U.S. state and local government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic

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States, territories, and counties that have issued a stay-at-home order
  Came into effect before March 22
  Came into effect before March 29
  Came into effect before April 5
  Came into effect before April 12
  No order ever issued
Full map including municipalities

State, territorial, tribal, and local governments have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States with various declarations of emergency, closure of schools and public meeting places, lockdowns, and other restrictions intended to slow the progression of the virus.

Multiple groups of states have formed compacts in an attempt to coordinate some of their responses. On the West coast: California, Oregon, and Washington state; in the Northeast: Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island; and in the Midwest: Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky.[1][2][3]

There was a significant link between public health outcomes and partisanship between states. In the second half of 2020, Republican led states saw higher case and death rates than states led by Democrats.[4][5] Thousands of US counties also initiated their own policy responses to the pandemic, resulting in significant variability even within states.[6]

State-level regulations[edit]

Initial pandemic responses, including full lockdowns[edit]

This is a list of regulations that were imposed at the state level, restricting activities and closing facilities as a result of the pandemic. Many counties and municipal jurisdictions have imposed more stringent regulations. A Columbia University model estimated 54,000 deaths would have been prevented if states had enacted restrictions starting a few weeks earlier, on March 1.[7]

State/territory State of emergency declared Stay at home ordered Face coverings required in public[8] Gatherings banned Out-of-state travel restrictions Closures ordered Sources
Schools Daycares Bars & sit-down restaurants Non-essential retail
Alabama Alabama March 13 April 4 Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [9][10][11][12][13][14]
Alaska Alaska March 11 March 28 No 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [15][11][16][12][13]
American Samoa American Samoa January 29 No No 10 or more Travel suspended Yes (remainder of term) Yes No No [17][18][19]
Arizona Arizona March 11 March 31 No 50 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [20][11][21][12][13][14]
Arkansas Arkansas March 11 No Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Regional [22][11][23][12][13][14]
California California (government response) March 4 March 19 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [24][25][12][13][14]
Colorado Colorado March 10 March 26 Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Restricted Yes Yes [11][26][12][13][14]
Connecticut Connecticut March 10 March 23 Yes All Recommended quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][27][12][13][14]
Delaware Delaware March 12 March 24 Yes All Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [28][11][29][30][12][13][14]
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia March 11 March 30 Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [31][32][12][13][14]
Florida Florida March 1 April 3 No 10 or more Limited quarantine / Screened Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][33][12][13][14]
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia March 14 April 3 No 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) No Yes Yes [11][12][13][14]
Guam Guam March 14 No No All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [34]
Hawaii Hawaii March 4 March 25 Yes 11 or more, and public gathering in public places Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][35][36][12][13]
Idaho Idaho March 13 March 25 No All Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Restricted [11][37][38][12][13][39][14]
Illinois Illinois March 9 March 21 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][40][41][12][13][14]
Indiana Indiana March 6 March 25 Yes All outside, and 11 or more inside a household No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][42][43][44]
Iowa Iowa March 9 No No 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][45][12][13][46][14]
Kansas Kansas March 9 March 30 Yes 10 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) No Yes Yes [11][47][12][13][14]
Kentucky Kentucky March 6 March 26 (advisory) Yes 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][48][49]
Louisiana Louisiana March 11 March 23 Yes 11 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][50][51][52]
Maine Maine March 15 April 2 Yes 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Restricted [11][12][13][14]
Maryland Maryland March 5 March 30 Yes 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][53][54][12][13][14]
Massachusetts Massachusetts March 10 March 24 (advisory) Yes 11 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][55][56][12][13][14]
Michigan Michigan March 11 March 24 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][57][58][12][13][14]
Minnesota Minnesota March 13 March 27 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][59][44]
Mississippi Mississippi March 4 April 3 No All No Yes (remainder of term) No Yes Yes [11][60][61][12][13][14]
Missouri Missouri March 13 April 6 No 10 or more Regional Yes (remainder of term) No Yes Yes [11][62][12][13][14]
Montana Montana March 12 March 28 No 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (districts' choice) Yes Yes Yes [11][63][12][13][14]
Nebraska Nebraska March 13 No No 10 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Restricted Restricted No [11][12][13][14]
Nevada Nevada March 12 April 1 Yes 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][64][12][13][14]
New Hampshire New Hampshire March 13 March 27 No 50 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][65][12][13][14]
New Jersey New Jersey March 9 March 21 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][66][67][12][13][14]
New Mexico New Mexico March 11 March 24 Yes 6 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][68][69][12][13][14]
New York (state) New York (government response) March 7 March 22 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][70][71][12][13][14]
North Carolina North Carolina March 10 March 30 Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][72][73][12][13][14]
North Dakota North Dakota March 13 No No 50 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14]
Northern Mariana Islands N. Mariana Islands January 29 No No 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes No No [74][12]
Ohio Ohio March 9 March 23 Yes 11 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Restricted Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][75][44]
Oklahoma Oklahoma March 15 April 2 (partial advisory) No 11 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][76][12][13][77][14]
Oregon Oregon March 8 March 23 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Restricted [11][78][79][12][13][14][80]
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania March 6 April 1 No 10 or more (recommended) Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][81][82][12][13][14]
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico March 12 March 15 No All Screened Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [83]
Rhode Island Rhode Island March 9 March 28 Yes 25 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][84][12][13][14]
South Carolina South Carolina March 13 April 7 No 50 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][85][12][13][14]
South Dakota South Dakota March 13 Regional No 50 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes No No [11][86][87][12][13][14]
Tennessee Tennessee March 12 April 2 Varies by county 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][88][89][12][13][14]
Texas Texas (government response) March 13 April 2 Yes 10 or more Limited quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][90][91][14]
Utah Utah March 6 Regional Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Regional [11][92][12][13][14]
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands March 13 March 25 No All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [93]
Vermont Vermont March 16 March 25 No 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][94][95][12][96][13][14]
Virginia Virginia March 12 March 30 Yes 10 or more No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Restricted [11][12][13][14][97][98][99]
Washington (state) Washington February 29 March 23 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][100][101][12][13][14]
West Virginia West Virginia March 4 March 23 Yes All No Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][102][103]
Wisconsin Wisconsin March 12 March 25 (declared unconstitutional on May 13) Yes All Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Restricted Yes Yes [11][12][13][14][104][105][106]
Wyoming Wyoming March 12 Regional No 10 or more Mandatory quarantine Yes (remainder of term) Yes Yes No [11][107][108][12][13][14]

In Michigan, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Vermont, retailers who sold a mix of essential and non-essential items were only allowed to sell essential items.[109]

Regions that formerly had a stay-at-home order or advisory[110][111]
State Date enacted Date lifted
Alabama April 4, 2020 April 30, 2020
Colorado March 26, 2020 April 26, 2020
Florida April 3, 2020 May 4, 2020
Georgia April 3, 2020 April 30, 2020
Idaho March 25, 2020 April 30, 2020
Illinois March 21, 2020 May 30, 2020
Indiana March 25, 2020 May 1, 2020
Kansas March 30, 2020 May 4, 2020
Louisiana March 30, 2020 May 15, 2020
Maine April 2, 2020 April 30, 2020
Maryland March 30, 2020 May 15, 2020
Massachusetts March 24, 2020 May 18, 2020
Michigan March 24, 2020 June 2, 2020
Mississippi April 3, 2020 April 27, 2020
Missouri April 6, 2020 May 3, 2020
Montana March 28, 2020 April 26, 2020
New Hampshire March 27, 2020 June 11, 2020
New Jersey March 21, 2020 June 9, 2020
South Carolina April 7, 2020 May 4, 2020
Tennessee March 31, 2020 April 30, 2020
Texas April 2, 2020 April 30, 2020
West Virginia March 23, 2020 May 4, 2020
Wisconsin March 25, 2020 May 13, 2020[112][113]

Fully reopening for states that chose to shut down[edit]

September 2020[edit]

Florida nearly fully reopened on September 25, 2020. All businesses were allowed to reopen at 100% except bars which were allowed to be restricted to 50% capacity by local governments. The governor, after initially leaving mask mandates up to local governments, overrode all local mandates and announced that no Florida government could fine someone for failing to social distance or wear a mask.[114]

February 2021[edit]

On February 5, Iowa announced that all mandates would be repealed by February 8. This caught some by surprise since Iowa was struggling (compared to other states) to distribute coronavirus vaccines in early February.[115]

On February 26, Arkansas fully repealed all mandates except for a mask mandate, which the governor said would likely be repealed at the end of March. Arkansas continues to make recommendations.[116]

March 2021[edit]

Mississippi announced on March 2, 2021, that it would fully reopen on March 3. The state would continue to make recommendations, but would repeal all mandates.[117] Texas also announced on March 2 that it would be fully reopened on March 10, 2021, with no mask requirements; the state would continue to issue recommendations.[118]

Wyoming announced on March 8, 2021, that it will fully reopen March 16. That reopening would include ending its mask mandate. Additionally, by March 11, 2021, Connecticut and West Virginia had fully reopened except for mask mandates, and Arizona had fully reopened except for mask and social distancing mandates.[119]

Indian Reservations[edit]

On March 19, the Wiyot Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order on the Table Bluff Reservation effective March 20 to April 7.[120]

The Navajo Nation imposed a stay-at-home order on the entire reservation, the largest reservation in the country, on March 20.[121] The Navajo Nation reissued this order on March 24.[122]

The Northern Cheyenne and Crow Indian reservations in Montana imposed curfews.[121]

On March 21, the Makah Reservation in northwestern Washington State issued a shelter-in-place order.[123] On March 22, the Lummi Nation also announced a shelter in place order after five cases in the area were confirmed, including two members of the tribe.[124]

On March 23, the Red Lake Indian Reservation in northwestern Minnesota issued a shelter-in-place order and curfew for 30 days.[125] The Southern Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado issued a stay-at-home advisory.[126] On March 26, the reservation closed its borders and replaced its stay-at-home advisory with a mandatory order.[127]

On March 23, the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes issued a joint stay-at-home directive for the Wind River Indian Reservation.[128] The Quinault Indian Nation issued a shelter-in-place order for the Quinault Reservation until further notice.[129]

On March 24, the Nooksack Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order effective March 24 until April 7.[130] The Swinomish Tribe issued a stay-at-home order for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community effective March 25 through April 6.[131]

On March 26, the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation issued a stay-at-home order effective March 27 until further notice.[132] The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes issued a shelter-in-place order for the Flathead Indian Reservation effective March 26.[133]

On March 27, the Crow Tribe of Montana and Northern Cheyenne Tribe issued stay-at-home orders for the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian reservations, respectively, effective March 28 through April 10.[134] The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho issued a stay-at-home order effective until further notice.[135] The Shoshone-Bannock tribes issued a stay-at-home order for the Fort Hall Indian Reservation effective until April 17.[136] The Coeur d'Alene Reservation issued a stay-at-home order.[137] The Rosebud Sioux Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order for the Rosebud Indian Reservation (which is coterminous with Todd County, South Dakota).[138]

All 22 tribes in Arizona, including the Ak-Chin Indian Community, Gila River Indian Community, Hualapai Tribe, Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community, and Tohono O'odham Nation, have declared states of emergency, closed facilities and casinos, and limited governmental business to essential functions, among other measures.[139]

CARES Act and tribal nations[edit]

On March 25, Congress announced that $8 billion of the CARES Act would be allocated to help native tribes fight COVID-19. More than $600 million was redistributed to the Navajo Nation.[140] On 22 April 2020, 10 tribal nations (including Alaska's Akiak Native Community, Asa'cararmiut Tribe, Aleut Community of St. Paul Island, and the Navajo Nation) began procedures to sue the U.S. Treasury and Interior department secretaries over the allocation of funds to Alaska Native corporations.[141][142] In May 2020, the Department of Treasury stated that the funding for Alaska Native corporations would be held back while the lawsuit awaited a decision.[143]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Mervosh, Sarah; Lu, Denise (March 23, 2020). "See Which States and Cities Have Told Residents to Stay at Home". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  • Martineau, Paris (March 23, 2020). "What's a 'Shelter in Place' Order, and Who's Affected?". Wired News. Retrieved March 24, 2020.

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