U.S. Route 1 Alternate (Baltimore, Maryland)

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Alt
U.S. Route 1 marker

U.S. Route 1 Alternate
Route information
Alternate route of US 1
Maintained by MDSHA and Baltimore DOT
Length: 3.92 mi[1][2] (6.31 km)
Existed: 1949 – present
Major junctions
South end: US 1 in Arbutus
 
North end: US 1 in Baltimore
Location
Counties: Baltimore, City of Baltimore
Highway system

U.S. Route 1 Alternate (US 1 Alternate) is an alternate route of US 1 in the U.S. state of Maryland. The highway runs 3.92 miles (6.31 km) between intersections with US 1 in Arbutus and in Baltimore. US 1 Alternate serves the southwestern Baltimore County community of Halethorpe and connects US 1 with full-access interchanges with Interstate 95 and I-695. The Washington Boulevard portion of the alternate route was the original road southwest from Baltimore in the 18th century and was part of the turnpike southwest to Washington for much of the 19th century. The highway was paved in the early 1910s, expanded in the late 1910s and late 1920s, and became part of US 1 in 1926. The Caton Avenue portion of the alternate route was improved and expanded in the 1930s to serve as a rerouting of US 1 in southwest Baltimore. US 1 Alternate was created in 1949 when US 1 was moved to its present course through Arbutus and southwest Baltimore. The alternate route's interchanges with I-695 and I-95 were constructed in the late 1950s and mid-1970s, respectively.

Route description[edit]

View south along US 1 Alternate in Halethorpe

US 1 Alternate begins at a partial interchange with US 1, which heads north as Southwestern Boulevard through Arbutus and south as Washington Boulevard toward Elkridge. There is no access from southbound US 1 Alternate to northbound US 1 or from southbound US 1 to northbound US 1 Alternate. US 1 Alternate heads northeast as Washington Boulevard, a four-lane undivided highway that immediately crosses over the Amtrak Northeast Corridor, which carries MARC's Penn Line, and Herbert Run. The highway passes through Halethorpe, where the route temporarily expands to a divided highway through its three-ramp partial cloverleaf interchange with I-695 (Baltimore Beltway). There is no ramp from eastbound I-695 to US 1 Alternate; that movement is made via a ramp from eastbound I-695 to Sulphur Spring Road, which intersects US 1 Alternate at the I-695 junction, at the I-95–I-695 interchange to the west.[1][3]

US 1 Alternate continues northeast to an intersection with Caton Avenue and Hammonds Ferry Road just south of the Baltimore city limits. The alternate route leaves Washington Boulevard to turn north onto four-lane divided Caton Avenue and enters the independent city.[1][3] US 1 Alternate then meets the western end of Patapsco Avenue at a directional intersection from which the latter avenue heads southeast. There is no direct access from Patapsco Avenue to the southbound alternate route or from the southbound alternate route to eastbound Patapsco Avenue; those movements are made via Washington Boulevard. US 1 Alternate heads north as a six-lane divided highway through a seven-ramp partial cloverleaf interchange with I-95. The highway reduces to a four-lane undivided highway and passes by Seton Keough High School, the former Cardinal Gibbons School, and St. Agnes Hospital before reaching its northern terminus at US 1 (Wilkens Avenue). Caton Avenue continues north through West Baltimore toward MD 144 and US 40.[2][3]

All of US 1 Alternate is a part of the National Highway System as a principal arterial.[4]

History[edit]

Washington Boulevard was first laid out as the highway southwest from Baltimore in 1741 and was improved by the Baltimore and Washington Turnpike Company starting in 1812. After the state condemned the turnpike in 1865, maintenance of the highway became the responsibility of the counties. In 1906, the state took over maintenance as the road as part of its construction of State Road No. 1. The highway from west of the Pennsylvania Railroad (now Amtrak Northeast Corridor) to the city limits of Baltimore at Gwynns Falls was reconstructed as a 16-foot-wide (4.9 m) concrete road by 1915. The work included a bridge across the Pennsylvania Railroad at Winans.[5] Washington Boulevard was widened to 20 feet (6.1 m) with a pair of 2-foot-wide (0.61 m) concrete shoulders and resurfaced with sheet asphalt in 1918, part of a project to expand the entire highway from Washington to Baltimore to 20 feet (6.1 m).[6] The highway, which was marked as US 1 in 1926,[7] was widened to 40 feet (12 m) with the addition of a pair of 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) concrete shoulders and resurfaced with sheet asphalt in the late 1920s.[8]

Caton Avenue was paved as a concrete road from Washington Boulevard to Wilkens Avenue starting in 1930.[8][9] Caton Avenue was widened and repaved, along with Wilkens Avenue east from Caton Avenue, in 1936 as part of plans to create through-traffic streets through Baltimore for US 1 and US 40 traffic. That same year, Washington Boulevard's modern bridge across the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed.[10] US 1 originally followed Washington Boulevard and Monroe Street in southwest Baltimore, but the highway was rerouted along Caton Avenue and Wilkens Avenue by 1939.[11][12] After US 1 was moved to its present course along Wilkens Avenue and Southwestern Boulevard in 1949, the old route of the U.S. Highway along Washington Boulevard and Caton Avenue became US 1 Alternate.[13][14]

Further expansion of US 1 Alternate occurred as a result of Interstate highway construction. The alternate route was expanded to a divided highway on either side of its interchange with I-695 when that interchange was constructed between 1956 and 1958.[13] This interchange included all of the ramps on the east side of the interchange, but on the west side it also included ramps from southbound US 1 Alternate to westbound I-695, from southbound US 1 Alternate to eastbound I-695, and from eastbound I-695 to Sulphur Spring Road, which passed closer to the Interstate than it does now.[15] The I-695–US 1 Alternate interchange was reduced to its present ramps after the I-95–I-695 interchange, including that interchange's ramp to relocated Sulphur Spring Road, was completed in 1971.[13][16] Most of the Caton Avenue portion of US 1 Alternate was expanded to a divided highway in 1972 in conjunction with the completion of the western half of I-95's interchange with US 1 Alternate.[17][18] The eastern half of the I-95 interchange was completed in 1977 when I-95 was extended east to Russell Street.[17][19]

Junction list[edit]

County Location mi[1][2] km Destinations Notes
Baltimore Arbutus 0.00 0.00 US 1 south (Washington Boulevard) – Elkridge Southern terminus; northbound exit from and southbound entrance to US 1
Halethorpe 1.68 2.70 I-695 (Baltimore Beltway) – Towson, Key Bridge I-695 exit 10; no access from eastbound I-695 to US 1 Alternate
2.68 4.31 Washington Boulevard north to Patapsco Avenue / Hammonds Ferry Road south US 1 Alternate turns north onto Caton Avenue
Baltimore City 2.78 4.47 Patapsco Avenue east No direct access from Patapsco Avenue to southbound US 1 Alternate or from northbound US 1 Alternate to Patapsco Avenue
3.30 5.31 I-95 – Washington, New York I-95 exit 50
3.92 6.31 US 1 (Wilkens Avenue) / Caton Avenue north Northern terminus
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Highway Information Services Division (December 31, 2015). Highway Location Reference. Maryland State Highway Administration. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Highway Information Services Division (December 31, 2005). Highway Location Reference. Maryland State Highway Administration. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Maryland State Highway Administration (2015). Maryland General Highway Statewide Grid Map (PDF) (Map). 1:12,000. Baltimore: Maryland State Highway Administration. §§ D12D, D12B. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  4. ^ National Highway System: Baltimore, MD (PDF) (Map). Federal Highway Administration. March 25, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  5. ^ Weller, O.E.; Parran, Thomas; Miller, W.B.; Perry, John M.; Ramsay, Andrew; Smith, J. Frank (May 1916). Annual Reports of the State Roads Commission of Maryland (1912–1915 ed.). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. pp. 68–70, 132. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  6. ^ Zouck, Frank H.; Uhl, G. Clinton; Mudd, John F. (January 1920). Annual Reports of the State Roads Commission of Maryland (1916–1919 ed.). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. pp. 7, 39. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  7. ^ Maryland Geological Survey (1927). Map of Maryland: Showing State Road System and State Aid Roads (Map). Baltimore: Maryland Geological Survey. 
  8. ^ a b Uhl, G. Clinton; Bruce, Howard; Shaw, John K. (October 1, 1930). Report of the State Roads Commission of Maryland (1927–1930 ed.). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. pp. 83, 237. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  9. ^ Maryland Geological Survey (1933). Map of Maryland Showing State Road System: State Aid Roads and Improved County Road Connections (Map). Baltimore: Maryland Geological Survey. 
  10. ^ Tabler, H.E.; Wilkinson, C. Nice; Luthardt, Frank F. (December 4, 1936). Report of the State Roads Commission of Maryland (1935–1936 ed.). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. pp. 54, 99. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  11. ^ Maryland State Roads Commission (1934). Map of Maryland Showing State Road System (Map). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. 
  12. ^ Maryland State Roads Commission (1939). General Highway Map: State of Maryland (Map). Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. 
  13. ^ a b c Maryland Road Construction Progress Log (PDF). Baltimore: Maryland State Highway Administration. Contract Numbers: B-392-2-415 (June 16, 1948), B-635-53-420 (May 17, 1956), B-725-4-472 (June 6, 1968). Retrieved January 7, 2017 – via Maryland State Archives. 
  14. ^ "Letter from Frank P. Scrivener to Mr. D. P. Campbell" (PDF). Baltimore County SRC Minutes/SHA Memoranda of Action 1939-1964. Baltimore: Maryland State Roads Commission. October 11, 1949. Retrieved January 7, 2017 – via Maryland State Archives. 
  15. ^ United States Geological Survey (1957). Relay, MD quadrangle (Topographic map). 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series. Reston, VA: United States Geological Survey. 
  16. ^ United States Geological Survey (1975). Relay, MD quadrangle (Topographic map). 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series. Reston, VA: United States Geological Survey. 
  17. ^ a b "Major Transportation Milestones in the Baltimore Region Since 1940" (PDF). Baltimore Metropolitan Council. December 1, 2005. pp. 10–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 24, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  18. ^ United States Geological Survey (1975). Baltimore West, MD quadrangle (Topographic map). 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series. Reston, VA: United States Geological Survey. 
  19. ^ Maryland State Highway Administration (1978). Maryland: Official Highway Map (Map). Baltimore: Maryland State Highway Administration. 

External links[edit]