U.S. Route 31 in Indiana

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U.S. Route 31 marker

U.S. Route 31
Route information
Maintained by INDOT
Length266.02 mi (428.12 km)
ExistedOctober 1, 1926[1]–present
Major junctions
South end US 31 at Kentucky state line
  I-65 near Jeffersonville

I-265 near Clarksville
I-65 near Crothersville
US 50 near Seymour
I-65 near Edinburgh
I-465 / I-74 / I-70 at Indianapolis
US 35 at Kokomo
US 24 near Peru
US 30 near Plymouth

I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road near South Bend
North end US 31 at Michigan state line
Location
CountiesClark, Scott, Jackson, Bartholomew, Johnson, Marion, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall, St. Joseph
Highway system
US 30SR 32

U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to Mackinaw City, Michigan. It enters the U.S. state of Indiana via the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. The 266.02 miles (428.12 km) of US 31 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway and urbanized four- or six-lane divided expressway. The northernmost community along the highway is South Bend near the Michigan state line.

US 31 was first designated as a US Highway in October 1926. A northern section (from Rochester to South Bend) and a far southern section (on old US 31 W into Louisville on the K&I Bridge) of the highway originally served as part of the Dixie Highway. US 31 was the Jackson Highway from Indianapolis to Seymour. US 31 replaced the original State Road 1 (SR 1) designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana State Road system. SR 1 ran from Clarksville through Indianapolis to South Bend and ended at the Michigan state line.

Route description[edit]

Only the segment of US 31 that is north of Indianapolis is included as a part of the National Highway System (NHS).[2] The NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy, mobility and defense of the nation.[3] The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) like all other U.S. Routes in the state. The department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that lowest traffic levels were the 3,690 personal vehicles and 160 commercial vehicles that used the highway daily near Memphis. The peak traffic volume was 168,770 personal vehicles and 18,090 commercial vehicles along the section of US 31 concurrent with Interstate 465 (I–465).[4]

Jeffersonville to Columbus[edit]

US 31 overlaps I-65 in Jeffersonville, after crossing the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge from Kentucky. It then diverges as the access frontage lanes before splitting off north of Jeffersonville at Clarksville and proceeding to Indianapolis. US 31 was widened to two lanes in both directions for its length through Columbus in the early 2000s.

Columbus to Indianapolis[edit]

At I-465 on the south side of Indianapolis, US 31 is routed onto I-465 on the east side of the city. This is the closest approach the highway makes to downtown Indianapolis. Previously the northbound route of the highway through Indianapolis was on East Street, Madison Avenue, Delaware Street, North Street, and onto Meridian Street; southbound was on Meridian Street, North Street, Pennsylvania Street, Madison Avenue, and onto East Street.

Indianapolis to Michigan[edit]

US 31 exits I-465 (coincidentally at Exit 31) in Carmel, and continues northward as a freeway through Westfield. North of SR 38, it reverts to a divided highway until reaching the Kokomo area, where it again becomes a full freeway to bypass that city to the east. North of the Kokomo area US 31 again becomes a rural divided highway, which skirts Peru, Rochester, and Plymouth. At US 30 east of Plymouth, US 31 becomes a freeway again and remains so for the rest of its journey in the state. After bypassing Lakeville to the east, US 31 approaches South Bend. There the route converges with US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway and proceeds west and then north to bypass South Bend. After US 20 splits off to the west near the South Bend Airport, US 31 has an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road (I-80/I-90) before proceeding north into Michigan (see U.S. Route 31 in Michigan).

History[edit]

US 31 was signed into law by the Governor on March 7 of 1917, as Main Market Highway 1, and signs were installed on June 1 of that year.[5][6] The name was changed to Indiana State Road 1 within a year when Indiana began the state road system.[6][7] By 1924, most of the route was paved, leaving only from Columbus to Franklin and from Peru to Plymouth that was unpaved.[8] On October 1, 1926, US 31 was designated along what was SR 1 at the time.[1]

Freeway upgrades for northern sections[edit]

Three sections of US 31 in Northern Indiana between I-465 and US 20 have been relocated or upgraded, part of the INDOT Major Moves Project designed to convert US 31 to Interstate-grade freeway from South Bend to Indianapolis. The rest of the 78 miles of US 31 between these three segments is gradually being converted to a free-flowing highway without traffic signals,[9] starting with an interchange at SR 28 in Tipton County which opened November 22, 2016.[10] As of 2018 there were six traffic signals left between Indianapolis and South Bend, and a program introduced by Governor Eric Holcomb in September 2018 proposed to remove four of those.[11][12]

Hamilton County[edit]

The New US 31 Hamilton County project upgraded US 31 to freeway standards from Interstate 465 near the Marion County line and Indianapolis to a point near SR 38 north of Westfield.

Kokomo[edit]

The Kokomo Corridor Project covered 14 miles (23 km) of new highway primarily in Howard County. The limited-access highway was built east of Kokomo and has five interchanges at SR 26, E. Boulevard (CR 100S), US 35/SR 22 (Markland Avenue), Touby Pike and US 35 north of Kokomo. Groundbreaking for the project occurred in the afternoon of September 17, 2008.[13][14] This section of highway opened with a ribbon-cutting ceremony on November 26, 2013.[15][16] The former section of US 31 was redesignated as State Road 931.

Plymouth to South Bend[edit]

The US 31 Plymouth to South Bend project relocated US 31 on primarily new alignment from US 30 near Plymouth to US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway south of South Bend. Groundbreaking for the project occurred on September 17, 2008,[13][17][18] only hours before the groundbreaking for the Kokomo stretch, and initial construction was in northern Marshall County.[19] This section of highway opened on August 21, 2014,[20][21] and a portion was dedicated as the Richard W. Mangus Memorial Highway, in honor of the local state representative who supported the freeway's construction, at the ribbon-cutting ceremony on August 27.[22][23] As of the time of the freeway opening a designation for the state-maintained portion of the former route had not been decided[24] but it was later designated as another segment of SR 931.

Major intersections[edit]

CountyLocationmi[25]kmExitDestinationsNotes
Ohio River0.000.00Clark Memorial Bridge
US 31 south continues into Kentucky
ClarkClarksville1.512.43Brown Station Way;– New Albany, Clarksville, IndianaFormer SR 62
1.592.561 I-65 south – LouisvilleSouthern end of I-65 concurrency
3.715.972 I-65 north – IndianapolisNorthern end of I-65 concurrency; US 31 serves as collector-distributor lane for I-65 until exit 4
Jeffersonville Township6.169.91 SR 60 west – SalemEastern end of SR 60
Sellersburg9.2814.93Old SR 311Former SR 311
10.02–
10.05
16.13–
16.17
Old SR 403Former SR 403
Henryville19.5831.51 SR 160 – Salem, Charlestown
ScottVienna Township27.1943.76 SR 356 east – LexingtonWestern end of SR 356
Scottsburg29.7647.89 SR 56 – Salem, Hanover
Austin34.2555.12 SR 256 – Madison
JacksonCrothersville37.14–
37.30
59.77–
60.03
I-65 – Indianapolis, LouisvilleExit 36 on I-65
42.0767.71 SR 250 – Brownstown
Seymour50.4281.14 US 50 – Seymour, North Vernon
BartholomewColumbus64.86104.38 SR 7 – Columbus, North Vernon
65.28105.06 SR 46 – Columbus, Greensburg
Taylorsville77.13–
77.60
124.13–
124.89
I-65 – Indianapolis, LouisvilleExit 76 on I-65
JohnsonEdinburgh81.39130.98 SR 252 east – EdinburghSouthern end of SR 252 concurrency
Blue River Township85.11136.97 SR 252 west – MartinsvilleNorthern end of SR 252 concurrency
MarionIndianapolis107.17172.472 I-74 / I-465
US 36 / US 40
SR 37 / SR 67
Southern and western ends of I-465, I-74, US 36, US 40, SR 37, SR 67 concurrencies; future southern end of I-69 concurrency
53 I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville
49 I-74 east / US 421 south (Southeastern Avenue) – CincinnatiEastern end of I-74 concurrency; southern end of US 421 concurrency
47 US 52 east (Brookville Road) – CincinnatiEastern end of US 52 concurrency
46 US 40 east (Washington Street) – DaytonEastern end of US 40 concurrency
44 I-70 – Indianapolis, Dayton
Lawrence42 US 36 east / SR 67 north (Pendleton Pike) – PendletonEastern end of US 36 concurrency; northern end of SR 67 concurrency
Indianapolis37 I-69 north / SR 37 north (Binford Boulevard) – Fort WayneNorthern end of SR 37 concurrency; current southern end of I-69 (future northern end of concurrency)
33Keystone Avenue – CarmelFormer SR 431
HamiltonCarmel123 I-465 west / US 52 west / US 421 north – IndianapolisNorthern and western ends of I-465, US 52, and US 421 concurrencies
124106th StreetRoundabout exit
125116th StreetRoundabout exit
126Old Meridian Streetnorthbound exit, no entrance
127Main StreetRoundabout exit
128136th StreetRoundabout exit
CarmelWestfield line137.60221.45129146th Street, 151st Street – Carmel, WestfieldSigned as exits 129A (151st St and 146th St) and 129B (Keystone Pkwy - Indianapolis) Southbound; city line at 146th Street; northern end of Keystone Pkwy (southbound entrance from US 31, northbound exit to US 31; southbound access to Clay Terrace Boulevard and Rangeline Road from 146th Street entrance ramp
Westfield131161st StreetRoundabout exit
140.65226.35132 SR 32 (Main Street) – Lebanon, Noblesville
134191st Street
144.26232.16136 SR 38 (Sheridan Road) – Sheridan, Noblesville
TiptonJefferson Township156.72252.22148 SR 28 – Frankfort, Tipton, ElwoodInterchange opened November 2016
156 SR 931 northSouthern terminus of SR 931; northbound exit and southbound entrance
HowardKokomo166.58268.08158 SR 26 (Co Rd 400 South) – Lafayette
161Co Rd 100 South
170.91275.05162 US 35 south (Markland Avenue) / SR 22 – Kokomo, Gas CitySouthern end of US 35 concurrency
165Touby Pike
175.52282.47166 US 35 north – Logansport, La Porte, Michigan CityNorthern end of US 35 concurrency; northbound exit and southbound entrance
167 SR 931 southNorthern terminus of SR 931; southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern end of freeway
MiamiDeer Creek Township178.50287.27 SR 18 – Galveston, Marion
Pipe Creek Township183.73295.68 SR 218 east – Bunker HillSouthern end of SR 218 concurrency
184.83297.46 SR 218 west – WaltonNorthern end of SR 218 concurrency
Peru190.96–
191.71
307.32–
308.53
US 24 – Logansport, Fort Wayne
Denver197.88318.46 SR 16 (Co Rd 700 North) – Denver
FultonRochester211.58–
212.36
340.51–
341.76
SR 25 (Main Street) – Rochester, Logansport
FultonMarshall
county line
RichlandWalnut
township line
221.37356.26 SR 110 – Mentone
MarshallArgos226.08363.84 SR 10 (Indiana Avenue) – Culver, Argos
Plymouth Lincoln Highway (Old US 30)Grade separated (no direct access to/from)
233.67–
234.17
376.06–
376.86
225 US 30 – Valparaiso, Warsaw, Fort WayneSigned as Exits 225A(US 30 East to Warsaw) and 225B(US 30 West to Valparaiso); southern end of freeway
228Veterans Parkway7th Road to the east
La Paz241.27388.29233 US 6 – Walkerton, Bremen
St. JosephLakeville247.66398.57239 SR 4 west (Pierce Road) – La PorteEastern end of the western section SR 4
South Bend245Kern Road
262.27422.08246 US 20 east – Mishawaka, ElkhartSouthern end of US 20 concurrency; Signed as Exits 246A(US 20 East to Elkhart) and 246B(US 31 North to Niles/US 20 West to Michigan City) Northbound; Signed as Exit 79 Southbound
76 SR 23 – North Liberty, South Bend
74Mayflower RoadNo northbound exit to southbound Mayflower Road or southbound entrance from northbound Mayflower Road
73 SR 2 west (Western Avenue) – La Porte, South BendEastern terminus of SR 2; signed as 73A (west) and 73B (east)
262.24422.03263 US 20 west (Lincolnway West) – Michigan City, South BendNorthern end of US 20 concurrency; signed as 263A (east) and 263B (west)
264ANimtz ParkwaySigned as Exit 264B southbound
263.43–
263.60
423.95–
424.22
264B I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road – Elkhart, Chicago, ToledoSigned as exit 264A southbound; exit 72 on the Indiana Toll Road
265Cleveland Road, Brick Road
266.02428.12 US 31 north – Niles, Benton HarborMichigan state line; St. Joseph Valley Parkway continues into Michigan
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Supplemental routes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Road Numbers to Be Changed". The Hancock-Democrat. The Indianapolis News. September 30, 1926. Retrieved June 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  2. ^ National Highway System: Indiana (PDF) (Map). Federal Highway Administration. December 2003. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  3. ^ "National Highway System". Federal Highway Administration. August 26, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  4. ^ "INDOT Traffic Zones". Indiana Department of Transportation. 2010. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
  5. ^ 1917 Indiana State Highway Map and State Highway Commission (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1917.
  6. ^ a b Indiana Transportation Map (jpg) (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1917. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  7. ^ Indiana Transportation Map (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1918.
  8. ^ Indiana Transportation Map (pdf) (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1924. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  9. ^ "U.S. 31 bypass around Kokomo is running 2 years early". The Elkhart Truth. January 13, 2010.
  10. ^ Pemberton, Caele (November 21, 2016). "Tipton interchange to open Tuesday". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  11. ^ Office of the Governor of Indiana. "2019 Next Level Connections Fact Sheet" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  12. ^ Carson, Gerber (September 7, 2018). "Two New interchanges Coming to US 31 in Miami Co.". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  13. ^ a b Platt, Sarah (September 17, 2008). "Governor Daniels breaks ground on new U.S. 31 in Lakeville". WNDU-TV. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
  14. ^ Smith, Scott (September 17, 2008). "Ceremony for new U.S. 31 corridor draws crowd". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
  15. ^ McFeely, Dan (November 26, 2013). "Kokomo U.S. 31 bypass should cut commutes". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  16. ^ Smith, Scott (November 27, 2013). "On Cruise Control". Kokomo Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  17. ^ Jackson, Adam (September 18, 2008). "Ground Breaks on U.S. 31 Work". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  18. ^ Grove, Dustin (September 17, 2008). "New U.S. 31 Project Underway". WSBT-TV. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2012.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  19. ^ Sulok, Nancy J. (January 27, 2008). "Bridges to signal start of new U.S. 31 freeway". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  20. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation Northwest District [@INDOTNorthwest] (August 21, 2014). "And we have liftoff!" (Tweet). Retrieved January 19, 2016 – via Twitter.
  21. ^ Gray, Amanda (August 22, 2014). "Driving the New U.S. 31 Is Smooth Sailing". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  22. ^ "Governor Pence Officially Opens New U.S. 31 Plymouth to South Bend" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  23. ^ Meenan, Jim (August 28, 2014). "Pence Officially Opens new U.S. 31". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  24. ^ New US 31 Already Impacting Business (Video). WSBT-TV. August 21, 2014. Event occurs at 3:02. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  25. ^ "INDOT Roadway Referencing System" (PDF). staff. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-15.

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata


U.S. Route 31
Previous state:
Kentucky
Indiana Next state:
Michigan