U2 performing at Madison Square Garden in November 2005, from left to right: The Edge; Larry Mullen Jr. (drumming); Bono; Adam Clayton
|Also known as||
|Past members||See members section|
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono (lead vocals and guitar), the Edge (guitar, keyboards, and backing vocals), Adam Clayton (bass guitar), and Larry Mullen Jr. (drums and percussion). Initially rooted in post-punk, U2's sound grew to incorporate influences from many genres of popular music, yet has maintained an anthemic sound. Their lyrics, often embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal themes and sociopolitical concerns.
The band formed at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in 1976 when the members were teenagers with limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they signed with Island Records and released their debut album Boy (1980). Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album War (1983), and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride (In the Name of Love)" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and socially conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985. The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree (1987), made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US, "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". Facing a backlash and creative stagnation, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby (1991), and the multimedia intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, and industrial music into their sound, and embraced a more ironic, flippant image. This experimentation continued through their ninth album, Pop (1997), and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000) and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004), which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group. Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. In 2014, the group released its thirteenth album, Songs of Innocence, at no cost to iTunes Store customers, but received criticism for its automatic placement in users' music libraries.
U2 have released 13 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 170 million records worldwide. They have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, and, in 2005, were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 in its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and philanthropic causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, and Music Rising.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Formation and early years (1976–1980)
- 1.2 Boy, October, and War (1980–1984)
- 1.3 The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
- 1.4 The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1990)
- 1.5 Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
- 1.6 Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1994–1998)
- 1.7 All That You Can't Leave Behind and Elevation Tour (1998–2002)
- 1.8 How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb and Vertigo Tour (2003–2006)
- 1.9 No Line on the Horizon and U2 360° Tour (2006–2011)
- 1.10 Songs of Innocence and Innocence + Experience Tour (2011–present)
- 2 Musical style
- 3 Campaigning and activism
- 4 Other projects
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Members
- 7 Discography
- 8 Tours
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Formation and early years (1976–1980)
The band formed in Dublin on 25 September 1976. Larry Mullen, Jr., then a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School, posted a note on the school's notice board in search of musicians for a new band—six people responded. Setting up in his kitchen, Mullen was on drums, with Paul Hewson (Bono) on lead vocals; David Evans (the Edge) and his older brother Dik Evans on guitar; Adam Clayton, a friend of the Evans brothers on bass guitar; and initially Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin, two other friends of Mullen. Mullen later described it as "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes, then Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, and McCormick was dropped within a few weeks. The group settled on the name "Feedback" because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which the band admitted was not their forte. Some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash, Buzzcocks, and Sex Pistols. The popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to being successful.
In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly after, the band changed their name to "The Hype". Dik Evans, who was older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2". Steve Averill, a punk rock musician (with the Radiators) and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, and because it was the name that they disliked the least. That same month, U2, as a four-piece, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland, a record label. The win was an important milestone and affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik Evans was officially phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth. During the show, which featured the Hype playing cover songs, Dik ceremonially walked offstage. The remaining four band members returned later in the concert to play original material as U2. As part of their contest prize, the group recorded their first demo tape at Keystone Studios in Dublin in April, but the results were largely unsuccessful due to their nervousness.
Irish magazine Hot Press was influential in shaping U2's future; in addition to being one of their earliest allies, the publication's journalist Bill Graham introduced the band to Paul McGuinness, who agreed to be their manager in mid-1978. With the connections he was making within the music industry, McGuinness booked demo sessions for the group and sought to garner them a record deal. U2 continued to build their fanbase with performances across Ireland, the most famous of which were a series of Saturday afternoon shows at Dublin's Dandelion Market in the summer of 1979. In August, U2 recorded a three-song demo with producer Chas de Whalley at Windmill Lane Studios, marking the first of what would be many recordings there by the band during their career. The following month, the songs were released by CBS as the Ireland-only EP U2-3. It was the group's first chart success, selling all 1,000 copies of its limited edition 12-inch vinyl almost immediately. In December 1979, the band performed in London for their first shows outside Ireland, although they were unable to gain much attention from audiences or critics. On 26 February 1980, their second single, "Another Day", was released on the CBS label, but again only for the Irish market. The same day, at the end of an Irish tour, U2 played a show in the 2,000-seat National Stadium in Dublin. Although they took a significant risk in booking a show at a venue of that size, it paid off; Bill Stewart, an A&R representative for Island Records, was in attendance and subsequently signed the group.
Boy, October, and War (1980–1984)
In May 1980, U2 released "11 O'Clock Tick Tock", their first international single and their debut on Island Records, but it failed to chart. Martin Hannett, who produced the single, was scheduled to produce the band's debut album, Boy, but ultimately was replaced with Steve Lillywhite. From July to September 1980, U2 recorded the album at Windmill Lane Studios, drawing from their nearly 40-song repertoire at the time. Lillywhite employed unorthodox production techniques, such as recording Mullen's drums in a stairwell, and recording smashed bottles and forks played against a spinning bicycle wheel. The band found Lillywhite to be very encouraging and creative; Bono called him "such a breath of fresh air", while the Edge said he "had a great way of pulling the best out of everybody". The album's lead single, "A Day Without Me", was released in August. Although it did not chart, the song was the impetus for the Edge's purchase of a delay effect unit, the Electro-Harmonix Memory Man, which came to define his guitar playing style and had a significant impact on the group's creative output.
Released in October 1980, Boy received generally positive reviews. Paul Morley of NME called it "touching, precocious, full of archaic and modernist conviction", while Declan Lynch of Hot Press said he found it "almost impossible to react negatively to U-2's music". Bono's lyrics reflected on adolescence, innocence, and the passage into adulthood, themes represented on the album cover through the photo of a young boy's face. Boy peaked at number 52 in the UK and number 63 in the United States. The album included the band's first song to receive airplay on US radio, the single "I Will Follow", which reached number 20 on the Top Tracks rock chart. Boy's release was followed by the Boy Tour, U2's first tour of continental Europe and the US. Despite being unpolished, these early live performances demonstrated the band's potential, as critics complimented the group's ambition and Bono's exuberance.
The band faced several challenges in writing their second album, October. On an otherwise successful American leg of the Boy Tour, Bono's briefcase containing in-progress lyrics and musical ideas was lost backstage during a March 1981 performance at a nightclub in Portland, Oregon. The band had limited time to write new music on tour and in July began a two-month recording session at Windmill Lane Studios largely unprepared, forcing Bono to quickly improvise lyrics. Lillywhite, reprising his role as producer, called the sessions "completely chaotic and mad". October's lead single, "Fire", was released in July and was U2's first song to chart in the UK. Despite garnering the band an appearance on UK television programme Top of the Pops, the single fell in the charts afterwards. On 16 August 1981, the group opened for Thin Lizzy at the inaugural Slane Concert, but the Edge called it "one of the worst shows [U2] ever played in [their] lives". Adding to this period of self-doubt, Bono's, the Edge's, and Mullen's involvement in a Charismatic Christian group in Dublin called the "Shalom Fellowship" led them to question the relationship between their religious faith and the lifestyle of a rock band. Bono and the Edge considered quitting the band due to their perceived spiritual conflicts before deciding to leave Shalom instead.
October was released in October 1981 and contained overtly spiritual themes. The album received mixed reviews and limited radio play, and although it debuted at number 11 in the UK, it sold poorly elsewhere. The single "Gloria" was U2's first song to have its music video played on MTV, generating excitement for the band during the October Tour of 1981–1982 in markets where the television channel was available. During the tour, U2 met Dutch photographer Anton Corbijn, who became their principal photographer and has had a major influence on their vision and public image. In March 1982, the band played 14 dates as the opening act for the J. Geils Band, increasing their exposure. Still, U2 were disappointed by their lack of progress by the end of the October Tour. Having run out of money and feeling unsupported by their record label, the group committed to improving; Clayton recalled that "there was a firm resolve to come out of the box fighting with the next record".
"Sunday Bloody Sunday" features a martial drumbeat, raw guitar, and lyrically, a bleak emotionally charged response to violence.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Resolving their doubts of the October period, U2 released War in February 1983. A record on which the band "turned pacifism itself into a crusade", War's sincerity and "rugged" guitar was intentionally at odds with the trendier synthpop of the time. The album included the politically charged "Sunday Bloody Sunday", in which Bono lyrically tried to contrast the events of Bloody Sunday with Easter Sunday. Rolling Stone magazine wrote that the song showed the band was capable of deep and meaningful songwriting. War was U2's first album to feature Corbijn's photography. The band's first commercial success, War debuted at number one in the UK. Its first single, "New Year's Day", reached number 10 in the UK and became the group's first hit outside of Europe, receiving extensive radio coverage in the US and nearly breaking into that country's top 50.
On the subsequent War Tour, the band performed sold-out concerts in mainland Europe and the US. The sight of Bono waving a white flag during performances of "Sunday Bloody Sunday" became the tour's iconic image. U2 recorded the Under a Blood Red Sky live album and the Live at Red Rocks concert film on tour, both of which received extensive play on the radio and MTV, expanding the band's audience and showcasing their prowess as a live act. With their record deal with Island Records coming to an end, the band signed a more lucrative extension in 1984. They negotiated the return of the copyrights of their songs, an increase in their royalty rate, and a general improvement in terms, at the expense of a larger initial payment.
The Unforgettable Fire and Live Aid (1984–1985)
The band feared that following the overt rock of the War album and tour, they were in danger of becoming another "shrill", "sloganeering arena-rock band". Bono said the group were confident that fans were ready to embrace them as successors to the Who and Led Zeppelin, but according to him, "something just didn't feel right. We felt we had more dimension than just the next big anything, we had something unique to offer." Thus, they sought experimentation for their fourth studio album, The Unforgettable Fire; as Adam Clayton recalls, "We were looking for something that was a bit more serious, more arty." The Edge admired the ambient and "weird works" of Brian Eno, who, along with his engineer Daniel Lanois, eventually agreed to produce the record. Island Records boss Chris Blackwell initially tried to discourage them from their choice of producers, believing that just when the band were about to achieve the highest levels of success, Eno would "bury them under a layer of avant-garde nonsense".
Partly recorded in Slane Castle, The Unforgettable Fire was released in 1984 and was at the time the band's most marked change in direction. It was ambient and abstract, and featured a rich, orchestrated sound. Under Lanois' direction, Mullen's drumming became looser, funkier, and more subtle, and Clayton's bass became more subliminal. Complementing the album's atmospheric sound, the lyrics are open to interpretation, providing what the band called a "very visual feel". Due to a tight recording schedule, however, Bono felt songs like "Bad" and "Pride (In the Name of Love)" were incomplete "sketches". The album reached number one in Britain, and was successful in the US. The lead single "Pride (In the Name of Love)", written about Martin Luther King, Jr., was the band's biggest hit to that point and was their first song to chart in the US top 40.
Much of the Unforgettable Fire Tour moved into indoor arenas as U2 began to win their long battle to build their audience. The complex textures of the new studio-recorded tracks, such as "The Unforgettable Fire" and "Bad", posed a challenge in translating to live performances. One solution was programmed sequencers, which the band had previously been reluctant to use, but are now used in the majority of the band's performances. Songs on the album had been criticised as being "unfinished", "fuzzy", and "unfocused", but were better received by critics when played on stage. Rolling Stone, which was critical of the album version of "Bad", described its live performance as a "show stopper".
U2 participated in the Live Aid concert for Ethiopian famine relief at Wembley Stadium in July 1985. Their performance in front of 72,000 fans and for a worldwide television audience of two billion people was a pivotal point in the band's career. During a 12-minute performance of the song "Bad", Bono leapt down off the stage to embrace and dance with a fan, showing a television audience the personal connection that Bono could make with audiences. In 1985, Rolling Stone called U2 the "Band of the '80s", saying that "for a growing number of rock-and-roll fans, U2 have become the band that matters most, maybe even the only band that matters".
The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum (1986–1990)
For their fifth album, The Joshua Tree, the band wanted to build on The Unforgettable Fire's textures, but instead of out-of-focus experimentation, they sought a harder-hitting sound within the limitation of conventional song structures. Realising that "U2 had no tradition" and that their knowledge of music from before their childhood was limited, the group delved into American and Irish roots music. Friendships with Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, and Keith Richards motivated the band to explore blues, folk, and gospel music and focused Bono on his skills as a songwriter and lyricist. U2 interrupted the album sessions in mid-1986 to serve as a headline act on Amnesty International's A Conspiracy of Hope tour. Rather than being a distraction, the tour added extra intensity and focus to their new material. Later that year, Bono travelled to San Salvador and Nicaragua and saw first-hand the distress of peasants bullied in internal conflicts that were subject to US political intervention. The experience became a central influence on the new music.
The Joshua Tree was released in March 1987. The album juxtaposes antipathy towards US foreign policy against the group's deep fascination with the country, its open spaces, freedom, and ideals. The band wanted music with a sense of location and a "cinematic" quality, and the record's music and lyrics draw on imagery created by American writers whose works the band had been reading. The Joshua Tree became the fastest-selling album in British chart history, and topped the Billboard 200 in the United States for nine consecutive weeks. The first two singles, "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For", quickly became the group's first number-one hits in the US. They became the fourth rock band to be featured on the cover of Time magazine, which called them "Rock's Hottest Ticket". The album won U2 their first two Grammy Awards, and it brought them a new level of success. Many publications, including Rolling Stone, have cited it as one of rock's greatest. The Joshua Tree Tour was the first tour on which the band played shows in stadiums alongside smaller arena shows. It grossed US$40 million and drew 3 million attendees.
In October 1988, the group released Rattle and Hum, a double album and theatrically released documentary film that captured the band's experiences with American roots music on the Joshua Tree Tour. The record featured nine studio tracks and six live U2 performances, including recordings at Sun Studios in Memphis and performances with Bob Dylan and B. B. King. Intended as a tribute to American music, the project received mixed reviews from both film and music critics; one Rolling Stone editor spoke of the album's "excitement", another described it as "bombastic and misguided". The film's director, Phil Joanou, described it as "an overly pretentious look at U2". Despite the criticism, the album sold 14 million copies and reached number one worldwide. Lead single "Desire" became the band's first UK number-one song while reaching number three in the US. Most of the album's new material was played on 1989's Lovetown Tour, which only visited Australasia, Japan and Europe, so as to avoid the critical backlash the group faced in the US. In addition, they had grown dissatisfied with their live performances; Mullen recalled that "We were the biggest, but we weren't the best". With a sense of musical stagnation, Bono said to fans on one of the last dates of the tour that it was "the end of something for U2" and that they had to "go away and ... just dream it all up again".
Achtung Baby, Zoo TV, and Zooropa (1990–1993)
Stung by the criticism of Rattle and Hum, the band sought to transform themselves musically. Seeking inspiration from German reunification, they began work on their seventh studio album, Achtung Baby, at Berlin's Hansa Studios in October 1990 with producers Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno. The sessions were fraught with conflict, as the band argued over their musical direction and the quality of their material. While Clayton and Mullen preferred a sound similar to U2's previous work, Bono and the Edge were inspired by European industrial music and electronic dance music and advocated a change. Weeks of tension and slow progress nearly prompted the group to break up until they made a breakthrough with the improvised writing of the song "One". They returned to Dublin in 1991, where morale improved and the majority of the album was completed.
Achtung Baby was released in November 1991. The album represented a calculated change in musical and thematic direction for the group; the shift was one of their most dramatic since The Unforgettable Fire. Sonically, the record incorporated influences from alternative rock, dance, and industrial music of the time, and the band referred to its musical departure as "four men chopping down the Joshua Tree". Thematically, it was a more introspective and personal record; it was darker, yet at times more flippant than the band's previous work. Commercially and critically, it has been one of the band's most successful albums. It produced five hit singles, including "The Fly", "Mysterious Ways", and "One", and it was a crucial part of the band's early 1990s reinvention. Like The Joshua Tree, many publications have cited the record as one of rock's greatest.
Like Achtung Baby, the 1992–1993 Zoo TV Tour was an unequivocal break with the band's past. In contrast to the austere stage setups of previous U2 tours, Zoo TV was an elaborate multimedia event. It satirised the pervasive nature of television and its blurring of news, entertainment, and home shopping by attempting to instill "sensory overload" in its audience. The stage featured large video screens that showed visual effects, random video clips from pop culture, and flashing text phrases. Whereas U2 were known for their earnest performances in the 1980s, the group's Zoo TV performances were intentionally ironic and self-deprecating; on stage, Bono performed as several over-the-top characters, including "The Fly", "Mirror Ball Man", and "MacPhisto". Prank phone calls were made to President Bush, the United Nations, and others. Live satellite link-ups to war-torn Sarajevo caused controversy.
In June 1993, U2 signed a long-term, six-album deal to remain with Island Records/PolyGram. The Los Angeles Times estimated that the deal was worth US$60 million to the band, making them the highest-paid rock group ever. The following month, the group released a new album, Zooropa. Quickly recorded during a break in the Zoo TV Tour in early 1993, it expanded on many of the themes from Achtung Baby and the Zoo TV Tour. Initially intended as an EP, Zooropa ultimately evolved into a full-length LP album. It was an even greater departure from the style of their earlier recordings, incorporating further dance influences and other electronic effects. Johnny Cash sang the lead vocals on "The Wanderer". Most of the songs were played at least once during the 1993 legs of the tour, which visited Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan; half the album's tracks became permanent fixtures in the setlist. Although the commercially successful Zooropa won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album in 1994, the band regard it with mixed feelings, as they felt it was more of "an interlude".
On the final leg of the Zoo TV Tour, Clayton was unable to perform for the group's 26 November 1993 show in Sydney, the dress-rehearsal for filming Zoo TV: Live from Sydney, due to a hangover. Bass guitar technician Stuart Morgan filled in for him, marking the first time any member of U2 had missed a show. After the incident, Clayton gave up drinking alcohol. The tour concluded the following month in Japan, having sold 5.3 million tickets.
Passengers, Pop, and PopMart (1994–1998)
In 1995, following a long break, U2 contributed "Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me" to the soundtrack album of the film Batman Forever. Later that year, the band released an experimental album called Original Soundtracks 1. Brian Eno contributed as a full partner, including writing and performing. For this reason and due to the record's highly experimental nature, the band chose to release it under the moniker "Passengers" to distinguish it from U2's conventional albums. Mullen said of the album, "There's a thin line between interesting music and self-indulgence. We crossed it on the Passengers record." It was commercially unnoticed by U2 standards and it received generally mixed reviews. However, the single "Miss Sarajevo" featuring Luciano Pavarotti, was among Bono's favourite U2 songs.
U2 began work on their next studio album, Pop, in mid-1995, holding recording sessions with Nellee Hooper, Flood, and Howie B. The band mixed the contrasting influences of each producer into their music, in particular Howie B's experiences with electronica and dance music. Mullen was sidelined due to back surgery in November, prompting the other band members to take different approaches to songwriting, such as programming drum loops and playing to samples provided by Howie B. Upon Mullen's return in February 1996, the group began re-working much of their material but struggled to complete songs, causing them to miss their mid-year deadline to complete the record. Further complicating matters, the band allowed manager Paul McGuinness to book their 1997 PopMart Tour with the album still in progress; Bono called it "the worst decision U2 ever made". Rushed to complete the album, the band delayed its release date a second time from the 1996 holiday season to March 1997, cutting into tour rehearsal time. Even with the additional recording time, U2 worked up to the last minute to complete songs.
In February 1997, the group released Pop's lead single, "Discotheque", a dance-heavy song with a music video in which the band wore Village People costumes. The song reached number one in the UK, Japan, and Canada, but did not chart for long in the US despite debuting at number 10. Within days of the single's release, the group announced the PopMart Tour with a press conference in the lingerie section of a Kmart department store. Tickets went on sale shortly after, but Pop would not be released until March. The album represented U2's further exploration of dance club culture; tape loops, programming, rhythm sequencing, and sampling provided much of it with heavy, funky dance rhythms. The record drew favourable reviews. Rolling Stone stated that U2 had "defied the odds and made some of the greatest music of their lives". Other critics, though, felt that the album was a major disappointment. Despite debuting at number one in over 30 countries, Pop dropped off the charts quickly. Bono admitted that the album "didn't communicate the way it was intended to", while the Edge called it a "compromise project by the end".
PopMart commenced in April 1997 and was intended as a satire of consumerism. The stage included a 100-foot-tall (30 m) golden yellow arch reminiscent of the McDonald's logo, a 40-foot-tall (12 m) mirrorball lemon, and a 150-foot-long (46 m) LED video screen, at the time the world's largest. U2's "big shtick", however, failed to satisfy many who were seemingly confused by the band's new kitsch image and the tour's elaborate set. The reduced rehearsal time for the tour affected the quality of early shows, and in some US markets, the band played to half-empty stadiums. On several occasions, the mirrorball lemon from which the band emerged for the encores malfunctioned, trapping them inside. Despite the mixed reviews and difficulties of the tour, Bono considered PopMart to be "better than Zoo TV aesthetically, and as an art project it is a clearer thought." He later explained, "When that show worked, it was mindblowing."
A highlight of the tour was the concert in Sarajevo on 23 September 1997, where U2 were the first major group to perform there following the Bosnian War. Mullen described the concert as "an experience I will never forget for the rest of my life, and if I had to spend 20 years in the band just to play that show, and have done that, I think it would have been worthwhile." Bono called the show "one of the toughest and one of the sweetest nights of my life". The tour concluded in March 1998 with gross revenues of $171.7 million and 3.9 million tickets sold. The following month, U2 appeared on the 200th episode of the animated sitcom The Simpsons, in which Homer Simpson disrupted the band on stage during a PopMart concert. In November 1998, U2 released its first compilation album, The Best of 1980–1990, which featured a re-recording of a 1987 B-side, "Sweetest Thing", as its single. The album attained the highest first-week sales in the US of any greatest hits record, while "Sweetest Thing" topped the singles charts in Ireland and Canada.
All That You Can't Leave Behind and Elevation Tour (1998–2002)
Following the mixed success of their musical pursuits in the 1990s, U2 sought to simplify their sound; the Edge said that with Pop, the group had "taken the deconstruction of the rock 'n' roll band format to its absolute 'nth degree". For their tenth album, All That You Can't Leave Behind, the group wanted to return to their old recording ethos of "the band in a room playing together". Reuniting with Eno and Lanois, U2 began working on the album in late 1998. After their experiences with being pressured to complete Pop, the band were content to work without deadlines. With Bono's schedule limited by his commitments to debt relief for Jubilee 2000 and the other band members spending time with their families, the recording sessions stretched through August 2000.
Released in October of that year, All That You Can't Leave Behind was seen by critics as a "back to basics" album, on which the group returned to a more mainstream, conventional rock sound. For many of those not won over by the band's forays into dance music, it was considered a return to grace; Rolling Stone called it U2's "third masterpiece" alongside The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby. The album debuted at number one in 32 countries and sold 12 million copies. Its lead single, "Beautiful Day", was a worldwide hit, reaching number one in Ireland, the UK, Australia, and Canada, while peaking at number 21 in the US. The song earned Grammy Awards for Song of the Year, Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, and Record of the Year. At the awards ceremony, Bono declared that U2 were "reapplying for the job ... [of] the best band in the world". The album's other singles were worldwide hits as well; "Stuck in a Moment You Can't Get Out Of", "Elevation", and "Walk On" reached number one in Canada, while charting in the top five in the UK and top ten in Australia.
The band's 2001 Elevation Tour commenced in March, visiting North America and Europe across three legs. For the tour, U2 performed on a scaled-down stage, returning to arenas after nearly a decade of stadium productions. Mirroring the album's themes of "emotional contact, connection, and communication", the tour's set was designed to afford the group greater proximity to their fans; a heart-shaped ramp around the stage extended into the audience, encapsulating a number of concertgoers, and festival seating was offered in the US for the first time in the group's history. During the tour, U2 headlined a pair of Slane Concerts in Ireland, playing to crowds of 80,000. Following the September 11 attacks in the US, All That You Can't Leave Behind found added resonance with American audiences, as the album climbed in the charts and songs such as "Walk On" and "Peace on Earth" garnered radio airplay. In October, U2 performed at Madison Square Garden in New York City for the first time since the attacks. Bono and the Edge said these shows were among their most memorable and emotional performances. The Elevation Tour was the year's top-earning North American tour, grossing $109.7 million, the second-highest figure ever at the time; in total, the tour grossed $143.5 million globally from 2.18 million tickets sold. Spin named U2 the "Band of the Year" for 2001, saying they had "schooled bands half their age about what a rock show could really accomplish".
On 3 February 2002, U2 performed during the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVI. In a tribute to those who died in the September 11 attacks, the victims' names were displayed on a backdrop, and at the end, Bono opened his jacket to reveal an American flag in the lining. SI.com, Rolling Stone, and USA Today ranked the band's performance as the best halftime show in Super Bowl history. Later that month, U2 received four additional Grammy Awards; All That You Can't Leave Behind won Best Rock Album, while "Walk On" was named Record of the Year, marking the first time an artist had won the latter award in two consecutive years for songs from the same album. In November 2002, the band released its second compilation, The Best of 1990–2000, which featured several remixed 1990s songs and two new tracks, including the single "Electrical Storm".
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb and Vertigo Tour (2003–2006)
U2's eleventh studio album, How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, was released in November 2004. The band were looking for a harder-hitting rock sound than All That You Can't Leave Behind. Thematically, Bono stated that "a lot of the songs are paeans to naiveté, a rejection of knowingness." The first single, "Vertigo", was featured in an internationally aired television commercial for the Apple iPod; a U2 iPod and an iTunes-exclusive U2 box set were released as part of a promotion with Apple. The album debuted at number one in the US, where first-week sales of 840,000 nearly doubled those of All That You Can't Leave Behind, setting a personal best for the band. Claiming it as a contender as one of U2's three best albums, Bono said, "There are no weak songs. But as an album, the whole isn't greater than the sum of its parts, and it fucking annoys me." The Vertigo Tour featured a setlist that varied more across dates than any U2 tour since the Lovetown Tour, and it included songs not played since the early 1980s. Like the Elevation Tour, the Vertigo Tour was a commercial success, selling 4.6 million tickets and grossing $389 million, the second-highest gross ever at the time. The album and its singles won Grammy Awards in all eight categories in which U2 were nominated. In 2005, Bruce Springsteen inducted U2 into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. A 3-D concert film, U2 3D, filmed at nine concerts during the Latin American and Australian legs of the Vertigo Tour was released in theatres on 23 January 2008.
In August 2006, the band incorporated its publishing business in the Netherlands following the capping of Irish artists' tax exemption at €250,000. The Edge stated that businesses often seek to minimise their tax burdens. The move was criticised in the Irish parliament. The band defended themselves, saying approximately 95% of their business took place outside Ireland, that they were taxed globally because of this, and that they were all "personal investors and employers in the country". Bono would later say, "I think U2's tax business is our own business and I think it is not just to the letter of the law but to the spirit of the law."
No Line on the Horizon and U2 360° Tour (2006–2011)
Recording for U2's twelfth album, No Line on the Horizon, began with producer Rick Rubin in 2006, but the sessions were short-lived and the material was shelved. In May 2007, the group began new sessions with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois in Fez, Morocco, involving the producers in the songwriting process. Intending to write "future hymns"—songs that would be played forever—the group spent two weeks recording in a riad and exploring North African music. In March 2008, the band signed a 12-year deal with Live Nation worth an estimated $100 million (£50 million), which includes Live Nation controlling the band's merchandise, sponsoring, and their official website. Recording on the album lasted through December 2008 in the US, the UK, and Ireland. Intended as a more experimental work than their previous two albums, No Line on the Horizon was released in February 2009 and received generally positive reviews, including their first five-star Rolling Stone review. Critics, however, did not find it to be as experimental as originally billed. The album debuted at number one in over 30 countries, but its sales of 5 million were seen as a disappointment by U2 standards and it did not contain a hit single.
The group embarked on the U2 360° Tour in June 2009. The concerts featured the band playing stadiums "in the round" on a circular stage, allowing the audience to surround them on all sides. To accommodate the stage configuration, a large four-legged structure nicknamed "The Claw" was built above the stage, with the sound system and a cylindrical, expanding video screen on top of it. At 164 feet (50 m) tall, it was the largest stage ever constructed. The tour visited Europe and North America in 2009. On 25 October 2009, U2 set a new US record for single concert attendance for one headline act, performing to 97,014 people at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena. At year's end, Rolling Stone named U2 one of eight "Artists of the Decade". The group's tours ranked them second in total concert grosses for the decade behind only the Rolling Stones, although U2 had a significantly higher attendance figure. They were the only band in the top 25 touring acts of the 2000s to sell out every show they played. U2 resumed the 360° Tour in 2010 with legs in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. However, their scheduled headline appearance at the Glastonbury Festival 2010 and their North American leg that year were postponed following a serious injury to Bono's back. These appearances were rescheduled for 2011 after the South African and South American legs of the tour. By its conclusion in July 2011, U2 360° had set records for the highest-grossing concert tour with $736 million in ticket sales, and for the highest-attended tour with over 7.2 million tickets sold.
Songs of Innocence and Innocence + Experience Tour (2011–present)
Following the release of No Line on the Horizon, U2 announced tentative plans for a follow-up record of songs from the album's sessions entitled Songs of Ascent. Bono described the project as "a meditative, reflective piece of work" with the theme of pilgrimage. However, the group could not complete it to their satisfaction, and ultimately it did not come to fruition. The band continued to work on other album projects, including a traditional rock album produced by Danger Mouse and a dance-centric album produced by RedOne and will.i.am. U2 suspended work on their next album late in 2013 to contribute a new song, "Ordinary Love", to the film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom. The track, written in honour of Nelson Mandela, won the 2014 Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song. In November 2013, U2's long-time manager Paul McGuinness stepped down from his post as part of a deal with Live Nation to acquire his management firm, Principle Management. McGuinness, who had managed U2 for over 30 years, was succeeded by Guy Oseary. In February 2014, another new song, the single "Invisible", was debuted in a Super Bowl television advertisement and was made available in the iTunes Store at no cost to launch a partnership with Product Red and Bank of America to fight AIDS. Bono called the track a "sneak preview" of its pending record.
On 9 September 2014, U2 announced their thirteenth studio album, Songs of Innocence, at an Apple product launch event, and released it digitally the same day to all iTunes Store customers at no cost. The release made the album available to over 500 million iTunes customers in what Apple CEO Tim Cook called "the largest album release of all time." Apple reportedly paid Universal Music Group and U2 a lump sum for a five-week exclusivity period in which to distribute the album and spent $100 million on a promotional campaign. Produced by Danger Mouse with Paul Epworth, Ryan Tedder, Declan Gaffney, and Flood, Songs of Innocence recalls the group members' youth in Ireland, touching on childhood experiences, loves and losses, while paying tribute to musical inspirations. Bono described it as "the most personal album we've written". The record received mixed reviews and drew criticism for its digital release strategy; it was automatically added to users' iTunes accounts, which for many, triggered an unprompted download to their devices. Chris Richards of The Washington Post called the release "rock-and-roll as dystopian junk mail". The group's press tour for the album was interrupted after Bono was seriously injured in a bicycle accident in Central Park on 16 November 2014. He suffered fractures of his shoulder blade, humerus, orbit, and pinky finger, leading to uncertainty that he would ever be able to play guitar again.
Following Bono's recuperation, U2 embarked on the Innocence + Experience Tour in May 2015. Comprising 76 shows, the tour visited arenas in North America and Europe from May through December. The group structured their concerts around a loose autobiographical narrative of "innocence" passing into "experience", with a fixed set of songs for the first half of each show and a varying second half, separated by an intermission—a first for U2 concerts. The stage spanned the length of the venue floor and was divided into three sections: a rectangular main stage, a smaller circular B-stage, and a connecting walkway. The centerpiece of the set was a 96-foot-long (29 m) double-sided video screen that featured an interior catwalk, allowing the band members to perform amidst the video projections. U2's sound system was moved to the venue ceilings and arranged in an oval array, in hopes of improving acoustics by evenly distributing sound throughout the arena. In total, the tour grossed $152.2 million from 1.29 million tickets sold. The final date of the tour, one of two Paris shows rescheduled due to the 13 November 2015 attacks in the city, was filmed for the video Innocence + Experience: Live in Paris and broadcast on the American television network HBO.
In 2016, U2 worked on their next studio album, Songs of Experience, the follow-up to Songs of Innocence. Although the record was mostly completed by the end of the year, according to the Edge, the band decided to delay a release to give them time to reflect on the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election and to reassess whether the album was still communicating what they wanted. In 2017, the group will embark on a tour marking the 30th anniversary of The Joshua Tree, on which they will perform the album in its entirety at each show. The tour will include a headlining appearance at the Bonnaroo Music Festival.
Since their inception, U2 have developed and maintained a distinctly recognisable sound, with emphasis on melodic instrumentals and expressive, larger-than-life vocals. This approach is rooted partly in the early influence of record producer Steve Lillywhite at a time when the band was not known for musical proficiency. The Edge has consistently used a rhythmic echo and a signature delay to craft his distinctive guitar work, coupled with an Irish-influenced drone played against his syncopated melodies that ultimately yields a well-defined ambient, chiming sound. Bono has nurtured his falsetto operatic voice and has exhibited a notable lyrical bent towards social, political, and personal subject matter while maintaining a grandiose scale in his songwriting. In addition, the Edge has described U2 as a fundamentally live band.
Despite these broad consistencies, U2 have introduced brand new elements into their musical repertoire with each new album. U2's early sound was influenced by bands such as Television and Joy Division, and has been described as containing a "sense of exhilaration" that resulted from the Edge's "radiant chords" and Bono's "ardent vocals". U2's sound began with post-punk roots and minimalistic and uncomplicated instrumentals heard on Boy and October, but evolved through War to include aspects of rock anthem, funk, and dance rhythms to become more versatile and aggressive. Boy and War were labelled "muscular and assertive" by Rolling Stone, influenced in large part by Lillywhite's producing. The Unforgettable Fire, which began with the Edge playing more keyboards than guitars, as well as follow-up The Joshua Tree, had Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois at the production helm. With their influence, both albums achieved a "diverse texture". The songs from The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum placed more emphasis on Lanois-inspired rhythm as they mixed distinct and varied styles of gospel and blues music, which stemmed from the band's burgeoning fascination with America's culture, people and places. In the 1990s, U2 reinvented themselves as they began using synthesisers, distortion, and electronic beats derived from alternative rock, industrial music, dance, and hip-hop on Achtung Baby, Zooropa, and Pop. In the 2000s, U2 returned to a more stripped-down sound, with more conventional rhythms and reduced usage of synthesisers and effects.
Lyrics and themes
U2's lyrics are known for their social and political commentary, and are often embellished with Christian and spiritual imagery. Songs such as "Sunday Bloody Sunday", "Silver and Gold", and "Mothers of the Disappeared" were motivated by current events of the time. The first was written about the Troubles in Northern Ireland, while the last concerns the struggle of a group of women whose children were killed or forcibly disappeared at the hands of the El Salvadoran government during the country's civil war. The song "Running to Stand Still" from The Joshua Tree was inspired by the heroin addiction that was sweeping through Dublin—the lyric "I see seven towers, but I only see one way out" references the Ballymun Towers of Northern Dublin and the imagery throughout the song personifies the struggles of addiction.
Bono's personal conflicts and turmoil inspired songs like "Mofo", "Tomorrow" and "Kite". An emotional yearning or pleading frequently appears as a lyrical theme, in tracks such as "Yahweh", "Peace on Earth", and "Please". Much of U2's songwriting and music is also motivated by contemplations of loss and anguish, coupled with hopefulness and resiliency, themes that are central to The Joshua Tree. Some of these lyrical ideas have been amplified by Bono and the band's personal experiences during their youth in Ireland, as well as Bono's campaigning and activism later in his life. U2 have used tours such as Zoo TV and PopMart to caricature social trends, such as media overload and consumerism, respectively.
While the band and its fans often affirm the political nature of their music, U2's lyrics and music have been criticised as apolitical because of their vagueness and "fuzzy imagery", and a lack of any specific references to actual people or characters.
The band cites the Who, the Clash, Television, Ramones, the Beatles, Joy Division, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Elvis Presley, Patti Smith, and Kraftwerk as influences. In addition, Van Morrison has been cited by Bono as an influence and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame points out his influence on U2. U2 have also worked with and/or had influential relationships with artists including Johnny Cash, Green Day, Leonard Cohen, Bruce Springsteen, B.B. King, Lou Reed and Luciano Pavarotti.
Campaigning and activism
Since the early 1980s, the members of U2—as a band and individually—have collaborated with other musicians, artists, celebrities, and politicians to address issues concerning poverty, disease, and social injustice.
In 1984, Bono and Adam Clayton participated in Band Aid to raise money for the 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia. This initiative produced the hit charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", which would be the first among several collaborations between U2 and Bob Geldof. In July 1985, U2 played Live Aid, a follow-up to Band Aid's efforts. Bono and his wife Ali, invited by World Vision, later visited Ethiopia where they witnessed the famine first hand. Bono would later say this laid the groundwork for his Africa campaigning and some of his songwriting.
In 1986, U2 participated in the A Conspiracy of Hope tour in support of Amnesty International and in Self Aid for unemployment in Ireland. The same year, Bono and Ali Hewson also visited Nicaragua and El Salvador at the invitation of the Sanctuary movement, and saw the effects of the El Salvador Civil War. These 1986 events greatly influenced The Joshua Tree album, which was being recorded at the time.
In 1992, the band participated in the "Stop Sellafield" concert with Greenpeace during their Zoo TV tour. Events in Sarajevo during the Bosnian War inspired the song "Miss Sarajevo", which premiered at a September 1995 Pavarotti and Friends show, and which Bono and the Edge performed at War Child. A promise made in 1993 was kept when the band played in Sarajevo as part of 1997's PopMart Tour. In 1998, they performed in Belfast days prior to the vote on the Good Friday Agreement, bringing Northern Irish political leaders David Trimble and John Hume on stage to promote the agreement. Later that year, all proceeds from the release of the "Sweetest Thing" single went towards supporting the Chernobyl Children's Project.
In 2001, the band dedicated "Walk On" to Burma's pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. In late 2003, Bono and the Edge participated in the South Africa HIV/AIDS awareness 46664 series of concerts hosted by Nelson Mandela. The band played 2005's Live 8 concert in London. The band and manager Paul McGuinness were awarded Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for their work in promoting human rights.
Since 2000, Bono's campaigning has included Jubilee 2000 with Bob Geldof, Muhammad Ali, and others to promote the cancellation of third-world debt during the Great Jubilee. In January 2002, Bono co-founded the multinational NGO DATA, with the aim of improving the social, political, and financial state of Africa. He continued his campaigns for debt and HIV/AIDS relief into June 2002 by making high-profile visits to Africa.
Product Red, a 2006 for-profit brand seeking to raise money for the Global Fund, was founded, in part, by Bono. The ONE Campaign, originally the US counterpart of Make Poverty History, was shaped by his efforts and vision.
In late 2005, following Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, the Edge helped introduce Music Rising, an initiative to raise funds for musicians who lost their instruments in the storm-ravaged Gulf Coast. In 2006, U2 collaborated with pop punk band Green Day to record a remake of the song "The Saints Are Coming" by The Skids to benefit Music Rising. A live version of the song recorded at the Louisiana Superdome was released on the single.
U2's and Bono's social activism have not been without its critics, however. Several authors and activists who publish in politically left journals such as CounterPunch have decried Bono for allowing his celebrity to be co-opted by an association with political figures such as Paul Wolfowitz, as well as his "essential paternalism". Other news sources have more generally questioned the efficacy of Bono's campaign to relieve debt and provide assistance to Africa. Tax and development campaigners have also criticised the band's move from Ireland to the Netherlands to reduce its tax bill.
The members of U2 have undertaken a number of side projects, sometimes in collaboration with some of their bandmates. In 1985, Bono recorded the song "In a Lifetime" with the Irish band Clannad. The Edge recorded a solo soundtrack album for the film Captive in 1986, which included a vocal performance by Sinéad O'Connor that predates her own debut album by a year. Bono and the Edge wrote the song "She's a Mystery to Me" for Roy Orbison, which was featured on his 1989 album Mystery Girl. In 1990, Bono and the Edge provided the soundtrack to the Royal Shakespeare Company London stage version of A Clockwork Orange (one track, "Alex Descends into Hell for a Bottle of Milk/Korova 1", was on the b-side to "The Fly" single). That same year, Mullen co-wrote and produced a song for the Republic of Ireland national football team in time for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, called "Put 'Em Under Pressure", which topped the Irish charts for 13 weeks.
Together with the Edge, Bono wrote the song "GoldenEye" for the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye, which was performed by Tina Turner. Clayton and Mullen reworked the "Theme from Mission: Impossible" for the franchise's 1996 film. Bono loaned his voice to "Joy" on Mick Jagger's 2001 album Goddess in the Doorway. Bono also recorded a spare, nearly spoken-word version of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah" for the Tower of Song compilation in 1995. Additionally, in 1998, Bono collaborated with Kirk Franklin and Crystal Lewis along with R. Kelly and Mary J. Blige for a successful gospel song called "Lean on Me".
Aside from musical collaborations, U2 have worked with several authors. American author William S. Burroughs had a guest appearance in U2's video for "Last Night on Earth" shortly before he died. His poem "A Thanksgiving Prayer" was used as video footage during the band's Zoo TV Tour. Other collaborators include William Gibson and Allen Ginsberg. In early 2000, the band recorded three songs for The Million Dollar Hotel movie soundtrack, including "The Ground Beneath Her Feet", which was co-written by Salman Rushdie and motivated by his book of the same name.
In 2007, Bono appeared in the movie Across the Universe and performed Beatles songs. Bono and the Edge also wrote the music and lyrics for the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Additionally, the Edge created the theme song for Season 1 and 2 of the animated television series The Batman.
U2 have sold more than 170 million records, placing them among the best-selling music artists in history. With 52 million certified units by the RIAA, U2 rank as the 21st-highest-selling music artist in the US. The group's fifth studio album The Joshua Tree is one of the best-selling albums in the US (10 million copies shipped) and worldwide (25 million copies sold). Forbes estimates that U2 earned US$78 million between May 2011 and May 2012, making them the fourth-highest-paid musical artist. According to Billboard Boxscore, the band grossed $1.67 billion in ticket sales from 1990 to 2016, second only to the Rolling Stones. The Sunday Times Rich List 2013 estimated the group's collective wealth at €632,535,925.
Rolling Stone placed U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", while ranking Bono the 32nd-greatest singer and the Edge the 38th-greatest guitarist. In 2004, Q ranked U2 as the fourth-biggest band in a list compiled based on album sales, time spent on the UK charts, and largest audience for a headlining show. A 2011 readers' poll in Q named U2 the Greatest Act of the Last 25 Years. VH1 placed U2 at number 19 on its 2010 list of "The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In 2010, eight of U2's songs appeared on Rolling Stone's updated list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", with "One" ranking the highest at number 36. Five of the group's twelve studio albums were ranked on the magazine's 2012 list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time"—The Joshua Tree placed the highest at number 26. Reflecting on the band's popularity and worldwide impact, Jeff Pollack for The Huffington Post said, "like The Who before them, U2 wrote songs about things that were important and resonated with their audience".
U2 received their first Grammy Award in 1988 for The Joshua Tree, and they have won 22 in total out of 34 nominations, more than any other group. These include Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group, Album of the Year, Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Rock Album. The British Phonographic Industry has awarded U2 seven BRIT Awards, five of these being for Best International Group. In Ireland, U2 have won 14 Meteor Awards since the awards began in 2001. Other awards include one AMA, four VMAs, eleven Q Awards, two Juno Awards, three NME Awards, and two Golden Globe Awards. The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in March 2005. In 2006, all four members of the band received ASCAP awards for writing the songs, "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" and "Vertigo".
- Principal members
- Bono – lead vocals, rhythm guitar, harmonica (1976–present)
- The Edge – lead guitar, keyboards, backing vocals (1976–present)
- Adam Clayton – bass guitar (1976–present)
- Larry Mullen Jr. – drums, percussion (1976–present)
- Early members (pre-U2)
- Dik Evans – guitar (1976–1978)
- Ivan McCormick – guitar (1976)
- Studio albums
- Boy (1980)
- October (1981)
- War (1983)
- The Unforgettable Fire (1984)
- The Joshua Tree (1987)
- Rattle and Hum (1988)
- Achtung Baby (1991)
- Zooropa (1993)
- Pop (1997)
- All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000)
- How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004)
- No Line on the Horizon (2009)
- Songs of Innocence (2014)
- U2-3 Tour (1979–1980)
- 11 O'Clock Tick Tock Tour (1980)
- Boy Tour (1980–1981)
- October Tour (1981–1982)
- War Tour (1982–1983)
- The Unforgettable Fire Tour (1984–1985)
- The Joshua Tree Tour (1987)
- Lovetown Tour (1989–1990)
- Zoo TV Tour (1992–1993)
- PopMart Tour (1997–1998)
- Elevation Tour (2001)
- Vertigo Tour (2005–2006)
- U2 360° Tour (2009–2011)
- Innocence + Experience Tour (2015)
- The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 (2017)
- ""U2" Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. 19 July 2015.".
- "U2: What they're still looking for". cbsnews.com. 24 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Martin, Chris (15 April 2004). "The Immortals: The Fifty Greatest Artists of All Time: U2". Rolling Stone. No. 946.
- McCormick (2006), p. 27
- Chatterton (2001), p. 130
- McCormick (2006), p. 30
- McCormick, Neil (3 December 1987). "The Unbelievable Book". Hot Press. Vol. 23 no. 11. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- O'Hare, Colm (25 September 2016). "#U240 U2: It was 40 Years Ago Today". Hot Press. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 35, 40
- McCormick (2008), p. 37
- McCormick (2006), pp. 46–48
- McGee (2008), pp. 11–12
- McGee (2008), p. 14
- McCormick (2006), p. 44
- McGee (2008), p. 16–18
- Hayden, Jackie (20 June 1985). "Stories of Boys". Hot Press. Vol. 9 no. 13. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 53–56
- Dalton, Stephen (December 1999). "In the Name of Love". Uncut. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- McGee (2008), pp. 21–24
- McGee (2008), pp. 23, 29
- de la Parra (2003), p. 10
- McGee (2008), p. 27
- "U2". Legends. Season 1. Episode 6. 11 December 1998. VH1.
- Henke, James (9 June 1983). "Blessed Are the Peacemakers". Rolling Stone. No. 397. pp. 11–14. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- McGee (2008), pp. 29–31
- McCormick (2006), pp. 96–100
- McGee (2008), p. 32
- Green, Jim (March 1982). "U2: Pluck of the Irish". Trouser Press.
- Martin, Gavin (14 February 1981). "Kings of the Celtic Fringe". NME.
- McGee (2008), p. 34
- Jobling (2014), p. 69
- Morley, Paul (25 October 1980). "Boy's Own Weepies". NME.
- Lynch, Declan (10–24 October 1980). "Boy". Hot Press. Vol. 4 no. 10. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Jobling (2014), p. 67
- "Billboard Top LPs & Tape" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. 93 no. 15. 18 April 1981. p. 139. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- Nolan, Tom; Obrecht, Jas (June 1985). "The Edge of U2". Guitar Player.
- "Billboard Rock Albums & Top Tracks" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. 93 no. 16. 25 April 1981. p. 28. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 16–17
- Morse, Steve (7 March 1981). "A New Sound Under Pressure". The Boston Globe.
- Browning, Boo (27 February 1981). "U2: Aiming for Number 1". The Washington Post. p. WK39.
- McNally, Charlie (17 April – 1 May 1981). "U2 Could Be in L.A.". Hot Press. Vol. 5 no. 7. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Smith, C.P. (23 March 1981). "U2: Intriguing New Band Explodes on the American Scene". Orange County Register.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 113–120
- Rose, Joseph (22 March 2016). "How U2, a Portland bar and a missing briefcase altered music history (photos)". OregonLive.com. Advance Internet. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- McGee (2008) pp. 46–47
- Savage, Mark (18 July 2008). "U2's producer reveals studio secrets". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "U2 | full Official Chart history". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Flanagan (1995), pp. 46–48
- McCormick, Neil (2008). October (Remastered deluxe edition CD booklet). U2. Island Records. B0010948-02.
- McGee (2008), pp. 49–50
- Jobling (2014), pp. 88–89
- McCormick (2006), pp. 120, 130
- McCormick (2006), p. 125
- McGee (2008), p. 55
- McCormick (2006), p. 127
- McGee (2008), pp. 57–58
- Stokes (1996), p. 36
- Reynolds (2006), p. 367
- Graham (2004), p. 14
- McCormick (2006), p. 135
- McCormick (2006), p. 127
- McCormick (2006), p. 139; "Songfacts: New Year's Day by U2". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
- Block, Adam (1 May 1989). "Bono Bites Back". MotherJones. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Cave, Damien; et al. (24 June 2004). "U2's Gamble at Red Rocks". Rolling Stone. No. 951. p. 146.
- Connelly, Christopher (14 March 1985). "Keeping the Faith". Rolling Stone. No. 443.
- Pond, Steve (9 April 1987). "Review: The Joshua Tree". Rolling Stone. No. 497. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
- McCormick (2006), p. 147
- Graham (2004), p. 21
- McCormick (2006), p. 151
- Stokes (1996), p. 55
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 52–55
- Stokes (1996), pp. 50–51
- McCormick (2006), p. 151
- "U2 albums". Everyhit.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014. Note: U2 must be searched manually.
- "U2: Charts and Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Graham (2004), pp. 23–24
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 62–63
- Henke, James (18 July 1985). "Review: Wide Awake in America". Rolling Stone. No. 452–453.
- Kaufman, Gil (29 June 2005). "Live Aid: A Look Back At A Concert That Actually Changed The World". MTV.com. Viacom International. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- McCormick (2006), p. 164
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 72–73
- Rolling Stone (1994), pp. 68–69
- so named as a "tribute" to, rather than a "metaphor" for, America (McCormick (2006), p. 186)
- DeCurtis, Anthony (26 March 1987). "U2 Releases The Joshua Tree". Rolling Stone. No. 496.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 169, 177
- McCormick (2006), p. 179
- McCormick (2006), p. 174
- Dalton, Stephen (8 September 2003). "How the West Was Won". Uncut.
- Stokes (1996), p. 72
- McCormick (2006), p. 186
- Graham (2004), pp. 27–30
- King, Philip, and Nuala O'Connor (directors) (1999). Classic Albums: U2 – The Joshua Tree (Television documentary). Isis Productions.; McCormick (2006), p. 186
- Jobling (2014), p. 177
- "TIME Magazine Cover: U2 – April 27, 1987". Time. 27 April 1987. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Past Winners Search – Artist: U2". GRAMMY.com. The Recording Academy. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Wenner, Jann S. (ed.) (2012). "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. No. Special Collectors Issue. p. 29. ISBN 978-7-09-893419-6. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 102–103, 111
- Mico, Ted (January 1989). "Hating U2". Spin. Vol. 4 no. 10. pp. 35–37, 76.
- Stokes (1996), p. 78; Graham (2004), pp. 36–38
- Rolling Stone (1994), p. xxiii
- Rolling Stone (1994), p. xxiv
- Stokes (2005), p. 78
- McGee (2008), p. 119
- Fricke, David (1 October 1992). "U2 Finds What It's Looking For". Rolling Stone. No. 640. pp. 40+. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- McCormick (2006), p. 213
- Eno, Brian (28 November 1991). "Bringing Up Baby". Rolling Stone. No. 618.
- Flanagan (1995), pp. 4–6
- Flanagan (1995), p. 7
- Flanagan (1995), pp. 6–11
- Flanagan (1995), p. 30; Graham (2004), p. 49; Stokes (1996), p. 102
- Flanagan (1995), pp. 4–6; Graham (2004), p. 43
- Dalton, Stephen (November 2004). "Achtung Stations". Uncut. No. 90. p. 52.
- Graham (2004), p. 44
- Tyaransen, Olaf (4 December 2002). "Closer to the Edge". Hot Press. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 139–141; Flanagan (1995), pp. 12, 13, 58–61; Stokes (1996), pp. 110–111
- McGee (2008), p. 143
- Light, Alan (4 March 1993). "Behind the Fly". Rolling Stone. No. 651. Wenner Media LLC. pp. 42+.
- Deevoy, Adrian (September 1993). "I Had Too Much to Dream Last Night". Q.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 153, 166
- Flanagan (1996), pp. 232–233, 239
- Philips, Chuck (4 June 1993). "U2 Record Deal Rocks Industry". Los Angeles Times. p. F1.
- McGee (2008), pp. 161–162
- Graham (2004), p. 51
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 166–172
- McCormick (2006), pp. 255–256
- Cogan (2008), p. 154
- Beck, Marilyn; Smith, Stacy Jenel (25 May 1995). "Studio Shake-Up Has Production Team Singing 'Blues'". Los Angeles Daily News.
- Sullivan, Jim (7 November 1995). "Eno, U2 Make An 'Original'". Boston Globe.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 261–262
- Tingen, Paul (July 1997). "Pop Art: Flood & Howie B". Sound on Sound. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- McCormick (2006), p. 262
- McGee (2008), p. 182–185
- McCormick (2006), p. 266, 269–270
- "U2 Set to Re-Record Pop". Contactmusic.com. 23 May 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Boyd, Brian (19 October 1996). "The Trouble With U2". The Guardian.
- Greene, Andy (31 March 2015). "Flashback: Davy Jones Sings 'Daydream Believer' at a U2 Concert". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- McGee (2008), pp. 187–189
- Violanti, Anthony (7 February 1997). "Don't Call It Disco. Well, OK, You Can If You Want To. But Whatever You Call It, Dance Music Is Back With a Vengeance". The Buffalo News.
- Jobling (2014), pp. 253–256
- Graham (2004), pp. 62–63
- "Pop: Kitsch of Distinction". NME. 1 March 1997.; Smith, Andrew (23 March 1997). "Pop". The Sunday Times.
- Hoskyns, Barney (20 March 1997). "Review: Pop". Rolling Stone. No. 756.
- Mueller, Andrew (May 2004). "U2's "Pop" Reconsidered". Uncut Legends. Vol. 1 no. 3. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Dentler, Matt (30 October 2000). "U2 makes album world is waiting for". The Daily Texan.
- Breimeier, Russ. "The Best of 1990–2000 – U2". Crosswalk.com. Salem Web Network. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "U2 Go 'PopMart'" (Press release). PR Newswire. 12 February 1997. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 193–202
- Piccoli, Sean (9 June 1997). "U2 `Popmart' A Tough Sell In Some Cities". Sun-Sentinel. Tronc. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- McCormick (2006), p. 277
- Oler, Tammy (28 March 2008). "Ten Rock-Star Stunts Even More Ridiculous Than Flying to Antarctica". Vulture. New York. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Boyd, Brian (27 February 2009). "Just the 2 of U". Irish Times. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- U2 (July 2010). "Stairway to Devon − OK, Somerset!". Q. p. 100.
- de la Parra (2003), pp. 211–212
- "Jo Whiley interview with U2". The Jo Whiley Show. London. November 1998. BBC Radio 1.
- Mueller, Andrew (26 September 1997). "U2 in Sarajevo: Part 2 – The Rattle and Hum". The Independent.
- de la Parra (2003), p. 221
- "U2 And Homer Share Stage In "Simpsons" 200th Episode". MTV.com. Viacom International. 24 April 1998. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- McGee (2008), pp. 208–209
- Leas, Ryan (27 July 2015). "The 31 Best U2 Non-Album Tracks". Stereogum. SpinMedia. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 289–296
- McGee (2008), p. 208
- "The Elastic Bono Band". Q. No. 170. November 2000.
- Sweeting, Adam (27 October 2000). "Time to Get the Leathers Out". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Morse, Steve (27 October 2000). "U2 Leaves the Present Behind". The Boston Globe. p. E17. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Baillie, Russell (28 October 2000). "U2: All That You Can't Leave Behind". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Light, Alan (January 2002). "Rock's Unbreakable Heart". Spin. Vol. 18 no. 1. pp. 56–62.
- Hunter, James (9 November 2000). "Review: All That You Can't Leave Behind". Rolling Stone. No. 853.
- McGee (2008), p. 221
- Lang, Nico (18 September 2014). "How U2 became the most hated band in America". Salon. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- McGee (2008), p. 220
- Rodman, Sarah (22 February 2001). "A 'Beautiful' day for U2, Steely Dan; Old rockers steal thunder from Eminem at Grammys". Boston Herald.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (4 March 2002). "Bono's mission". Time. Vol. 159 no. 9. Archived from the original on 7 June 2002. (subscription required (. ))
- McGee (2008), pp. 226, 234, 239
- Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988-2010. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing.
- McGee (2008), pp. 225, 233, 238
- Young (2004), pp. 61–62
- Heath, Chris (10 May 2001). "U2 Tour: From the Heart". Rolling Stone.
- Skanse, Richard (3 February 2001). "General Admission a Go for U2". Rolling Stone.
- O'Riordain, Dulra (2 September 2001). "More of the Slane; U2 Wind Up Tour with a Night of Pure Magic". Sunday Mirror.
- Gould, Nigel (27 August 2001). "U2 back with the show of their lives; Stars and fans treated to a night to remember at Slane". Belfast Telegraph.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 308–309
- McGee (2008), p. 237
- VH1: All Access: U2 (Television documentary). 2005.
- Grossberg, Josh (27 December 2001). "Elevation! U2 Tops 2001 Tours". E! News. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Waddell, Ray (14 March 2009). "Kissing the Future". Billboard. Vol. 121 no. 10. p. 19.
- James, Caryn (4 February 2002). "Critic's Notebook; Singers Smoothly Merge Politics With Patriotism". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Top 10 Super Bowl Halftime shows". SI.com. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Sheffield, Rob (4 February 2015). "Super Bowl Halftime Shows Ranked: From Worst to Best". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Mansfield, Brian (28 January 2015). "Ranking the 5 best Super Bowl halftime shows". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Gallo, Phil (28 February 2002). "The Grammys: U2 and sharp keys; Soul star, Bono tops with 'O Bro'". Variety.
- Murphy, Peter (24 October 2002). "Review: The Best & the B-Sides of 1990–2000". Hot Press. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Wenner, Jann S. (3 November 2005). "Bono on the Records". Rolling Stone. No. 986.
- "U2 Lands Seventh No. 1; Kelly Clarkson Up Next". Billboard. Vol. 121 no. 11. 21 March 2009. p. 41.
- Waddell, Ray (13 December 2005). "U2's Vertigo Leads Year's Top Tours". Billboard.com. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Cohen, Jonathan (4 January 2007). "From Joshua Trees To Palm Trees". Billboard.com. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "U2 stars enter rock Hall of Fame". BBC News. 15 March 2005. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- McConnell, Daniel (6 August 2006). "U2 move their rock empire out of Ireland". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- O'Brien, Fergal (15 October 2006). "Bono, Preacher on Poverty, Tarnishes Halo With Irish Tax Move". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- Hyde, Marina (9 December 2006). "They live like aristocrats. Now they think like them". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "U2 reject tax avoidance claims". The Belfast Telegraph. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Hogan, Louise (26 June 2013). "U2 tax switch 'in spirit of the law' says Bono". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- O'Conner, Brendan (21 June 2009). "U2: Access all areas". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Boyd, Brian (27 February 2009). "The background: making No Line on the Horizon". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009. (subscription required)
- "Live Nation agrees to 12-year pact with U2". Reuters. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Thelwell, Emma (31 March 2008). "U2 ties knot with Live Nation deal". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- Hiatt, Brian (5 April 2009). "Taking care of business". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "New U2 album is No. 1 in 30 countries". Reuters. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
- Johnson, Neala (9 September 2010). "U2: The Band who fell to Earth". Herald Sun. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011.
- Michaels, Sean (26 October 2009). "U2's Bono disappointed with latest album sales". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- "Exclusive: Paul McGuinness on U2's World Tour". Hot Press. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009. (subscription required)
- Hiatt, Brian (23 March 2009). "Inside U2's Plans to Rock Stadiums Around the Globe". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- Allen, Bob (30 October 2009). "U2's Rose Bowl Show Breaks Attendance Record". Billboard. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "The Voices: Artists of the Decade". Rolling Stone. No. 1094–1095. 24 December 2009 – 7 January 2010.
- "Top Touring Artists of the Decade". Billboard. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- Kreps, Daniel (23 November 2009). "U2 to headline 2010 Glastonbury Festival on 25 June ". Rolling Stone.
- "U2 announce return to the stage in homemade video". Rolling Stone. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "BBC Glastonbury Festival – 2011 – U2". BBC Online. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Waddell, Ray (6 March 2009). "Exclusive: U2 Readies '360' Global Tour". Billboard.com. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Waddell, Ray (29 July 2011). "U2 Set to Wrap Biggest Concert Tour Ever". Billboard.com. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Hiatt, Brian (4 March 2009). "U2 Talk "Horizon" Follow Up, Spider-Man Musical in Rolling Stone Cover Story". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
- O'Hagan, Sean (15 February 2009). "The Wanderers". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- MacDonald (2014), pp. 232–235
- Michaels, Sean (23 August 2010). "U2 have a trio of unreleased albums, reveals Bono". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Michaels, Sean (13 June 2011). "New U2 album delayed until 2012". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Dawson, Kim; Cabooter, James (9 June 2011). "David Guetta: Bono delay". Daily Star. Northern & Shell Media Publications. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Espen, Hal (12 February 2014). "U2 Interview: Oscar Hopes, That Unfinished Album, Anxiety About Staying Relevant". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Farley, Christopher John (17 October 2013). "'Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom' Trailer Features New U2 Song 'Ordinary Love'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Ordinary Love". GoldenGlobes.com. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Lewis, Randy (15 November 2013). "U2 manager Paul McGuinness turning reins over to Guy Oseary". LATimes.com. Tribune Company. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Gardner, Elysa (1 February 2014). "Download U2 song, fight global disease". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 16.
- Grow, Kory (2 February 2014). "U2 Offer Free Downloads of New Track 'Invisible' to Help Fight AIDS". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Newman, Jason (31 January 2014). "U2 Say 'Invisible' Is a 'Sneak Preview' of New Album". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Ingraham, Nathan (9 September 2014). "U2 releases its new album for free today exclusively on iTunes". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Sisario, Ben (9 September 2014). "U2 Appears at Apple Event, and 'Songs of Innocence' Appears Free on iTunes". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Jurgensen, John (9 September 2014). "U2, Apple and the Deal Behind Getting 'Songs of Innocence' Free of Charge". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Pareles, Jon (10 September 2014). "On New Album, Rock Veterans Revisit Youth". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "New U2 album given away for free to iTunes users". BBC News. BBC. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Hawksley, Rupert (10 September 2014). "Why is the new U2 album in your iTunes library?". The Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Roose, Kevin (11 September 2014). "Everyone Is Mad at Apple for Forcing Them to Download a U2 Album". New York. New York Media. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Peterson, Kim (12 September 2014). "Apple's free U2 "gift" angers many customers". CBS MoneyWatch. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Richards, Chris (10 September 2014). "U2, Apple and rock-and-roll as dystopian junk mail". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- Newman, Jason (19 November 2014). "Bono Treated With Metal Plates, 'Intensive Therapy' After Bike Injury". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Jonze, Tim (2 January 2015). "Bono says he may never play guitar again after cycling accident". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "U2 guitarist The Edge falls off edge of stage in Vancouver". CBC News. CBC. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Hade, Emma Jane; McHugh, Michael (18 November 2015). "U2 calls for a 'Europe of mercy' at first concert since Paris attacks". Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Waddell, Ray (3 December 2014). "U2 Announces 'Innocence + Experience' Tour". Billboard.com. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Pareles, Jon (3 May 2015). "U2's Flight to Now (Turbulence Included)". The New York Times (New York ed.). The New York Times Company. p. AR1.
- Greene, Andy (15 May 2015). "U2 Reinvent the Arena Show at Triumphant 'Innocence' Tour Opener". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Kornelis, Chris (15 May 2015). "At U2′s Tour Opener in Vancouver, Bono Sucks His Thumb, the Edge Falls off the Edge". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "2015 Pollstar Year End Top 20 Worldwide Tours" (PDF). Pollstar. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- Butler, Bethonie (13 November 2015). "U2 postpones its Paris concert that was to air live on HBO Saturday night". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Associated Press (23 November 2015). "U2 reschedules Paris concerts, HBO will air Dec. 7 show". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Greene, Andy (9 January 2017). "The Edge Breaks Down U2's Upcoming 'Joshua Tree' Tour". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- Peake, Steve. "Top 10 U2 Songs of the '80s". About.com. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- Fricke, David (30 December 2004). "U2 Drops Bomb". Rolling Stone. No. 964.
- Gulla (2009), p. 64
- Hutchinson, John (September 1986). "U2's Leading Edge". Musician. No. 95. p. 33. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- Maione, Marylinn (12 February 2006). "Column: off the record..., vol. 6–201". atu2.com. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- Reynolds (2006), p. 368
- Considine, J.D. (20 January 1983). "Review: War". Rolling Stone. No. 387.
- Gardner, Elysa (9 January 1992). "U2's 'Achtung Baby': Bring the Noise". Rolling Stone. No. 621. p. 51. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Pareles, Jon (28 April 1997). "Under A Golden Arch, Sincerely U2". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- McCormick (2006), p. 289
- Pareles, Jon (14 November 2004). "U2: The Catharsis in the Cathedral". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 135, 139
- McGee (2008), p. 98
- Stokes (1995), pp. 62–77
- "U2 – How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb Review". Uncut. No. 91. December 2004. p. 136. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Plotz, David (25 January 2002). "The soaring nothingness of U2". Slate.com. The Slate Group. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- McCormick (2006), p. 113
- "Clash Star Strummer Dies". BBC News. 27 December 2002. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Bono (April 2001). "Eulogy: Bono Remembers Joey Ramone". Time. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Saint Bono". The Age. Melbourne. 26 July 2003. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
- NewOrderStory [DVD]. Warner Bros., 2005.
- McCormick (2006), p. 56, 58, 96
- Bono (15 April 2004). "The Immortals – The Greatest Artists of All Time: Elvis Presley". Rolling Stone.
- Wenner, Jann (3 November 2005). "Bono – The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone.
- Newman, Jason (3 February 2014). "9 Biggest Revelations in Bono's 'BBC' Interview About U2". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Bayles (1994), p. 321
- "Van Morrison: Induction year 1993". rockhall.com. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- McCormick (2006), pp. 39, 113, 343
- McCormick (2006), p. 238
- McCormick (2006), p. 262
- McCormick (2006), p. 277
- McCormick (2006), pp. 285–286
- McCormick (2006), pp. 295–296
- Calder, Tine (26 December 2004). "U2 set for 2nd Mandela gig". The People.
- Ambassador of Conscience Award: 2005 Award Ceremony at the Wayback Machine (archived 2 February 2007). artforamnesty.org. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- Brown, Aaron (24 May 2002). "CNN Access: Bono backs 'effective aid' for Africa". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2010.; Kagan, Daryn (30 May 2002). "Bono and O'Neill in Africa: Summing up the trip". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.; "Bono wins Chirac aid boost pledge". CNN.com. 21 June 2002. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- The Edge (U2) Announces 'Music Rising', a Campaign to Aid Musicians Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita modernguitars.com. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
- Hiatt, Brian (25 September 2006). "U2, Green Day Unite". Rolling Stone.
- "U2 to be honoured as innovators at iHeartRadio Awards". The Vancouver Sun. Postmedia News. Associated Press. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- O'Keefe, Derrick (23 March 2005). "The Empire Moves and Co-opts in Mysterious Ways". CounterPunch. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Browne, Harry (16 May 2006). "RED Light District: Bono's Independent". CounterPunch. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Stossel, John & Patrick McMenamin (12 May 2006). "Will More Foreign Aid End Global Poverty?". Retrieved 19 January 2008.; and Watson, Roland; Costello, Miles; Fleming, Sam (1 January 2006). "Bono aid is making Africa sick". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
- Richard Murphy, "Bono's Choice", Taxresearch
- McCormick (2006), p. 169
- McCormick (2006), p. 211
- McCormick (2006), p. 215
- Greene, Andy (14 March 2014). "15. 'Alex Descends into Hell for a Bottle of Milk'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Keane, Trevor (1 October 2010). Gaffers: 50 Years of Irish Football Managers. Mercier Press Ltd. p. 211.
- de la Parra (2003), p. 141
- de la Parra (2003), p. 132
- Wenner, Jann S. (6 December 2001). "Review: Goddess In The Doorway". Rolling Stone. No. 883–884.
- Bychawski, Adam (3 June 2010). "Beastie Boys' Adam Yauch to release documentary about Beat writer William S Burroughs – video". NME. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Pancella, Angela. U2 Connections: William Gibson. atu2.com. Retrieved 25 January 2008; American Masters: Allen Ginsberg PBS.com. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- "Rushdie Puts Words to U2's Music". The Washington Post. 23 January 1999. p. C10.
- Pompeo, Joe (3 March 2009). "Gossip Girl Sings! Sonic Youth Returns! And Where's Your Famous Blue Raincoat?". The New York Observer. The New York Observer, LLC. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "Gold & Platinum – Top Artists (Albums)". RIAA. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Gold & Platinum". RIAA. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Sherwin, Adam (3 March 2009). "New U2 album No Line on the Horizon given lukewarm reception". The Times. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- O'Malley Greenburg, Zach (28 November 2012). "The World's Highest-Paid Musicians 2012". Forbes.com. Forbes.com LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Allen, Bob (23 March 2016). "Madonna Extends Record as Highest-Grossing Solo Touring Artist: $1.31 Billion Earned". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- Meagher, John (1 March 2014). "U2: a line on the horizon". Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "100 Greatest Singers of All Time – No. 32: Bono". Rolling Stone. No. 1066. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "100 Greatest Guitarists: The Edge". Rolling Stone. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- Barnes, Anthony (3 October 2004). "Q: Which is biggest band of all time? A: And readers say ...". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "Greatest Act". U2.com. Live Nation. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Juzwiak, Rich (25 August 2010). "Who Will Come Out on Top of VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of All Time?". VH1.com. Viacom International. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. No. Special collectors edition. 2010.
- Pollack, Jeff (7 February 2011). "10 Bands That Shook The World". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Kilgore, Kym (31 March 2008). "U2 signs on with Live Nation". LiveDaily. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "ASCAP Awards, London – Wednesday, October 11, 2006: Complete List of Winners". ASCAP. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Bayles, Martha (1994). Hole in Our Soul: Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-901962-1.
- Chatterton, Mark (2001). U2: The Complete Encyclopedia. London: Firefly Publishing. ISBN 0-946719-41-1.
- Cogan, Višnja (2008). U2: An Irish Phenomenon. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-933648-71-2.
- de la Parra, Pimm Jal (2003). U2 Live: A Concert Documentary (Updated ed.). London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9198-7.
- Flanagan, Bill (1995). U2 at the End of the World. New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-385-31154-0.
- Graham, Bill; van Oosten de Boer, Caroline (2004). U2: The Complete Guide to Their Music. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9886-8.
- Gulla, Bob (2009). Guitar Gods: The 25 Players Who Made Rock History. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-35806-7.
- Jobling, John (2014). U2: The Definitive Biography. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-02789-4.
- MacDonald, Bruno (2014). The Greatest Albums You'll Never Hear. London: Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-78131-219-3.
- McGee, Matt (2008). U2: A Diary. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84772-108-2.
- Reynolds, Simon (2006). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-303672-6.
- Rolling Stone (1994). U2: The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions from the Files of Rolling Stone. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-06239-8.
- Stokes, Niall (1996). Into The Heart: The Stories Behind Every U2 Song. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-719668-7.
- U2 (2006). McCormick, Neil, ed. U2 by U2. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-719668-7.
- Young, Clive (2004). Crank It Up: Live Sound Secrets of the Top Tour Engineers. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30778-3.