U.S. Route 31 in Indiana
|Maintained by INDOT|
|Length||266.02 mi (428.12 km)|
|Existed||October 1, 1926–present|
|South end||US 31 at Kentucky state line|
| I-65 near Jeffersonville|
I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road near South Bend
|North end||US 31 at Michigan state line|
|Counties||Clark, Scott, Jackson, Bartholomew, Johnson, Marion, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall, St. Joseph|
U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to Mackinaw City, Michigan. It enters the U.S. state of Indiana via the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. The 266.02 miles (428.12 km) of US 31 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway and urbanized four- or six-lane divided expressway. The northernmost community along the highway is South Bend near the Michigan state line.
US 31 was first designated as a US Highway in October 1926. A northern section (from Rochester to South Bend) and a far southern section (on old US 31 W into Louisville on the K&I Bridge) of the highway originally served as part of the Dixie Highway. US 31 was the Jackson Highway from Indianapolis to Seymour. US 31 replaced the original State Road 1 (SR 1) designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana State Road system. SR 1 ran from Clarksville through Indianapolis to South Bend and ended at the Michigan state line.
- 1 Route description
- 2 History
- 3 Major intersections
- 4 Supplemental routes
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Only the segment of US 31 that is north of Indianapolis is included as a part of the National Highway System (NHS). The NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy, mobility and defense of the nation. The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) like all other U.S. Routes in the state. The department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that lowest traffic levels were the 3,690 personal vehicles and 160 commercial vehicles that used the highway daily near Memphis. The peak traffic volume was 168,770 personal vehicles and 18,090 commercial vehicles along the section of US 31 concurrent with Interstate 465 (I–465).
Jeffersonville to Columbus
US 31 overlaps I-65 in Jeffersonville, after crossing the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge from Kentucky. It then diverges as the access frontage lanes before splitting off north of Jeffersonville at Clarksville and proceeding to Indianapolis. US 31 was widened to two lanes in both directions for its length through Columbus in the early 2000s.
Columbus to Indianapolis
At I-465 on the south side of Indianapolis, US 31 is routed onto I-465 on the east side of the city. This is the closest approach the highway makes to downtown Indianapolis. Previously the northbound route of the highway through Indianapolis was on East Street, Madison Avenue, Delaware Street, North Street, and onto Meridian Street; southbound was on Meridian Street, North Street, Pennsylvania Street, Madison Avenue, and onto East Street.
Indianapolis to Michigan
US 31 exits I-465 (coincidentally at Exit 31) in Carmel, and continues northward as a freeway through Westfield. North of SR 38, it reverts to a divided highway until reaching the Kokomo area, where it again becomes a full freeway to bypass that city to the east. North of the Kokomo area US 31 again becomes a rural divided highway, which skirts Peru, Rochester, and Plymouth. At US 30 east of Plymouth, US 31 becomes a freeway again and remains so for the rest of its journey in the state. After bypassing Lakeville to the east, US 31 approaches South Bend. There the route converges with US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway and proceeds west and then north to bypass South Bend. After US 20 splits off to the west near the South Bend Airport, US 31 has an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road (I-80/I-90) before proceeding north into Michigan (see U.S. Route 31 in Michigan).
US 31 was signed into law by the Governor on March 7 of 1917, as Main Market Highway 1, and signs were installed on June 1 of that year. The name was changed to Indiana State Road 1 within a year when Indiana began the state road system. By 1924, most of the route was paved, leaving only from Columbus to Franklin and from Peru to Plymouth that was unpaved. On October 1, 1926, US 31 was designated along what was SR 1 at the time.
Freeway upgrades for northern sections
Three sections of US 31 in Northern Indiana between I-465 and US 20 have been relocated or upgraded, part of the INDOT Major Moves Project designed to convert US 31 to Interstate-grade freeway from South Bend to Indianapolis. The rest of the 78 miles of US 31 between these three segments is gradually being converted to a free-flowing highway without traffic signals, starting with an interchange at SR 28 in Tipton County which opened November 22, 2016. As of 2018[update] there were six traffic signals left between Indianapolis and South Bend, and a program introduced by Governor Eric Holcomb in September 2018 proposed to remove four of those.
The Kokomo Corridor Project covered 14 miles (23 km) of new highway primarily in Howard County. The limited-access highway was built east of Kokomo and has five interchanges at SR 26, E. Boulevard (CR 100S), US 35/SR 22 (Markland Avenue), Touby Pike and US 35 north of Kokomo. Groundbreaking for the project occurred in the afternoon of September 17, 2008. This section of highway opened with a ribbon-cutting ceremony on November 26, 2013. The former section of US 31 was redesignated as State Road 931.
Plymouth to South Bend
The US 31 Plymouth to South Bend project relocated US 31 on primarily new alignment from US 30 near Plymouth to US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway south of South Bend. Groundbreaking for the project occurred on September 17, 2008, only hours before the groundbreaking for the Kokomo stretch, and initial construction was in northern Marshall County. This section of highway opened on August 21, 2014, and a portion was dedicated as the Richard W. Mangus Memorial Highway, in honor of the local state representative who supported the freeway's construction, at the ribbon-cutting ceremony on August 27. As of the time of the freeway opening a designation for the state-maintained portion of the former route had not been decided but it was later designated as another segment of SR 931.
This section contains a table that is missing mileposts for one or more junctions.
|Ohio River||0.00||0.00||Clark Memorial Bridge|
US 31 south continues into Kentucky
|Clark||Clarksville||1.51||2.43||Brown Station Way;– New Albany, Clarksville, Indiana||Former SR 62|
|1.59||2.56||1||I-65 south – Louisville||Southern end of I-65 concurrency|
|3.71||5.97||2||I-65 north – Indianapolis||Northern end of I-65 concurrency; US 31 serves as collector-distributor lane for I-65 until exit 4|
|Jeffersonville Township||6.16||9.91||SR 60 west – Salem||Eastern end of SR 60|
|Sellersburg||9.28||14.93||Old SR 311||Former SR 311|
|Old SR 403||Former SR 403|
|Henryville||19.58||31.51||SR 160 – Salem, Charlestown|
|Scott||Vienna Township||27.19||43.76||SR 356 east – Lexington||Western end of SR 356|
|Scottsburg||29.76||47.89||SR 56 – Salem, Hanover|
|Austin||34.25||55.12||SR 256 – Madison|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 36 on I-65|
|42.07||67.71||SR 250 – Brownstown|
|Seymour||50.42||81.14||US 50 – Seymour, North Vernon|
|Bartholomew||Columbus||64.86||104.38||SR 7 – Columbus, North Vernon|
|65.28||105.06||SR 46 – Columbus, Greensburg|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 76 on I-65|
|Johnson||Edinburgh||81.39||130.98||SR 252 east – Edinburgh||Southern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Blue River Township||85.11||136.97||SR 252 west – Martinsville||Northern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Marion||Indianapolis||107.17||172.47||2|| I-74 / I-465|
US 36 / US 40
SR 37 / SR 67
|Southern and western ends of I-465, I-74, US 36, US 40, SR 37, SR 67 concurrencies; future southern end of I-69 concurrency|
|53||I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville|
|49||I-74 east / US 421 south (Southeastern Avenue) – Cincinnati||Eastern end of I-74 concurrency; southern end of US 421 concurrency|
|47||US 52 east (Brookville Road) – Cincinnati||Eastern end of US 52 concurrency|
|46||US 40 east (Washington Street) – Dayton||Eastern end of US 40 concurrency|
|44||I-70 – Indianapolis, Dayton|
|Lawrence||42||US 36 east / SR 67 north (Pendleton Pike) – Pendleton||Eastern end of US 36 concurrency; northern end of SR 67 concurrency|
|Indianapolis||37||I-69 north / SR 37 north (Binford Boulevard) – Fort Wayne||Northern end of SR 37 concurrency; current southern end of I-69 (future northern end of concurrency)|
|33||Keystone Avenue – Carmel||Former SR 431|
|Hamilton||Carmel||123||I-465 west / US 52 west / US 421 north – Indianapolis||Northern and western ends of I-465, US 52, and US 421 concurrencies|
|124||106th Street||Roundabout exit|
|125||116th Street||Roundabout exit|
|126||Old Meridian Street||northbound exit, no entrance|
|127||Main Street||Roundabout exit|
|128||136th Street||Roundabout exit|
|Carmel–Westfield line||137.60||221.45||129||146th Street, 151st Street – Carmel, Westfield||Signed as exits 129A (151st St and 146th St) and 129B (Keystone Pkwy - Indianapolis) Southbound; city line at 146th Street; northern end of Keystone Pkwy (southbound entrance from US 31, northbound exit to US 31; southbound access to Clay Terrace Boulevard and Rangeline Road from 146th Street entrance ramp|
|Westfield||131||161st Street||Roundabout exit|
|140.65||226.35||132||SR 32 (Main Street) – Lebanon, Noblesville|
|144.26||232.16||136||SR 38 (Sheridan Road) – Sheridan, Noblesville|
|Tipton||Jefferson Township||156.72||252.22||148||SR 28 – Frankfort, Tipton, Elwood||Interchange opened November 2016|
|156||SR 931 north||Southern terminus of SR 931; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|Howard||Kokomo||166.58||268.08||158||SR 26 (Co Rd 400 South) – Lafayette|
|161||Co Rd 100 South|
|170.91||275.05||162||US 35 south (Markland Avenue) / SR 22 – Kokomo, Gas City||Southern end of US 35 concurrency|
|175.52||282.47||166||US 35 north – Logansport, La Porte, Michigan City||Northern end of US 35 concurrency; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|167||SR 931 south||Northern terminus of SR 931; southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern end of freeway|
|Miami||Deer Creek Township||178.50||287.27||SR 18 – Galveston, Marion|
|Pipe Creek Township||183.73||295.68||SR 218 east – Bunker Hill||Southern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|184.83||297.46||SR 218 west – Walton||Northern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|US 24 – Logansport, Fort Wayne|
|Denver||197.88||318.46||SR 16 (Co Rd 700 North) – Denver|
|SR 25 (Main Street) – Rochester, Logansport|
|221.37||356.26||SR 110 – Mentone|
|Marshall||Argos||226.08||363.84||SR 10 (Indiana Avenue) – Culver, Argos|
|Plymouth||Lincoln Highway (Old US 30)||Grade separated (no direct access to/from)|
|225||US 30 – Valparaiso, Warsaw, Fort Wayne||Signed as Exits 225A(US 30 East to Warsaw) and 225B(US 30 West to Valparaiso); southern end of freeway|
|228||Veterans Parkway||7th Road to the east|
|La Paz||241.27||388.29||233||US 6 – Walkerton, Bremen|
|St. Joseph||Lakeville||247.66||398.57||239||SR 4 west (Pierce Road) – La Porte||Eastern end of the western section SR 4|
|South Bend||245||Kern Road|
|262.27||422.08||246||US 20 east – Mishawaka, Elkhart||Southern end of US 20 concurrency; Signed as Exits 246A(US 20 East to Elkhart) and 246B(US 31 North to Niles/US 20 West to Michigan City) Northbound; Signed as Exit 79 Southbound|
|76||SR 23 – North Liberty, South Bend|
|74||Mayflower Road||No northbound exit to southbound Mayflower Road or southbound entrance from northbound Mayflower Road|
|73||SR 2 west (Western Avenue) – La Porte, South Bend||Eastern terminus of SR 2; signed as 73A (west) and 73B (east)|
|262.24||422.03||263||US 20 west (Lincolnway West) – Michigan City, South Bend||Northern end of US 20 concurrency; signed as 263A (east) and 263B (west)|
|264A||Nimtz Parkway||Signed as Exit 264B southbound|
|264B||I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road – Elkhart, Chicago, Toledo||Signed as exit 264A southbound; exit 72 on the Indiana Toll Road|
|265||Cleveland Road, Brick Road|
|266.02||428.12||US 31 north – Niles, Benton Harbor||Michigan state line; St. Joseph Valley Parkway continues into Michigan|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
- "Road Numbers to Be Changed". The Hancock-Democrat. The Indianapolis News. September 30, 1926. Retrieved June 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- National Highway System: Indiana (PDF) (Map). Federal Highway Administration. December 2003. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "National Highway System". Federal Highway Administration. August 26, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "INDOT Traffic Zones". Indiana Department of Transportation. 2010. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- 1917 Indiana State Highway Map and State Highway Commission (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1917.
- Indiana Transportation Map (jpg) (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1917. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Indiana Transportation Map (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1918.
- Indiana Transportation Map (pdf) (Map). Indiana State Highway Commission. 1924. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "U.S. 31 bypass around Kokomo is running 2 years early". The Elkhart Truth. January 13, 2010.
- Pemberton, Caele (November 21, 2016). "Tipton interchange to open Tuesday". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Office of the Governor of Indiana. "2019 Next Level Connections Fact Sheet" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Carson, Gerber (September 7, 2018). "Two New interchanges Coming to US 31 in Miami Co.". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Platt, Sarah (September 17, 2008). "Governor Daniels breaks ground on new U.S. 31 in Lakeville". WNDU-TV. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Smith, Scott (September 17, 2008). "Ceremony for new U.S. 31 corridor draws crowd". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
- McFeely, Dan (November 26, 2013). "Kokomo U.S. 31 bypass should cut commutes". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Smith, Scott (November 27, 2013). "On Cruise Control". Kokomo Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Jackson, Adam (September 18, 2008). "Ground Breaks on U.S. 31 Work". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Grove, Dustin (September 17, 2008). "New U.S. 31 Project Underway". WSBT-TV. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2012.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Sulok, Nancy J. (January 27, 2008). "Bridges to signal start of new U.S. 31 freeway". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- Indiana Department of Transportation Northwest District [@INDOTNorthwest] (August 21, 2014). "And we have liftoff!" (Tweet). Retrieved January 19, 2016 – via Twitter.
- Gray, Amanda (August 22, 2014). "Driving the New U.S. 31 Is Smooth Sailing". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "Governor Pence Officially Opens New U.S. 31 Plymouth to South Bend" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Meenan, Jim (August 28, 2014). "Pence Officially Opens new U.S. 31". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- New US 31 Already Impacting Business (Video). WSBT-TV. August 21, 2014. Event occurs at 3:02. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "INDOT Roadway Referencing System" (PDF). staff. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-15.
|U.S. Route 31|