U.S. Route 31 in Indiana

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U.S. Route 31 marker

U.S. Route 31
US 31 highlighted in red
Route information
Maintained by INDOT
Length266.02 mi (428.12 km)
ExistedOctober 1, 1926[1]–present
Major junctions
South end US 31 at Kentucky state line
 
North end US 31 at Michigan state line
Location
CountiesClark, Scott, Jackson, Bartholomew, Johnson, Marion, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall, St. Joseph
Highway system
US 30SR 32

U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to Mackinaw City, Michigan. It enters the U.S. state of Indiana via the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. The 266.02 miles (428.12 km) of US 31 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway and urbanized four- or six-lane divided expressway. The northernmost community along the highway is South Bend near the Michigan state line.

US 31 was first designated as a US Highway in October 1926. A northern section (from Rochester to South Bend) and a far southern section (on old US 31W into Louisville on the K&I Bridge) of the highway originally served as part of the Dixie Highway. US 31 was the Jackson Highway from Indianapolis to Seymour. US 31 replaced the original State Road 1 (SR 1) designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana State Road system. SR 1 ran from Clarksville through Indianapolis to South Bend and ended at the Michigan state line.

Route description[edit]

Only the segment of US 31 that is north of Indianapolis is included as a part of the National Highway System (NHS).[2] The NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy, mobility and defense of the nation.[3] The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) like all other U.S. Routes in the state. The department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that lowest traffic levels were the 3,690 personal vehicles and 160 commercial vehicles that used the highway daily near Memphis. The peak traffic volume was 168,770 personal vehicles and 18,090 commercial vehicles along the section of US 31 concurrent with Interstate 465 (I–465).[4]

Jeffersonville to Columbus[edit]

US 31 overlaps I-65 in Jeffersonville, after crossing the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge from Kentucky. It then diverges as the access frontage lanes before splitting off north of Jeffersonville at Clarksville and proceeding to Indianapolis. US 31 was widened to two lanes in both directions for its length through Columbus in the early 2000s.

Columbus to Indianapolis[edit]

At I-465 on the south side of Indianapolis, US 31 is routed onto I-465 on the east side of the city. This is the closest approach the highway makes to downtown Indianapolis. Previously the northbound route of the highway through Indianapolis was on East Street, Madison Avenue, Delaware Street, North Street, and onto Meridian Street; southbound was on Meridian Street, North Street, Pennsylvania Street, Madison Avenue, and onto East Street.

Indianapolis to Michigan[edit]

US 31 exits I-465 (coincidentally at exit 31) in Carmel, and continues northward as a freeway through Westfield. North of SR 38, it reverts to a divided highway until reaching the Kokomo area, where it again becomes a full freeway to bypass that city to the east. North of the Kokomo area US 31 again becomes a rural divided highway, which skirts Peru, Rochester, and Plymouth. At US 30 east of Plymouth, US 31 becomes a freeway again and remains so for the rest of its journey in the state. After bypassing Lakeville to the east, US 31 approaches South Bend. There the route converges with US 20 (St. Joseph Valley Parkway) and proceeds west and then north to bypass South Bend. After US 20 splits off to the west near the South Bend Airport, US 31 has an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road (I-80/I-90) before proceeding north into Michigan.

History[edit]

US 31 was signed into law by the Governor on March 7, 1917, as Main Market Highway 1, and signs were installed on June 1 of that year.[5][6] The name was changed to State Road 1 within a year when Indiana began the state road system.[6][7] By 1924, most of the route was paved, leaving only from Columbus to Franklin and from Peru to Plymouth that was unpaved.[8] On October 1, 1926, US 31 was designated along what was SR 1 at the time.[1]

In the late 2000s, INDOT began a process of converting US 31 to Interstate Highway standards from South Bend to Indianapolis. Three projects were completed in the early 2010s: an upgrade of the road from I-465 in Indianapolis to SR 38 north of Westfield, a new 14-mile (23 km) freeway bypass of Kokomo, and a new freeway segment from Plymouth to South Bend, which was constructed largely on a new alignment.[9][10][11][12] A portion of the Plymouth–South Bend section was dedicated as the Richard W. Mangus Memorial Highway, in honor of the local state representative who supported the freeway's construction, at the ribbon-cutting ceremony on August 27.[13][14] The entirety of the former segment of US 31 bypassed by the freeway segment in Kokomo and a portion of the one bypassed between Plymouth and South Bend were designated as SR 931.

Future[edit]

The remaining 78 miles (126 km) of US 31 between South Bend and Indianapolis is gradually being converted to a limited access highway without traffic signals, starting with an interchange at SR 28 in Tipton County which opened in November 2016.[15] As of 2018, there were six traffic signals left between Indianapolis and South Bend, and a program introduced by Governor Eric Holcomb in September 2018 proposed to remove four of those.[16][17] All six signals are expected to be removed by 2026.[18]

Major intersections[edit]

CountyLocationmi[19]kmExitDestinationsNotes
Ohio River0.000.00 US 31 south – LouisvilleContinuation into Kentucky
Clark Memorial Bridge; IndianaKentucky line
ClarkJeffersonvilleCourt AvenueInterchange; northbound exit and southbound entrance; entrance ramp includes direct entrance from Missouri Avenue
I-65 south (Toll Bridge) – LouisvilleI-65 exit 1; US 31 serves as service drives for freeway through I-65 exit 4
6th Street, Court AvenueInterchange; southbound exit and northbound entrance
JeffersonvilleClarksville line10th StreetInterchange; no northbound exit
ClarksvilleStansifer AvenuePartial interchange; at-grade intersection northbound, exit and entrance southbound
1.512.43Brown's Station Way – New AlbanyInterchange; northbound exit and southbound entrance; former SR 62
Jeffersonville TownshipKopp LaneSouthbound exit only
3.715.97 I-65 north – IndianapolisI-65 exit 4
6.169.91 SR 60 west – SalemEastern end of SR 60
Henryville19.5831.51 SR 160 – Salem, Charlestown
ScottVienna Township27.1943.76 SR 356 east – LexingtonWestern end of SR 356
Scottsburg29.7647.89 SR 56 – Salem, Hanover
Austin34.2555.12 SR 256 – Madison
JacksonCrothersville37.14–
37.30
59.77–
60.03
I-65 – Indianapolis, LouisvilleExit 36 on I-65
42.0767.71 SR 250 – Brownstown
Seymour50.4281.14 US 50 – Seymour, North Vernon
BartholomewColumbus64.86104.38 SR 7 – Columbus, North Vernon
65.28105.06 SR 46 – Columbus, Greensburg
Taylorsville77.13–
77.60
124.13–
124.89
I-65 – Indianapolis, LouisvilleExit 76 on I-65
JohnsonEdinburgh81.39130.98 SR 252 east – EdinburghSouthern end of SR 252 concurrency
Blue River Township85.11136.97 SR 252 west – MartinsvilleNorthern end of SR 252 concurrency
Franklin Jefferson Street – Fairgrounds, Franklin CollegeTo SR 44; serves Johnson Memorial Hospital
MarionIndianapolis SR 135 south (Thompson Road)
107.17172.47 I-465 / I-74 / US 36 / US 40 west / SR 37 / SR 67 southSouth end of freeway section; southern end of I-465/I-74/US 36/US 40/SR 37/SR 67 concurrencies; exit 2B on I-465; future southern end of I-69 concurrency
2AEast Street northExit numbers follow I-465; no northbound entrance; no exit number northbound
53 I-65 – Indianapolis, LouisvilleExit 106 on I-65
Beech GroveIndianapolis line52Emerson Avenue
Indianapolis49 I-74 east (US 421 south) / Southeastern Avenue – CincinnatiNorthern end of I-74 concurrency; southern end of US 421 concurrency
48Shadeland AvenueNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
47 US 52 east (Brookville Road) – CincinnatiNorthern end of US 52 concurrency
46 US 40 east (Washington Street) – DaytonNorthern end of US 40 concurrency
44 I-70 / Shadeland Avenue – Indianapolis, DaytonSigned as exits 44A (east) & 44B (west) northbound; I-70 east exit 89, west exit 90; Shadeland Avenue not signed northbound
IndianapolisLawrence line42 US 36 east / SR 67 north (Pendleton Pike)Northern end of US 36/SR 67 concurrency
LawrenceIndianapolis line40Shadeland Avenue / 56th Street
Indianapolis37A I-69 / SR 37 north – Fort WayneNorthern end of SR 37 concurrency; current southern terminus of I-69 (future northern end of concurrency); exit 200 on I-69 south
37BBinford Boulevard – IndianapolisSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; former SR 37 south
35Allisonville RoadSingle-point urban interchange
33Keystone Avenue – CarmelFormer SR 431
HamiltonCarmel123 I-465 / US 52 west / US 421 north – IndianapolisExit numbers follow US 31; no exit number northbound; northern ends of I-465/US 52/US 421 concurrencies; exit 31 on I-465
Meridian Street south to DowntownLeft exit and entrances; former US 31 south
124106th StreetRoundabout exit; no exit number northbound
125116th StreetRoundabout exit
126Old Meridian StreetNorthbound exit only
127Main StreetRoundabout exit
128136th StreetRoundabout exit
CarmelWestfield line137.60221.45129BKeystone Pkwy
Rangeline Road, Clay Terrace Boulevard
Northern terminus of Keystone Parkway; southbound exit and northbound entrance
129A146th Street, 151st StreetCity line at 146th Street
Westfield131161st StreetRoundabout exit
140.65226.35132 SR 32 (Main Street) – Lebanon, Noblesville
134191st Street
144.26232.16136 SR 38 (Sheridan Road) – Sheridan, NoblesvilleNorthern end of freeway
Bakers Corner236th StreetPlanned interchange[20]
TiptonJefferson Township156.72252.22148 SR 28 – Frankfort, Tipton, ElwoodInterchange; opened November 2016
156 SR 931 north – KokomoSouth end of freeway; southern terminus of SR 931; northbound exit and southbound entrance
HowardOakford166.58268.08158 SR 26 – Hartford City, Lafayette
Taylor Township161E. Boulevard Street (County Road 100S)
Darrough Chapel170.91275.05162 US 35 south (Markland Avenue) / SR 22 – Kokomo, Gas CitySouthern end of US 35 concurrency
CenterHoward
township line
165Touby Pike
Howard Township175.52282.47166 US 35 north – Logansport, La Porte, Michigan CityNorthern end of US 35 concurrency; northbound exit and southbound entrance
HowardClay
township line
167 SR 931 south – KokomoNorthern terminus of SR 931; southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern end of freeway
MiamiDeer Creek Township178.50287.27 SR 18 – Galveston, MarionTo be converted into interchange[20]
Pipe Creek Township183.73295.68 SR 218 east – Bunker HillSouthern end of SR 218 concurrency
184.83297.46 SR 218 west – WaltonNorthern end of SR 218 concurrency

Bus. US 31 north – Peru
Southern terminus of Bus. US 31; to be converted into interchange[20]
Peru TownshipLogansport Road (Bus. US 24) – PeruInterchange via connector road
190.96–
191.71
307.32–
308.53
US 24 east – Peru, Fort WayneCloverleaf interchange
US 24 west – Logansport
JeffersonUnion
township line
197.88318.46 SR 16 – Denver
FultonRochester211.58–
212.36
340.51–
341.76
SR 25 (Main Street) – Rochester, LogansportDiamond interchange; to SR 14
FultonMarshall
county line
RichlandWalnut
township line
221.37356.26 SR 110 – Mentone
MarshallArgos226.08363.84 SR 10 (Indiana Avenue) – Culver, ArgosTo be converted into interchange[20]
PlymouthBridge over Lincoln Highway (Old US 30); no access to/from highway
233.67–
234.17
376.06–
376.86
225 US 30 – Valparaiso, WarsawSouth end of freeway; signed as exits 225A (east) and 225B (west)
228Veterans Parkway7th Road to the east
La Paz241.27388.29233 US 6 – Walkerton, Bremen
St. JosephLakeville247.66398.57239 SR 4 west (Pierce Road) – La PorteEastern end of the western section SR 4
South Bend245Kern Road
253.94408.68246A US 20 east (St. Joseph Valley Parkway east) – ElkhartSouthbound left entrance (via Bus. US 31) and northbound exit
Michigan Street (Bus. US 31 north)Southern terminus of Bus. US 31; no direct southbound exit; Bus. US 31 exit 246B; serves Memorial Hospital of South Bend
US 20 east (St. Joseph Valley Parkway east) – Mishawaka, ElkhartSouthern end of US 20 concurrency; southbound left exit and northbound left entrance
SR 23 – North Liberty, South Bend
Portage TownshipMayflower RoadNo northbound exit to southbound Mayflower Road or southbound entrance from northbound Mayflower Road
South Bend
SR 2 west – La PorteEastern terminus of SR 2
South Bend262.24422.03 South BendServes South Bend International Airport
US 20 west – Michigan CityNorthern end of US 20 concurrency
263.43–
263.60
423.95–
424.22
Nimtz ParkwayNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
Indiana Toll Road / I-80 / I-90Exit 72 on the ITR
Nimtz ParkwaySouthbound exit and northbound entrance

Bus. US 31 south (Cleveland Road) / Brick Road
Northern terminus of Bus. US 31
266.02428.12 US 31 north (St. Joseph Valley Parkway) – NilesContinuation into Michigan
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Supplemental routes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Road Numbers to Be Changed". The Hancock-Democrat. The Indianapolis News. September 30, 1926. Retrieved June 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  2. ^ Federal Highway Administration (December 2003). National Highway System: Indiana (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  4. ^ "INDOT Traffic Zones". Indiana Department of Transportation. 2010. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
  5. ^ Indiana State Highway Commission (1917). 1917 Indiana State Highway Map and State Highway Commission (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana State Highway Commission.
  6. ^ a b Indiana State Highway Commission (1917). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana State Highway Commission. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  7. ^ Indiana State Highway Commission (1918). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana State Highway Commission.
  8. ^ Indiana State Highway Commission (1924). Indiana Transportation Map (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana State Highway Commission. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  9. ^ McFeely, Dan (November 26, 2013). "Kokomo US 31 Bypass Should Cut Commutes". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  10. ^ Smith, Scott (November 27, 2013). "On Cruise Control". Kokomo Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  11. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation Northwest District [@INDOTNorthwest] (August 21, 2014). "And we have liftoff!" (Tweet). Retrieved January 19, 2016 – via Twitter.
  12. ^ Gray, Amanda (August 22, 2014). "Driving the New US 31 Is Smooth Sailing". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  13. ^ "Governor Pence Officially Opens New US 31 Plymouth to South Bend" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  14. ^ Meenan, Jim (August 28, 2014). "Pence Officially Opens New US 31". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  15. ^ Pemberton, Caele (November 21, 2016). "Tipton Interchange to Open Tuesday". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  16. ^ Office of the Governor of Indiana. "2019 Next Level Connections Fact Sheet" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  17. ^ Carson, Gerber (September 7, 2018). "Two New interchanges Coming to US 31 in Miami Co." Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  18. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation. "US 31 Project". Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  19. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation. "INDOT Roadway Referencing System" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2011.
  20. ^ a b c d Gerber, Carson (September 7, 2018). "Two new interchanges coming to U.S. 31 in Miami Co". Kokomo Tribune. Community Newspaper Holdings Inc. Retrieved April 30, 2020.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata


U.S. Route 31
Previous state:
Kentucky
Indiana Next state:
Michigan