. All Army recruits undergo Basic Combat Training (BCT), followed by Advanced Individual Training (AIT), with the exceptions of cavalry scouts, infantry, armor, combat engineers and military police recruits who go to One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines BCT and AIT. The Navy sends its recruits to Recruit Training and then to "A" schools to earn a rating. The Coast Guard's recruits attend basic training and follow with an "A" school to earn a rating.

Non-commissioned and petty officers[edit]

With very few exceptions, becoming a non-commissioned officer (NCO) or petty officer in the U.S. Armed Forces is accomplished by progression through the lower enlisted ranks. However, unlike promotion through the lower enlisted tier, promotion to NCO is generally competitive. NCO ranks begin at E-4 or E-5, depending upon service and are generally attained between three and six years of service. Junior NCOs function as first-line supervisors and squad leaders, training the junior enlisted in their duties and guiding their career advancement.

While considered part of the non-commissioned officer corps by law, senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) referred to as chief petty officers in the Navy and Coast Guard, or staff non-commissioned officers in the Marine Corps, perform duties more focused on leadership rather than technical expertise. Promotion to the SNCO ranks, E-7 through E-9 (E-6 through E-9 in the Marine Corps) is highly competitive. Personnel totals at the pay grades of E-8 and E-9 are limited by federal law to 2.5 percent and 1 percent of a service's enlisted force, respectively. SNCOs act as leaders of small units and as staff. Some SNCOs manage programs at headquarters level and a select few wield responsibility at the highest levels of the military structure. Most unit commanders have a SNCO as an enlisted advisor. All SNCOs are expected to mentor junior commissioned officers as well as the enlisted in their duty sections. The typical enlistee can expect to attain SNCO rank after 10 to 16 years of service.

Senior enlisted advisors[edit]

Each of the six services and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs employs a single senior enlisted advisor at service headquarters level. This individual is the highest ranking enlisted member within that respective service and functions as the chief advisor to the service secretary, service chief and Congress on matters concerning the enlisted force. They are as follows:

Warrant officers[edit]

Additionally, all services except for the Air Force and Space Force have an active warrant officer corps. Above the rank of warrant officer one, these officers may also be commissioned, but usually serve in a more technical and specialized role within units. More recently, they can also serve in more traditional leadership roles associated with the more recognizable officer corps. With one notable exception (Army helicopter and fixed-wing pilots), these officers ordinarily have already been in the military often serving in senior NCO positions in the field in which they later serve as a warrant officer as a technical expert. Most Army pilots have served some enlisted time. It is also possible to enlist, complete basic training, go directly to the Warrant Officer Candidate School at Fort Rucker, Alabama and then on to flight school.

The Air Force ceased to grant warrants in 1959 when the enlisted grades of E-8 and E-9 were created. Most non-flying duties performed by warrant officers in other services are instead performed by senior NCOs in the Air Force.

Commissioned officers[edit]

Officers receive a commission in one of the branches of the U.S. Armed Forces through one of the following routes.

  • Service academies (United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, United States Air Force Academy, United States Coast Guard Academy and the United States Merchant Marine Academy)
  • Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC)
  • Officer Candidate School (OCS) (Officer Training School (OTS) in the Air Force)
  • Direct commission: civilians who have special skills that are critical to sustaining military operations and supporting troops may receive direct commissions. These officers occupy leadership positions in law, medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, intelligence, supply-logistics-transportation, engineering, public affairs, chaplain, oceanography and others.
  • Battlefield commission: under certain conditions, enlisted personnel who have skills that separate them from their peers can become officers by direct commissioning of a commander so authorized to grant them. This type of commission is rarely granted and is reserved only for the most exceptional enlisted personnel; it is done on an ad hoc basis, typically only in wartime. No direct battlefield commissions have been awarded since the Vietnam War. The Navy and Air Force do not employ this commissioning path.
  • Limited Duty Officer: due to the highly technical nature of some officer billets, the Marine Corps, Navy and Coast Guard employ a system of promoting proven senior enlisted members to the ranks of commissioned officers. They fill a need that is similar to, but distinct from that filled by warrant officers (to the point where their accession is through the same school). While warrant officers remain technical experts, LDOs take on the role of a generalist, like that of officers commissioned through more traditional sources. LDOs are limited, not by their authority, but by the types of billets they are allowed to fill. However, in recent times they have come to be used more and more like their more-traditional counterparts.

Officers receive a commission assigning them to the officer corps from the president with the Senate's consent. To accept this commission, all officers must take an oath of office.

Through their careers, officers usually will receive further training at one or a number of the many staff colleges.

Company grade officers in pay grades O-1 through O-3 (known as "junior" officers in the Navy and Coast Guard, including O-4s) function as leaders of smaller units or sections of a unit, typically with an experienced SNCO (or CPO in the Navy and Coast Guard) assistant and mentor.

Field grade officers in pay grades O-4 through O-6 (only O-5 and O-6 are known as "senior" officers in the Navy and Coast Guard) lead significantly larger and more complex operations, with gradually more competitive promotion requirements.

General officers, (known as flag officers in the Navy and Coast Guard) serve at the highest levels and oversee major portions of the military mission.

Service chiefs[edit]

Each service has a uniformed head who is considered the highest-ranking officer within their respective service, with the exception of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau. They are responsible for ensuring personnel readiness, policy, planning and training and equipping their respective military services for the combatant commanders to utilize. They also serve as senior military advisors to the president, the secretary of defense, their respective service secretaries, as well as other councils they may be called to serve on. They are as follows:

Five-star ranking[edit]

These are ranks of the highest honor and responsibility in the U.S. Armed Forces, but they are almost never given during peacetime and only a very small number of officers during wartime have held a five-star rank:

No corresponding rank exists for the Marine Corps, Space Force, or the Coast Guard. As with three- and four-star ranks, Congress is the approving authority for a five-star rank confirmation.

The rank of general of the Armies is considered senior to general of the Army, but was never held by active duty officers at the same time as persons who held the rank of general of the Army. It has been held by two people: John J. Pershing who received the rank in 1919 after World War I and George Washington who received it posthumously in 1976 as part of the American Bicentennial celebrations. Pershing, appointed to General of the Armies in active duty status for life, was still alive at the time of the first five-star appointments during World War II and was thereby acknowledged as superior in grade by seniority to any World War II–era Generals of the Army. George Washington's appointment by Public Law 94-479 to General of the Armies of the United States was established by law as having "rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present", making him not only superior to Pershing, but superior to any grade in the Army in perpetuity.

In the Navy, the rank of admiral of the Navy theoretically corresponds to that of general of the Armies, though it was never held by active-duty officers at the same time as persons who held the rank of fleet admiral. George Dewey is the only person to have ever held this rank. After the establishment of the rank of fleet admiral in 1944, the Department of the Navy specified that the rank of fleet admiral was to be junior to the rank of admiral of the Navy. However, since Dewey died in 1917 before the establishment of the rank of fleet admiral, the six-star rank has not been totally confirmed.

Women in the armed forces[edit]

From 2005, the first all female C-130 Hercules crew to fly a combat mission for the U.S. Air Force[79]

The Woman's Army Auxiliary Corps was established in the United States in 1942. Women saw combat during World War II, first as nurses in the Pearl Harbor attacks on 7 December 1941. The Woman's Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Women's Reserve, US Coast Guard Women's Reserve, and Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) were also created during this conflict.[citation needed] In 1944, WACs arrived in the Pacific and landed in Normandy on D-Day. During the war, 67 Army nurses and 16 Navy nurses were captured and spent three years as Japanese prisoners of war. There were 350,000 American women who served during World War II and 16 were killed in action. In total, they gained over 1,500 medals, citations and commendations. Virginia Hall, serving with the Office of Strategic Services, received the second-highest U.S. combat award, the Distinguished Service Cross, for action behind enemy lines in France.[citation needed]

After World War II, demobilization led to the vast majority of serving women being returned to civilian life. Law 625, The Women's Armed Services Act of 1948, was signed by President Truman, allowing women to serve in the U.S. Armed Forces in fully integrated units during peacetime, with only the WAC remaining a separate female unit. During the Korean War of 1950–1953, many women served in the Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals, with women serving in Korea numbering 120,000[dubious ]during the conflict.[citation needed] During the Vietnam War, 600 women served in the country as part of the Air Force, along with 500 members of the WAC and over 6,000 medical personnel and support staff. The Ordnance Corps began accepting female missile technicians in 1974[80] and female crewmembers and officers were accepted into Field Artillery missile units.[81][82]

Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester, awarded the Silver Star for direct combat

In 1974, the first six women naval aviators earned their wings as Navy pilots. The congressionally mandated prohibition on women in combat places limitations on the pilots' advancement,[83] but at least two retired as captains.[84] In 1989, Captain Linda L. Bray, 29, became the first woman to command American soldiers in battle during the invasion of Panama. The 1991 Gulf War proved to be the pivotal time for the role of women in the U.S. Armed Forces to come to the attention of the world media; there are many reports of women engaging enemy forces during the conflict.[85]

In the 2000s, women can serve on U.S. combat ships, including in command roles. They are permitted to serve on submarines.[86] Women can fly military aircraft and make up 2% of all pilots in the U.S. Military. In 2003, Major Kim Campbell was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for landing her combat damaged A-10 Thunderbolt II with no hydraulic control and only one functional engine after being struck by hostile fire over Baghdad.[citation needed]

On 3 December 2015, U.S. defense secretary Ashton Carter announced that all military combat jobs would become available to women.[87] This gave women access to the roughly 10% of military jobs which were previously closed off due to their combat nature.[88] The decision gave military services until January 2016 to seek exceptions to the rule if they believe that certain jobs, such as machine gunners, should be restricted to men only.[89] These restrictions were due in part to prior studies which stated that mixed gender units are less capable in combat.[90] Physical requirements for all jobs remained unchanged, though.[90] Many women believe this will allow for them to improve their positions in the military, since most high-ranking officers start in combat positions. Since women are now available to work in any position in the military, female entry into the draft has been proposed.[91]

Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester became the first woman to receive the Silver Star, the third-highest U.S. decoration for valor, for direct participation in combat. In Afghanistan, Monica Lin Brown was presented the Silver Star for shielding wounded soldiers with her body.[92] In March 2012, the U.S. military had two women, Ann E. Dunwoody and Janet C. Wolfenbarger, with the rank of four-star general.[93][94] In 2016, Air Force General Lori Robinson became the first female officer to command a major Unified Combatant Command (USNORTHCOM) in the history of the United States Armed Forces.[95]

No woman has ever become a Navy SEAL. In 2017, a woman who wanted to become the first female Navy SEAL officer quit after one week into initial training.[96][97]

Despite concerns of a gender gap, all personnel, both men and women at the same rank and time of service are compensated the same rate across all branches.[98]

A study conducted by the RAND Corporation also suggests that women who make the military their career see an improved rate of promotion, as they climb through the military ranks at a faster rate.[99]

As per the Department of Defense’s report on sexual assault within the U.S. Army for the fiscal year of 2019, 7,825 cases of sexual assault had been reported with the service members either victims or subjects of the assault. There has been a 3% increase in the number of cases as compared to the 2018 report.[100][101]

Order of precedence[edit]

Under current Department of Defense regulation, the various components of the U.S. Armed Forces have a set order of seniority.[102] Examples of the use of this system include the display of service flags, and placement of soldiers, marines, sailors, airmen and coast guardsmen in formation.

  • Cadets, U.S. Military Academy
  • Midshipmen, U.S. Naval Academy
  • Cadets, U.S. Coast Guard Academy (when part of the Department of the Navy)
  • Cadets, U.S. Air Force Academy
  • Cadets, U.S. Coast Guard Academy (when part of the Department of Homeland Security)
  • Midshipmen, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
  • United States Army
  • United States Marine Corps
  • United States Navy
  • United States Coast Guard (when part of the Department of the Navy)
  • United States Air Force
  • United States Space Force
  • United States Coast Guard (when part of Department of Homeland Security)
  • Army National Guard of the United States
  • United States Army Reserve
  • United States Marine Corps Reserve
  • United States Navy Reserve
  • United States Coast Guard Reserve (when part of the Department of the Navy)
  • Air National Guard of the United States
  • United States Air Force Reserve
  • United States Coast Guard Reserve (when part of the Department of Homeland Security)
  • Other training and auxiliary organizations of the Army, Marine Corps, Merchant Marine, Civil Air Patrol, and Coast Guard Auxiliary, as in the preceding order.

While the U.S. Navy is older than the Marine Corps,[103] the Marine Corps takes precedence due to previous inconsistencies in the Navy's birth date. The Marine Corps has recognized its observed birth date on a more consistent basis. The Second Continental Congress is considered to have established the Navy on 13 October 1775 by authorizing the purchase of ships, but did not actually pass the "Rules for the Regulation of the Navy of the United Colonies" until 27 November 1775.[104] The Marine Corps was established by an act of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775. The Navy did not officially recognize 13 October 1775 as its birth date until 1972, when then–chief of naval operations Admiral Elmo Zumwalt authorized it to be observed as such.[103]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ With the establishment of the Continental Army.
  2. ^ Maximum age for first-time enlistment is 35 for the Army,[1] 28 for the Marine Corps, 34 for the Navy, 39 for the Air Force[2] and 27 for the Coast Guard.[3]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "United States Army". Goarmy.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  2. ^ "Contact Us: Frequently Asked Questions - airforce.com". airforce.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  3. ^ "Plan Your Next Move to Become a Coast Guard Member". Enlisted Opportunities. U.S. Coast Guard. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  4. ^ "QUICK FACTS AND FIGURES". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  5. ^ "Number of births in the United States from 1990 to 2016 (in millions)". Statista. 2018. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  6. ^ "ARMED FORCES STRENGTH FIGURES FOR AUGUST 31, 2020".
  7. ^ IISS 2020, p. 46.
  8. ^ "National Defense Estimates for FY Budget2021" (PDF). United States Department of Defense. April 2020.
  9. ^ "Defence Expenditure of NATO Countries (2012-2019)" (PDF). NATO Public Diplomacy Division. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  10. ^ As stated on the official U.S. Navy website Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, "armed forces" is capitalized when preceded by "United States" or "U.S.".
  11. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 101(a)(4)
  12. ^ "Trump Signs Law Establishing U.S. Space Force". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  13. ^ Note: The other two services being the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps.
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  22. ^ https://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/2020/august/time-coast-guard-join-joint-chiefs
  23. ^ https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/ARN18008_ADP-1%20FINAL%20WEB.pdf
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  27. ^ https://www.defense.gov/Experience/Military-Units/Marine-Corps/
  28. ^ https://www.candp.marines.mil/Organization/MAGTF/Types-of-MAGTFs/#:~:text=A%20MEU%20is%20organized%20as,organizedLCE%20(combat%20logistics%20battalion).
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  31. ^ https://www.candp.marines.mil/Organization/MAGTF/Types-of-MAGTFs/#:~:text=A%20MEU%20is%20organized%20as,organizedLCE%20(combat%20logistics%20battalion).
  32. ^ https://www.defense.gov/Experience/Military-Units/Marine-Corps/
  33. ^ https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/bibliographies/reestablishment-navy-1787-1801.html#:~:text=Ultimately%2C%20the%20United%20States%20Navy,seas%20as%20a%20sovereign%20nation.
  34. ^ http://cimsec.org/naval-warfare-2010-2020-a-comparative-analysis/45129
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  36. ^ https://www.defense.gov/Experience/Military-Units/Navy/
  37. ^ https://www.defense.gov/Experience/Military-Units/Navy/
  38. ^ http://www.airforcemag.com/DocumentFile/Documents/2015/Future_Operating_Concept.pdf
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  44. ^ https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/14/103
  45. ^ https://www.gocoastguard.com/about-the-coast-guard/discover-our-roles-missions
  46. ^ https://www.uscg.mil/Units/Organization/#cyber
  47. ^ https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp1_ch1.pdf
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  49. ^ https://www.usaraf.army.mil/about/history
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  53. ^ https://www.cybercom.mil/About/History/
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  55. ^ https://www.eucom.mil/organization/history-of-useucom
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  57. ^ https://www.pacom.mil/About-USINDOPACOM/History/
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