United Arab Emirates
|United Arab Emirates
لإمارات العربية المتحدة
Dawlat-al-Himārāt al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah
Anthem: عيشي بلادي
"Long Live my Nation"
Location of United Arab Emirates (green)
in the Arabian Peninsula (white)
|Ethnic groups (2015)|
|Government||Federal Islamic absolute monarchy|
|Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan|
|Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|Legislature||Federal National Council|
|Establishment from the United Kingdom|
|2 December 1971|
• Admission of Ras al-Khaimah to the UAE
|10 February 1972|
|83,600 km2 (32,300 sq mi) (116th)|
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
|5,779,760 to 9,581,000 (93rd)|
• 2005 census
|99/km2 (256.4/sq mi) (110th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|$667.211 billion (32nd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|$375.022 billion (28th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2014)|| 0.835
very high · 41st
|Currency||UAE dirham (AED)|
|Time zone||GST (UTC+4)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||AE|
The United Arab Emirates (i/ /; Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة Dawlat al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabic: الامارات al-Imārāt) or the UAE, is a federal absolute monarchy in Western Asia, at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.
The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on December 2, 1971. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by an absolute monarch; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates. Islam is the official religion of the UAE, and Arabic is the official language, although English and Indian dialects are widely spoken, with English the language of business and education, especially in Abu Dhabi and Dubai.
The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world, while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure. The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, with its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation hub. Nevertheless, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas.
The UAE is criticised for its human rights record, including the specific interpretations of Shari'a used in its legal system. The UAE's rising international profile has led some analysts to identify it as a regional and middle power.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Law
- 5 Media
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sports
- 10 Education
- 11 Demographics
- 12 Health
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE. In ancient times, Al Hasa (today's Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (today's UAE and Oman). From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda'ah tribal groups from south west Arabia towards central Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar (in the area of today's Ra's al-Khaimah) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire. The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu'am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior.
The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD. It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD.
The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time. Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory (the Ridda Wars) with the bloody battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost. This assured the integrity of the Caliphate and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the newly emerging Rashidun Caliphate.
Ottoman and Portuguese era
The harsh desert environment led to the emergence of the "versatile tribesman", nomadic groups who subsisted due to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. The seasonal movements of these groups led not only to frequent clashes between groups but also to the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the Al Bahrayn coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North.
By the 16th century, ports in the Gulf and part of the population that today form the coastal Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire. At the same time, the Portuguese, English and Dutch colonial forces also appeared in the Gulf, with the entire northern coast remaining under Persian rule throughout. By the 17th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi. The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16th century conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him – particularly on the east coast at Muscat, Sohar and Khor Fakkan.
The southern coast of the Persian Gulf was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as boats of the Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) federation based in the area harassed British-flagged shipping from the 17th century into the 19th. British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1809 and subsequently 1819. The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a treaty to combat piracy along the Persian Gulf coast, giving rise to the term Trucial States, which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. Further treaties were signed in 1843 and 1853.
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, namely France and Russia, the British and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the British with other Persian Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without their consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. This treaty, the Exclusive Agreement, was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. It was subsequently ratified by the Viceroy of India and the British Government in London. British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah in his 1986 book The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf.
In 1869, the Qubaisat tribe settled at Khawr al Udayd and tried to enlist the support of the Ottomans, whose flag was occasionally seen flying there. Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British. In 1906, the British Political Resident, Percy Cox, confirmed in writing to the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan ('Zayed the Great') that Khawr al Udayd belonged to his sheikhdom.
British era, discovery of oil
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. The First World War had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the invention of the cultured pearl, that wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the Second World War, when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States.
The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council, and appointed Adi Bitar, Dubai's Sheikh Rashid's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed. The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace.
In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis, another territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute but this has not been ratified. The UAE's border with Oman was ratified in 2008.
In 1922, the British government secured undertakings from the trucial rulers not to sign concessions with foreign companies. Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia (from 1908) and Mesopotamia (from 1927), a British-led oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), showed an interest in the region. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP) had a 23.75% share in IPC. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were agreed with local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC. APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement, which required it to operate through IPC. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000-foot-deep (4,000-metre) bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million.
In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, D'Arcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. BP joined with Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later Total) to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd (ADMA) and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd (DUMA). A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer, Jacques Cousteau. In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah (shared with Iran).
PDTC had continued its onshore exploration activities, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry, but on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. 3 well on the coast near Tarif. In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai.
By 1966, it had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. British MPs debated the preparedness of the Royal Navy to defend the sheikhdoms. Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously under-equipped to defend the sheikhdoms. On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British Labour government rejected the offer. After Labour MP Goronwy Roberts informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.
Fears of vulnerability were realized the day before independence. An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the Tunb islands. The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion. A destroyer group approached the island Abu Musa as well. But there, Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi recognized his forces would not be able to challenge the invading Iranian naval forces. The island was quickly leased to Iran for $3 million a year. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi.
Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, they became fully independent. The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by 2 December 1971. On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Bahrain and Qatar declined their invitations to join the union. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972. In February 1972, the Federal National Council (FNC) was created; it was a 40-member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers. The UAE joined the Arab League in 1971. It was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first summit. UAE forces joined the allies against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
The UAE supported military operations from the US and other coalition nations engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terror for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995. In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011.
On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.
The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. A small number of hand-picked voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council, an advisory body. UAE has largely escaped the Arab Spring, which other countries have had; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. Furthermore, some people have had their nationality revoked. A member of the ruling family in Ras al-Khaimah was put under house arrest in April 2012 after calling for political openness. Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The United Arab Emirates is situated in Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in a strategic location slightly south of the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil.
The UAE lies between 22°30' and 26°10' north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. It shares a 530-kilometre (330 mi) border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450-kilometre (280 mi) border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udayd area is about nineteen kilometres (12 miles) in the northwest; however, it is a source of ongoing dispute. Following Britain's military departure from the UAE in 1971, and its establishment as a new state, the UAE laid claim to islands resulting in disputes with Iran that remain unresolved. The UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar. The largest emirate, Abu Dhabi, accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area (67,340 square kilometres (26,000 sq mi)). The smallest emirate, Ajman, encompasses only 259 km2 (100 sq mi)(see figure).
The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 km (404 mi) along the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. Most of the coast consists of salt pans that extend far inland. The largest natural harbor is at Dubai, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere. Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller islands, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore. The UAE also has a stretch of the Al Bāţinah coast of the Gulf of Oman, although the Musandam Peninsula, the very tip of Arabia by the Strait of Hormuz is an exclave of Oman separated by the UAE.
South and west of Abu Dhabi, vast, rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About 100 km (62 mi) to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimi oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border. Lake Zakher is a human-made lake near the border with Oman.
Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.
Flora and fauna
The oases grow date palms, acacia and eucalyptus trees. In the desert, the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thorn bushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Bani Yas Island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian Oryx, Arabian camel and leopards. Coastal fish and mammals consist mainly of mackerel, perch, and tuna, as well as sharks and whales.
The climate of the UAE is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 45 °C (113 °F) on the coastal plain. In the Al Hajar Mountains, temperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased elevation. Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between 10 and 14 °C (50 and 57 °F). During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. "Easterner") makes the coastal region especially unpleasant. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than 120 mm (4.7 in), but in some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches 350 mm (13.8 in). Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds. The region is prone to occasional, violent dust storms, which can severely reduce visibility.
In 2004, there was snow in the UAE for the very first time, in some of the higher-altitude parts of the country. A few years later, there were more sightings of snow and hail. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah has experienced snow only twice since records began.
The United Arab Emirates is a federation of hereditary absolute monarchies. It is governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of the seven emirs of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Qaiwain. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates. A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget.
Although elected by the Supreme Council, the presidency and prime ministership are essentially hereditary: The emir of Abu Dhabi holds the presidency, and the emir of Dubai is prime minister. All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the UAE's president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the heir apparent.
The UAE convened a half-elected Federal National Council in 2006. The FNC consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are indirectly elected to serve two-year terms. However, the FNC is restricted to a largely consultative role. The UAE eGovernment is the extension of the UAE Federal Government in its electronic form. On 10 February 2016, 22-year-old Oxford and NYU-Abu Dhabi graduate Shamma Al Mazrui was named Minister of State for Youth Affairs, the youngest minister in the cabinet. Shaikh Mohammed noted that as head of the Youth Council, Al Mazrui will "represent the hopes of our youth".
The UAE is frequently described as an "autocracy". According to the New York Times, the UAE is "an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state". The UAE ranks poorly in freedom indices measuring civil liberties and political rights. The UAE is annually ranked as "Not Free" in Freedom House's annual Freedom in the World report, which measures civil liberties and political rights. The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual Reporters without Borders' Press Freedom Index.
The UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
The UAE was one of only three countries to recognise the Taliban as Afghanistan's legitimate government (Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were the other two countries). The UAE maintained diplomatic relations with the Taliban until 11 September attacks in 2001. The UAE has long maintained close relations with Egypt and is Egypt's largest investor from the Arab world. Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners; about 400,000 Pakistani expatriates are employed in the UAE.
The UAE spends more than any other country in the world to influence U.S. policy and shape domestic debate, and it pays former high-level government officials who worked with it to carry out its agenda within the U.S. The largest expatriate presence in the UAE is Indian. Following British withdrawal from the UAE in 1971 and the establishment of the UAE as a state, the UAE disputed rights to a number of islands in the Persian Gulf against Iran. The UAE went so far as to bring the matter to the United Nations, but the case was dismissed. The dispute has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties.
In its dispute with the United States and Israel, Iran has repeatedly threatened to close the strait at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, a vital oil-trade route. Therefore, in July 2012, the UAE began operating a key overland oil pipeline which bypasses the Strait of Hormuz in order to mitigate any consequences of an Iranian shut-off.
Commercially, the UK and Germany are the UAE's largest export markets and bilateral relations have long been close as a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE. Diplomatic relations between UAE and Japan were established as early as UAE's independence in December 1971. The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other. Exports from the UAE to Japan include crude oil and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include cars and electric items.
France and the United States have played the most strategically significant roles with defence cooperation agreements and military material provision. The UAE discussed with France the possibility of a purchase of 60 Rafale fighter aircraft in January 2013. The UAE helped the US launch its first air offensive against Islamic State targets in Syria.
Although initially small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown significantly over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of outside countries, mainly France, the US and the UK (the former protector of the UAE). Most officers are graduates of the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, with others having attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, the Royal Military College, Duntroon and St Cyr, the military academy of France. France opened the Abu Dhabi Base in May 2009. In March 2011, the UAE agreed to join the enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Libya by sending six F-16 and six Mirage 2000 multi-role fighter aircraft. During the Gulf war, the US had troops and equipment stationed in the UAE as well as other parts of the Persian Gulf.
In 2015, UAE participated in the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.
On Friday 4 September 2015, at least 50 soldiers from the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain were killed in Marib Area of central Yemen. The Houthis claimed responsibility for the attack which was conducted using a Soviet-era rocket known as Tochka. It was later found out that this rocket targeted a weapons cache and caused a large explosion leading to the death of Emirati and Bahraini troops.
The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates. Dubai is the most populated Emirate with 35.6% of the UAE population. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has a further 31.2%, meaning that over two-thirds of the UAE population live in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai.
Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres (26,000 square miles), which is 86.7% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 km (250 mi) and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 km (45 mi). Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometres (1,500 square miles), which is equivalent to 5% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the UAE's Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 km (50 mi) into the interior. The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres (1,498 square miles). There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah.
There is an Omani exclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 square miles) and the boundary was settled in 819. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely 10 metres (33 feet) away. Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about eight kilometres (5.0 miles) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.
|Abu Dhabi||Abu Dhabi||1,548,655||31.2%||67,340||26,000||86.7%|
|Ras al-Khaimah||Ras al-Khaimah||171,903||3.4%||1,684||650||2.2%|
|Umm al-Quwain||Umm al-Qaiwain||69,936||1.4%||777||300||0.9%|
The UAE has a federal court system. There are three main branches within the court structure: civil, criminal and Sharia law. The UAE's judicial system is derived from the civil law system and Sharia law. The court system consists of civil courts and Sharia courts. According to Human Rights Watch, UAE's criminal and civil courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law, in a way that discriminates against women.
Flogging is a punishment for criminal offences such as adultery, premarital sex and alcohol consumption. Due to Sharia courts, flogging is legal with sentences ranging from 80 to 200 lashes. Verbal abuse pertaining to a person's honour is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes. Between 2007 and 2014, many people in the UAE were sentenced to 100 lashes. More recently in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman. In 2014, an expatriate in Abu Dhabi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 80 lashes after alcohol consumption and raping a toddler. Alcohol consumption for Muslims is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many Muslims have been sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption. Sometimes 40 lashes are given. Illicit sex is sometimes penalized by 60 lashes. 80 lashes is the standard number for anyone sentenced to flogging in several emirates. Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. In October 2013, a Filipino housemaid was sentenced to 100 lashes for illegitimate pregnancy. Drunk-driving is strictly illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many expatriates have been sentenced to 80 lashes for drunk-driving. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public. Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes.
Stoning is a legal punishment in the UAE. In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. Other expatriates have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning. Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. In recent years, several people have retracted their guilty plea in illicit sex cases after being sentenced to stoning or 100 lashes. The punishment for committing adultery is 100 lashes for unmarried people and stoning to death for married people.
Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction over family law cases and also have jurisdiction over several criminal cases including adultery, premarital sex, robbery, alcohol consumption and related crimes. The Sharia-based personal status law regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody. The Islamic personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. Non-Muslim expatriates can be liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody.
Apostasy is a crime punishable by death in the UAE. Blasphemy is illegal; expatriates involved in insulting Islam are liable for deportation. UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia (i.e., crimes against God) into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them. Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty; therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE.
In several cases, the courts of the UAE have jailed women who have reported rape. For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of "alcohol consumption". Another British woman was charged with "public intoxication and extramarital sex" after she reported being raped, while an Australian woman was similarly sentenced to jail after she reported gang rape in the UAE. In another recent case, an 18-year Emirati woman withdrew her complaint of gang rape by 6 men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term and flogging. The woman still had to serve one year in jail. In July 2013, a Norwegian woman, Marte Dalelv, reported rape to the police and received a prison sentence for "illicit sex and alcohol consumption".
Other laws discriminate against women. Emirati women must receive permission from a male guardian to marry and remarry. This requirement is derived from the UAE's interpretation of Sharia, and has been federal law since 2005. In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims. In the UAE, a marriage union between a Muslim woman and non-Muslim man is punishable by law, since it is considered a form of "fornication".
Kissing in public is illegal and can result in deportation. Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public. A new federal law in the UAE prohibits swearing in Whatsapp and penalizes swearing by a $68,061 fine and imprisonment; expatriates are penalized by deportation. In July 2015, an Australian expatriate was deported for swearing on Facebook.
Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offense in the UAE. In 2013, an Emirati man was on trial for being accused of a "gay handshake". Article 80 of the Abu Dhabi Penal Code makes sodomy punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, while article 177 of the Penal Code of Dubai imposes imprisonment of up to 10 years on consensual sodomy.
Amputation is a legal punishment in the UAE due to the Sharia courts. Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the UAE. Article 1 of the Federal Penal Code states that "provisions of the Islamic Law shall apply to the crimes of doctrinal punishment, punitive punishment and blood money." The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously.
During the month of Ramadan, it is illegal to publicly eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset. Exceptions are made for pregnant women and children. The law applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, and failure to comply may result in arrest. Dancing in public is illegal in the UAE.
Flogging and stoning are legal punishments in the UAE. The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005. Some domestic workers in the UAE are victims of Sharia judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning. The annual Freedom House report on Freedom in the World has listed the United Arab Emirates as "Not Free" every year since 1999, the first year for which records are available on their website.
UAE has escaped the Arab Spring; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. Since 2011, the UAE government has increasingly carried out forced disappearances. Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. The UAE government denies these people are being held (to conceal their whereabouts), placing these people outside the protection of the law. According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern.
The Arab Organisation of Human Rights has obtained testimonies from many defendants, for its report on "Forced Disappearance and Torture in the UAE", who reported that they had been kidnapped, tortured and abused in detention centres. The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with electrocution and denying access to medical care.
In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government. Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. An Emirati, whose father is among the defendants, was arrested for tweeting about the trial. In April 2013, he was sentenced to 10 months in jail. The latest forced disappearance involves three sisters from Abu Dhabi.
Repressive measures were also used against non-Emiratis in order to justify the UAE government's claim that there is an "international plot" in which UAE citizens and foreigners were working together to destabilize the country. Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations. There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country.
Foreign nationals subjected to forced disappearance include two Libyans and two Qataris. Amnesty reported that the Qatari men have been abducted by the UAE government and the UAE government has withheld information about the men's fate from their families. Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is Iyad El-Baghdadi, a popular blogger and Twitter personality. He was arrested by UAE authorities, detained, imprisoned and then expelled from the country. Despite his lifetime residence in the UAE, as a Palestinian citizen, El-Baghdadi had no recourse to contest this order. He could not be deported back to the Palestinian territories, therefore he was deported to Malaysia.
In 2007, the UAE government attempted to cover up information on the rape of a French teenage boy by three Emirati locals, one of whose HIV-positive status was hidden by Emirati authorities. Diplomatic pressure led to the arrest and conviction of the Emirati rapists.
In April 2009, a video tape of torture smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh Issa bin Zayed Al Nahyan torturing a man (Mohammed Shah Poor) with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car. In December 2009, Issa appeared in court and proclaimed his innocence. The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor. Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority. The US State Department has expressed concern over the verdict and said all members of Emirati society "must stand equal before the law" and called for a careful review of the decision to ensure that the demands of justice are fully met in this case.
In recent years, a large number of Shia Muslim expatriates have been deported from the UAE, Lebanese Shia families in particular have been deported for their alleged sympathy for Hezbollah. According to some organizations, more than 4,000 Shia expatriates have been deported from the UAE in recent years.
The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007. Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process. In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty.
In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges. The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressed "concern" over the case and raised it with the UAE President, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during his 2013 state visit to the UK. The three men were pardoned and released in July 2013.
The treatment of migrant workers in the UAE has been likened to "modern-day slavery". Migrant workers are excluded from the UAE's collective labour rights, hence migrants are vulnerable to forced labour. Migrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions. Moreover, migrant workers are banned from going on strike. Dozens of workers were deported in 2014 for going on strike. As migrant workers do not have the right to join a trade union or go on strike, they don't have the means to denounce the exploitation they suffer. Those who protest risk prison and deportation. The International Trade Union Confederation has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour.
In July 2013, a video was uploaded onto YouTube, depicting a local driver hitting an expatriate worker, following a road related incident. Using part of his head gear, the local driver whips the expatriate and also taunts him, before other passers-by intervene. A short while later, Dubai police announced that the person who filmed the video had been taken into custody. It was also revealed that the local driver was a senior UAE government official. Later in 2013, police arrested a US citizen and some UAE citizens, in connection with a YouTube parody video which allegedly portrayed Dubai and its residents in a bad light. The video was shot in areas of Satwa, Dubai and featured gangs learning how to fight using simple weapons, including shoes, the aghal, etc. In 2015, nationals from different countries were put in jail for offences. An Australian woman was accused of 'writing bad words on social media', after she had posted a picture of a vehicle parked illegally. She was later deported from the UAE.
The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture the latest being the forced disappearance of a Turkish businessman Dr Amer Al Shawa on 2 October 2014.
Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. All associations and NGOs have to register through the Ministry of Social Affairs and are therefore under de facto State control. About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. All associations have to be submitted to censorship guidelines and all publications have first to be approved by the government.
Secret Dubai was an independent blog in Dubai, from 2002 until 2010. It generated a significant following in the Middle East Blogosphere until the UAE's Telecoms Regulatory Authority (TRA) in the UAE blocked the website.
The UAE has a modest dress code. The dress code is part of Dubai's criminal law. Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances. At Dubai's malls, females should cover their shoulders and knees; therefore women are not permitted to wear sleeveless tops. People can also wear swimwear at the pools and beaches.
People are also requested to wear modest clothing when entering mosques, such as the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi.
The UAE's media is annually classified as "not free" in the Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House. The UAE ranks poorly in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters without Borders. Dubai Media City and twofour54 are the UAE's main media zones. The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. In 2007, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work. At the same time, the UAE has made it illegal to disseminate online material that can threaten "public order".
Criticism of the government is not allowed. Criticism of government officials and royal family members is not allowed. Prison terms have been given to those who "deride or damage" the reputation of the state and "display contempt" for religion. There have been many politically motivated press freedom violations; for example in 2012 a YouTube user was arrested in Dubai for filming and uploading a video of a UAE local (who happened to be a Government official) hitting an overseas worker.
UAE has the second largest economy in the GCC (after Saudi Arabia), with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $377 billion (1.38 trillion AED) in 2012. Since independence in 1971, UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1.45 trillion AED in 2013. The non-oil trade has grown to 1.2 trillion AED, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012. UAE is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business based on its economy and regulatory environment, ranked by the Doing Business 2017 Report published by the World Bank Group.
Although UAE has the most diversified economy in the GCC, the UAE's economy remains extremely reliant on oil. With the exception of Dubai, most of the UAE is dependent on oil revenues. Petroleum and natural gas continue to play a central role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabi. More than 85% of the UAE's economy was based on the oil exports in 2009. While Abu Dhabi and other UAE emirates have remained relatively conservative in their approach to diversification, Dubai, which has far smaller oil reserves, was bolder in its diversification policy. In 2011, oil exports accounted for 77% of the UAE's state budget. Successful efforts at economic diversification have reduced the portion of GDP based on oil/gas output to 25%.
Dubai suffered from a significant economic crisis in 2007–2010 and was bailed out by Abu Dhabi's oil wealth. Dubai is running a balanced budget, reflecting economic growth. Tourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. Dubai is the top tourism destination in the Middle East. According to the annual MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, Dubai is the fifth most popular tourism destination in the world. Dubai holds up to 66% share of the UAE's tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16% and Sharjah 10%. Dubai welcomed 10 million tourists in 2013.
The UAE has the most advanced and developed infrastructure in the region. Since the 1980s, the UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property.
Property prices in Dubai fell dramatically when Dubai World, the government construction company, sought to delay a debt payment. The economy is depending on foreign labour force and Emiratization is only showing few positive effects which was found out in studies from Paul Dyer and Natasha Ridge from Dubai School of Government, Ingo Forstenlechner from United Arab Emirates University, Kasim Randaree from the British University of Dubai and Paul Knoglinger from the FHWien.
UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist. The right to collective bargaining and the right to strike are not recognised, and the Ministry of Labour has the power to force workers to go back to work. Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported. Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis – other GCC Arabs – getting preference in public sector jobs despite lesser credentials than competitors and lower motivation. In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as Emirates airlines and Dubai Properties.
On a positive note, according to a recent survey conducted by Bayt.com, 56% of professionals working in the UAE expect the economy to improve.
Dubai International Airport was the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2014, overtaking London Heathrow. A 1,200 km (750 mi) country-wide national railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports. The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula. The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan.
The UAE is served by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007. Internet subscribers are expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012. The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content.
UAE launched a successful bid for Expo 2020 with Dubai. The win is unprecedented in the region. World Expos are a meeting point for the global community to share innovations and make progress on issues such as the global economy, sustainable development and improved quality of life. World Expos can be a catalyst for economic, cultural and social transformation and generates legacies for the host city and nation.
Emirati culture is based on Arabian culture and has been influenced by the cultures of Persia, India, and East Africa. Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity. Persian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and folk arts. For example, the distinctive wind tower which tops traditional Emirati buildings, the barjeel has become an identifying mark of Emirati architecture and is attributed to Persian influence. This influence is derived both from traders who fled the tax regime in Persia in the early 19th Century and from Emirati ownership of ports on the Persian coast, for instance the Al Qassimi port of Lingeh.
The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society. Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates. Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body.
Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and Romantic poets. The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country.
The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums, which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the Salsali Private Museum. Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on Saadiyat Island. Six grand projects are planned, including the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi and the Louvre Abu Dhabi. Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists.
Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. Liwa is a type of music and dance performed locally, mainly in communities that contain descendants of Bantu peoples from the African Great Lakes region. The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists. The cinema of the United Arab Emirates is minimal but expanding.
The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish, and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods; lamb and mutton are the more favored meats, then goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinct flavor. Fast food has become very popular among young people, to the extent that campaigns are underway to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses. Alcohol is only allowed to be served in hotel restaurants and bars. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood.
Formula One is particularly popular in the United Arab Emirates, and is annually held at the picturesque Yas Marina Circuit. The race is held at evening time, and is the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night. Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis. The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: The Dubai Golf Club and Emirates Golf Club.
In the past, child camel jockeys were used and this led to widespread criticism. Eventually the UAE passed some laws banning the use of children for the sport and after a few years, almost all children have been removed. Ansar Burney is often praised for the work he has done in this area.
Football is a popular sport in the UAE. Al Nasr SC, Al-Ain, Al-Wasl, Al-Shabbab ACD, Al-Sharjah, Al-Wahda, and Al-Ahli are the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions. The United Arab Emirates Football Association was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organizing youth programs and improving the abilities of not only its players, but of the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The UAE national football team qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1990 with Egypt. It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982, and Iraq and again in 1986. The UAE won the Gulf Cup Championship two times: the first cup in January 2007 held in Abu Dhabi and the second in January 2013, held in Bahrain. The country is scheduled to host the 2019 AFC Asian Cup.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the SAARC countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted four international test cricket matches so far. Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium in Abu Dhabi also hosted international cricket matches. Dubai has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No. 1 and No. 2) with a third, the DSC Cricket Stadium, as part of Dubai Sports City. Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council. The UAE national cricket team qualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cup and narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. They qualified for the 2015 Cricket World Cup held in Australia and New Zealand. The next edition of the Asia Cup Cricket tournament is likely to be held next year in the first week of March.
The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the Abu Dhabi Education Council. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools.[not in citation given][spam link?] The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates' development goals. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.
The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions. The adult literacy rate in 2011 was 90%.[not in citation given][not in citation given] Thousands of nationals are pursuing formal learning at 86 adult education centres spread across the country.
The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and Institute for Enterprise Development. According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the United Arab Emirates University (421–430th worldwide), Khalifa University (441–450th worldwide),the American University of Sharjah (431–440th) and University of Sharjah (551–600th worldwide).
The demography of the UAE is extremely diverse. In 2010, the UAE's population was estimated to be 8,264,070, of whom only 13% were UAE nationals or Emiratis, while the majority of the population were expatriates. The country's net migration rate stands at 21.71, the world's highest. Under Article 8 of UAE Federal Law no. 17, an expatriate can apply for UAE citizenship after residing in the country for 20 years, providing that person has never been convicted of a crime and can speak fluent Arabic. However, these days citizenship is not given that easily, with many people living in the country as stateless persons (known as Bidun). In 2016 the number of emiratis was 12%.
There are 1.4 million Emirati citizens. The United Arab Emirates' population is ethnically diverse. According to the CIA, 19% of residents were Emirati, 23% were other Arab (Egyptians, Jordanians) and Iranian, 50% were South Asian, and 8% were other expatriates, including Westerners and East Asians (1982 est.).
In 2009, Emirati citizens accounted for 16.5% of the total population; South Asian (Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Sri Lankans and Indians) constituted the largest group, making up 58.4% of the total; other Asians (Filipinos, Iranians) made up 16.7% while Western expatriates were 8.4% of the total population.
Indian and Pakistani expatriates make up more than a third (37%) of the population of three emirates – Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman according to the latest 2014 statistics provided by Euromonitor International, a market intelligence company. The five most populous nationalities in the three emirates, are: Indian (25%), Pakistani (12%), Emirati (9%), Bangladeshi (7%), and Filipino (5%).
There is a growing presence of Europeans especially in multicultural cities such as Dubai. Western expatriates, from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the UAE population. More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country. The rest of the population were from other Arab states.
About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. The average life expectancy is 76.7 years (2012), higher than for any other Arab country. With a male/female sex ratio of 2.2 for the total population and 2.75 for the 15–65 age group, the UAE's gender imbalance is second highest in the world after Qatar.
Islam is the largest and the official state religion of the UAE. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims. By the same token, non-Muslims are expected to avoid interfering in Islamic religious matters or the Islamic upbringing of Muslims.
The government imposes restrictions on spreading other religions through any form of media as it is considered a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country, one Hindu temple in the region of Bur Dubai, one Sikh Gurudwara in Jebel Ali and also a Buddhist temple in Al Garhoud.
Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was Muslim, 9% Christian, and 15% other (mainly Hindu). Census figures do not take into account the many "temporary" visitors and workers while also counting Baha'is and Druze as Muslim. Among Emirati citizens, 85% are Sunni Muslim, while Shi'a Muslims are 15%, mostly concentrated in the emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. Omani immigrants are mostly Ibadi, while Sufi influences exist too.
Largest cities or towns in the United Arab Emirates
2008 Calculation (some figures up to 2012)
|2||Abu Dhabi||Abu Dhabi||1,935,234|
|4||Al Ain||Abu Dhabi||580,000|
|6||Al Gharbia||Abu Dhabi||290,450|
|7||Ras Al Khaimah||Ras al Khaimah||230,903|
|10||Um Al Quwain||Um Al Quwain||72,936|
Arabic is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people. Since the area was occupied by the British until 1971, English is the primary lingua franca in the UAE. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs. Other world languages are represented by expatriate population drawn from a wide mix of nationalities.
The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 76.96 years. Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies. According to World Health Organisation data from 2014, 37.2% of adults in the UAE are clinically obese, with a Body mass index (BMI) score of 30 or more.
In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.
The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme. The country has benefited from medical tourists from all over the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The UAE attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf.
- List of United Arab Emirates-related topics
- Outline of the United Arab Emirates
- Railway stations in United Arab Emirates
- LGBT rights in the United Arab Emirates
- Attractions in UAE
- Jure Snoj. "UAE's population – by nationality". bq Magazine.
- "United Arab Emirates". CIA World Factbook.
- "United Arab Emirates". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Population (Total)". World Bank.
- "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- "List of left- & right-driving countries".
- "Guide to Driving in UAE – Drive Safe in UAE".
- Habboush, Mahmoud. (10 October 2013) Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE. Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "United Arab Emirates country profile". BBC News. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- "Oil – proved reserves". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
- Natural Gas. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012
- "United Arab Emirates profile". BBC News. 14 November 2012.
- Iyer, Srinivasan (30 December 2014). "Dubai International is world's busiest airport". The National. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- "IMF Data Mapper". Imf.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "WTO Trade Statistic 2009". Stat.wto.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Economic diversification in the GCC countries" (PDF). p. 13.
- "Sharia law and Westerners in Dubai: should non-Muslims in UAE be made to face Islamic justice?".
- "United Arab Emirates: Torture and Flogging". Fanack. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008". Jeffrey T. Bergner. p. 2203.
- Laipson, Ellen (3 September 2014). "The UAE and Egypt's New Frontier in Libya". The National Interest. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Evans, Gareth (29 June 2011). "Middle Power Diplomacy". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Pennington, Roberta (5 February 2014). "UAE archaeologist discovers the Swiss Army knife from 130,000 years ago". The National. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in:
- "Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS)". Adias-uae.com. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Ibrahim Abed; Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates, a New Perspective. Trident Ltd. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.
- Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0582277280.
- Thomas, Jen (12 December 2012). "Ancient secrets of Sir Bani Yas unveiled". The National. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in:
- Hawley, Donald (1971). The Trucial States. Allen & Unwin. UK. pp. 48–51. ISBN 9780049530058.
- Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 127. ISBN 0582277280.
- Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. pp. 127–128. ISBN 0582277280.
- Lorimer, John (1908). The Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia. Government of India. Bombay. pp. 1432–1436.
- Anscombe, Frederick F. (1997). The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. Columbia University Press. New York.
- Çetinsaya, Gökhan (2003). The Ottoman View of British Presence in Iraq and the Gulf: The Era of Abdulhamid II. Frank Cass. London.
- Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 43. ISBN 0582277280.
- 'Kashf Al Gumma' "Annals of Oman from Early times to the year 1728 AD" – Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874
- Ibn Ruzaiq, translated by GP Badger, "History of the Imams and Sayids of Oman", London 1871
- Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. Longman. UK. p. 282. ISBN 0582277280.
- Baker, Randall, King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, The Oleander Press, 1979, Great Britain
- THE BRITISH THREAT TO THE OTTOMAN PRESENCE IN THE PERSIAN GULF DURING THE ERA OF ABDULHAMID II AND THE RESPONSES TOWARDS IT, BILAL EMRE BIRAL, MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, ANKARA, 2009
- "November 3, 2008 – The UAE is the old Pirate Coast. Not much has changed.". Wayne Madsen Report. Retrieved 12 February 2016.[dead link]
- Tore Kjeilen (4 April 2007). "Trucial States". Looklex.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010.
- United Arab Emirates – The Economy. Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- Al Qasimi, Sultan (1986). The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. Croom Helm. UK. ISBN 0709921063.
- Morton, Michael Quentin (15 February 2016). Keepers of the Golden Shore: A History of the United Arab Emirates. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 49–50. ISBN 9781780235806.
- "UAE History & Traditions: Pearls & pearling". UAEinteract. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Al Khaleej News Paper". Archived from the original on 3 August 2008.
- "Trucial States Council until 1971 (United Arab Emirates)". Fotw.net. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011.
- "United Arab Emirates (06/07)". State.gov. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Gray, Matthew (7 October 2014). Global Security Watch – Saudi Arabia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-38699-2. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Historic UAE-Oman accord involves 272km of border". Gulf News. 22 July 2008. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in:
- Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. Motivate. UAE. pp. 41–42. ISBN 9781860633119.
- Cousteau, Jacques (August 1955). "Calypso explores for underwater oil". National Geographic Magazine. CVIII (2).
- Morton, Michael Quentin (June 2015). "Calypso in the Arabian Gulf: Jacques Cousteau's Undersea Survey of 1954". Liwa. 7 (13): 3–28. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Butt, Gerald. "Oil and Gas in the UAE" (PDF). UAE Interact. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Heard, David (2013). From Pearls to Oil. Motivate. UAE. pp. 413–416. ISBN 9781860633119.
- "Middle East | Country profile: United Arab Emirates". BBC News. 11 March 2009.
- Jonathan Gornall (2 December 2011). "Sun sets on British Empire as UAE raises its flag". The National. Abu Dhabi.
- "History the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – TEN Guide". Guide.theemiratesnetwork.com. 11 February 1972.
- Mirfendereski, Guive (25 September 2012). "TONB ISLANDS (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island". Archived from the original on 4 July 2015.
- Krane, Jim (2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. pp. 81–84.
- "Bahrain – INDEPENDENCE". Country-data.com.
- "United Arab Emirates: History, Geography, Government, and Culture —". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Simon C. Smith (2004). Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, 1950–71. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-415-33192-0.
- "Trucial Oman or Trucial States – Origin of Trucial Oman or Trucial States | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names". Encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
- Alfred B. Prados (20 November 2002). "Iraqi Challenges and U.S. Responses: March 1991 through October 2002" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 18 August 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Sean Foley (March 1999). "The UAE: Political Issues and Security Dilemmas" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. 3 (1).
- "United Arab Emirates profile – Timeline". BBC News. 14 November 2012.
- "Veteran Gulf ruler Zayed dies". BBC News. 2 November 2004.
- "United Arab Emirates: Silencing dissent in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)". Amnesty International. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE Oil and Gas". Uae.gov.ae. 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.
- "Saudi-UAE Disputes". Arabmediawatch.com. 21 August 1974. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010.
- "UAE Disputes, International UAE Disputes, UAE Boundary Dispute, UAE National Disputes, UAE Emirate Disputes, Claims Three Islands, Abu Musa Island, Greater & Lesser Tumb, The History of Islands, Human Resources UAE, Arab Emirates". Uaeprison.com. 14 May 2007.
- "UAE Climate". Manmm.net. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016.
- "rak Weather". Abudhabi.ms. 8 March 2007.
- "In Pictures | Flooding in the UAE". BBC News. 15 January 2008.
- Middle East | Cold snap brings Gulf rare snow. BBC News (30 December 2004). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- Global warming or wonder! Hail the snow in Abu Dhabi : World, News – India Today. Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- Middle East snow, extreme heatwaves and UAE fog: what's going on with the weather? | The National. Thenational.ae (29 January 2013). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- Nasouh Nazzal (24 January 2009). "Heavy snowfall on Ras Al Khaimah's Jebel Jais mountain cluster". Gulf News.
- "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE Government: Political system". UAEinteract. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE". Arabruleoflaw.org. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE Federal e-Government Portal". Government.ae.[dead link]
- UAE federal eGovernment. "Service Channels- The UAE Government Official Portal". Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Reporter, Staff. "Women shining in new UAE Cabinet – Khaleej Times". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Trouble in the United Arab Emirates: The perils of autocracy". the Economist. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Dubai, the UAE, and the Gulf States: Autocracy in Question". Archived from the original on 28 October 2014.
- "Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater's Founder".
- "Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater's Founder".
The United Arab Emirates – an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state – are closely allied with the United States, and American officials indicated that the battalion program had some support in Washington.
- "United Arab Emirates Reports". Freedom House. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Pendleton, Devon (11 March 2009). "The Gulf's Newest Billionaire". Forbes.
- Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism: Fourth Report of Session. House of Commons. p. 60.
- "Egypt and U.A.E. Relations". Egypt State Information Service Sis.gov.eg. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009.
- "Relations with UAE get wider, deeper". Pakistan Observer. 26 November 2008. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009.
- "What countries spent the most to influence the USA in 2013".
- UAE Eyes Ways to Discourage Marriage with Foreigners. Antisystemic.org (21 October 2005). Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "India-UAE Bilateral Relations". Embassy of India, UAE. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.
- "Konfliktbarometer 2001" (PDF). Retrieved June 2016. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help)[dead link]. Heidelberger Institut für Internationale Konfliktforschung
- "UAE Government: Foreign policy". UAEinteract. 1 January 2008.
- "UAE and France sign landmark nuclear cooperation agreement". Gulf News. 16 January 2008.
- "France signs up to £2 billion deal to build nuclear plants in the Gulf". The Times. 16 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010.
- "Japan-United Arab Emirates Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE confirms discussions with France on purchase of Rafale aircraft". Emirates News Agency. 5 June 2008.
- "Hollande says UAE Rafale jet deal depends on price". Reuters. 15 January 2013.
- "US launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Telegraph. 24 September 2014.
- "BBC News – Libya no-fly zone: Coalition firepower". BBC News. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region". CNN. 27 March 2015.
- "UAE, Bahrain say 50 soldiers killed in Yemen attack". Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "Scores of Gulf troops killed in Yemen conflict". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "Census 2008". Ministry of Economy and Planning, Government of the United Arab Emirates. 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Elizabeth Roberts(5 August 2014) Human Rights Watch warns expat women about the UAE. Telegraph. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "2013 Human Rights Reports: United Arab Emirates". US Department of State.
Sharia (Islamic law) courts, which adjudicate criminal and family law, have the option of imposing flogging as punishment for adultery, prostitution, consensual premarital sex, pregnancy outside marriage, defamation of character, and drug or alcohol abuse.
- "2014 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – United Arab Emirates". US Department of State.
- "U.N. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice: United Arab Emirates". Human Rights Voices. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007. Government Printing Office. p. 2092. ISBN 978-0-16-081399-3. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "UAE: Judicial corporal punishment by flogging". World Corporal Punishment Research. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Dh500,000 expat verbal abuse case to be retried". The National. 8 December 2010.
In the UAE, only verbal abuse pertaining to the sexual honour of a person would be tried under Sharia. For guilt to be proven, the attack must have been made in public and one reliable witness must testify. If convicted, a person would be sentenced to 80 lashes and would never be accepted as a valid witness in a Sharia-based case.
- "Pregnant maid to get 100 lashes after being found guilty of illegal affair". 7daysindubai.com. 9 October 2013.
- World News » Teenager to be lashed for adultery. Gulf Daily News (10 July 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Illicit lovers sentenced to 100 lashes each. GulfNews.com (15 November 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Two women sentenced to death for adultery. Khaleej Times (25 September 2013). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Prison for couple who conceived outside of wedlock. Thenational.ae (22 August 2011). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Bassma Al Jandaly (9 May 2010) Adulterer to be lashed, jailed in Sharjah. Gulf News
- Amnesty International Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates. Refworld (23 May 2007). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Court jails pregnant Filipina in Fujairah . Emirates247.com (9 October 2013). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- DUBAI: Alleged victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison . Latimesblogs.latimes.com (17 June 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "2 men to be lashed for hitting woman in Fujairah". Emirates 247. March 2015.
- "Drunk worker rapes 2-year-old girl in Abu Dhabi". Emirates247.com. January 2014.
- Man to get 80 lashes for drinking alcohol. GulfNews.com (19 February 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Emirati man to be lashed, executed, for murder and drinking alcohol". Gulf News. May 2012.
- Man who stabbed brother in drunken fight in Abu Dhabi jailed for year. Thenational.ae (14 March 2013). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Man who stabbed brother in drunken fight in Abu Dhabi jailed for year". The National. March 2013.
The younger brother admitted illegally consuming alcohol and was sentenced to 80 lashes – a punishment prescribed under Sharia.
- Man appeals 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Abu Dhabi. Thenational.ae (9 August 2012). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Husband jailed for letting friend abuse his wife". 7days.ae. 9 March 2013.
As well as the jail term for rape, the Supreme Court also ordered that the defendants be given 80 lashes for drinking alcohol.
- Cocaine trace due to drinking Red Bull Cola, Abu Dhabi court hears. Thenational.ae (14 August 2012). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Man jailed for raping step-daughter". 7days.ae. 6 March 2013.
As well as the jail term he was also fined Dhs10,000 for reckless driving and will receive 80 lashes for drinking alcohol.
- Drinking costs dad custody of kids. Emirates247.com (13 March 2011). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Fujairah man is jailed for drunken kidnap bid. 7days.ae (13 June 2012). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Emirati to be executed for murder in Fujairah. Emirates247.com (29 May 2012). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Al Jandaly, Bassma (16 April 2006). "Estonian soldier to be lashed". Gulf News.
- Girl to receive 60 lashes for illicit sex. GulfNews.com (20 June 2007). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Two sex workers are sentenced to lashes. Khaleej Times. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Indian lover in UAE sentenced to 60 lashes – Express India. Expressindia.indianexpress.com (8 June 2002). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Motorist sentenced to 80 lashes for drink driving". 7days.ae. 26 November 2012.
- "VI. Charges and Penalties against Domestic Workers". Human Rights Watch. 2014.
- "Swaying car exposes Fujairah drunk driver". Emirates 247. 26 June 2013.
- "Drink-drive student to get 80 lashes". Khaleej Times. 27 March 2013.
- Motorist sentenced to 80 lashes for drink driving. 7days.ae (26 November 2012). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- 80 lashes and one month in jail for drink driving. GulfNews.com (12 August 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Drunk driver sentenced to 80 lashes. Thenational.ae (28 July 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- 4 years and 80 lashes for drug addict . Emirates247.com (1 November 2011). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- 80 lashes, jail for drink-driving upheld . Emirates247.com (18 May 2011). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche. Thenational.ae (10 January 2013). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning. Thenational.ae (29 July 2009). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Expat faces death by stoning after admitting in court to cheating on husband. 7daysindubai.com. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Woman Sentenced To Death By Stoning In Abu Dhabi. Emirateswoman.com. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Asian housemaid gets death for adultery in Abu Dhabi. Qatar Living (4 May 2014). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Document | Amnesty International. Amnesty.org. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Man faces stoning in UAE for incest . Dnaindia.com (14 April 2007). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning". The National. 29 July 2009.
- "Hotel executive who had abortion gets jail term". The National. 30 December 2010.
- ""Change plea or you'll be stoned": Husband who admits cheating given legal advice by judge". 7days.ae. 6 April 2014.
- "To avoid 100 lashes and prison, woman retracts plea in sex case". The National. 9 October 2009.
- "Lawyer urges acquittal of woman on zina charges". The National. 26 November 2010.
- Britons 'liable to Sharia divorces' in UAE – BBC News. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Evans, Robert. (9 December 2013) Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study. Reuters. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "The International Briefing: Persecution of Atheists and Apostates".
- "UAE to deport expats abusing religions". Emirates 247. 22 July 2015.
- Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi (1996). "The Islamisation of Laws in the UAE: The Case of the Penal Code". Arab Law Quarterly. 11 (4): 350–371. JSTOR 3381546.
- Al-Muhairi (1997), Conclusion to the Series of Articles on the UAE Penal Law. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4
- Alex; Topping, ra (26 October 2015). "UAE imprisoning rape victims under extramarital sex laws – investigation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Dubai ruler pardons Norwegian woman convicted after she reported rape". CNN.com. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Bakr, Amena (21 July 2013). "Woman jailed in Dubai after reporting rape hopes to warn others". Reuters. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Dubai's Progressive Charade". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "Gang-rape victim in Dubai arrested for drinking alcohol: report". New York Daily News. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "DUBAI: Victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison".
- "U.A.E. Woman Withdraws Gang-Rape Claim to Avoid Lashes, Prison Sentence".
- "Court jails Emirati woman in gang rape case".
- "Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying". The National.
- "United Arab Emirates International Religious Freedom Report, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2009)". U.S. Department of State.
- Public kissing can lead to deportation | The National. Thenational.ae (7 July 2008). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Jailed Dubai kissing pair lose appeal over conviction. BBC News (4 April 2010). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Women get jail and deportation for kissing on Dubai public beach". Gulf News. 25 May 2008.
- London man tells of 'shock' jailing in Dubai over kiss – BBC News. Bbc.com. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche".
A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche
- "Swearing on Whatsapp 'will result in £40,000 fine and deportation, UAE rules'". The Independent. 16 June 2015.
- "UAE Imposes over $68,000 Fine, Jail Term for Swearing on Whatsapp; Expatriates Face Deportation". International Business Times. 16 June 2015.
- "Man to face trial in UAE for swearing in WhatsApp message". 7days.ae. 16 June 2015.
- "British Expats Face Being Deported From UAE For Swearing on WhatsApp". Yahoo News. 16 June 2015.
- "Australian woman deported from Abu Dhabi over Facebook post". Khaleej Times. 15 July 2015.
- "Australian woman deported from the UAE after Facebook post". Arabian Business. 15 July 2015.
- "Australian jailed over Facebook post deported from Abu Dhabi". Stuff.co.nz. 15 July 2015.
- "Expat deported after posting abusive message about parking on Facebook". 7days.ae. 15 July 2015.
- "Australian expat deported following Facebook post". Gulf News. 15 July 2015.
- "United Arab Emirates".
Facts as drug trafficking, homosexual behaviour, and apostasy are liable to capital punishment.
- "Man Accused of 'Gay Handshake' Stands Trial in Dubai".
- "Federal criminal statute in UAE". Sodomylaws.Org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006.
- "Amnesty International Report 1999 – United Arab Emirates".
- "United Arab Emirates: Briefing for the Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review" (PDF). p. 3.
- "United Arab Emirates – Global Progress" (PDF). p. 3.
Punishments include flogging, amputation, and – as retaliation – injury similar to that for which the offender has been convicted of inflicting on the victim.
- "United Arab Emirates – Country Reports on Human Rights Practices".
In February an Indonesian woman convicted of adultery by the Shari'a court in the Emirate of Fujairah, was sentenced to death by stoning after she purportedly insisted on such punishment. The sentence was commuted on appeal to 1 year in prison, followed by deportation. In June 1998, the Shari'a court in Fujairah sentenced three Omani nationals convicted of robbery to have their right hands amputated. The Fujairah prosecutor's office instead commuted the sentence to a term of imprisonment.
- "Defining Sharia's role in the UAE's legal foundation". The National.
- "Crucifixion for UAE murderers". The Independent.
- "UAE: Further information on fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997.
- "UAE: Fear of imminent crucifixion and execution". Amnesty International. September 1997.
- "Federal Law No (3) of 1987 on Issuance of the Penal Code". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
- "Measures Against Corruptibility, Gifts and Gratification – Bribery in the Middle East" (PDF). Arab Law Quarterly.
- Riazat Butt (31 July 2011). "Britons warned to respect Ramadan while holidaying in Dubai". The Guardian. London, UK. OCLC 60623878.
- "Criminal Law of Dubai". lawyersuae.com.
- "المشارق". al-shorfa.com.
- No dancing in public: Dubai. Arab News (15 March 2009). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying".
- "UAE: Ruthless crackdown on dissent exposes 'ugly reality' beneath façade of glitz and glamour". Amnesty International.
- "Silencing dissent in the UAE" (PDF). Amnesty International. Archived from the original (PDF) on
- "Silencing dissent in the UAE" (PDF). Amnesty International. pp. 16–29 & 35–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014.
- "Forced Disappearances and Torture in the United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Arab Organisation for Human Rights. November 2014.
- UAE: Enforced Disappearance and Torture | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Human Rights in the United – UAE: Enforced disappearances continue. Ic4jhr.net. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Emirati victim of enforced disappearance seen in state security prison » Emirates Centre for Human Rights. Echr.org.uk (14 March 2014). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- UAE must reveal whereabouts of 'disappeared' Libyans and Emiratis: HRW. Middle East Eye (6 October 2014). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- UAE's crackdown on democracy short-sighted. Middleeastmonitor.com. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- David Hearst (2013). "The UAE's bizarre, political trial of 94 activists". The Guardian.
- Ben Brumfield; Caroline Faraj; Saad Abedine (11 April 2013). "Man faces 10 months jail for tweets about trial in UAE". CNN. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- UAE Three women held in secret detention over tweets | Amnesty International. Amnesty.org (27 February 2015). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "3 women risk torture in secret UAE detention over 'I miss my brother' tweet – Amnesty". Russia Today. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- UAE: Reveal Whereabouts of ‘Disappeared’ Libyans | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Urgent Action: Enforced Disappearance of Qatari Nationals" (PDF). Amnesty International.
- Cambanis, Thanassis (1 November 2007). "In Rape Case, a French Youth Takes on Dubai". The New York Times.
- French Teen's Rape Case Exposes Dubai's Dark Side, ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (19 February 2009). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- "ABC News Exclusive: Torture Tape Implicates UAE Royal Sheikh". ABC News. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- Amena Bakr (14 December 2009). "UAE ruling family member says not guilty of torture". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Amena Bakr (10 January 2010). "UAE ruling family member acquitted in torture trial". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Rights group questions UAE trial". Al Jazeera. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "US concern after UAE acquits sheikh in torture case". BBC News. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "Shiites deported from Gulf lament injustice". Daily Star. 4 July 2013.
- "Concern over deportations from Gulf Arab states". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 July 2013.
- "UAE urged to allow appeal on deportations". Financial Times. July 2013.
- "UAE deportations raise questions in Lebanon". Global Post. July 2013.
- "Lebanese Shiites Ousted from Gulf over Hizbullah Ties". naharnet.com. July 2013.
- "Lebanese Living in UAE Fear Deportation". Al Monitor. 2013.
- "UAE Deports 125 Lebanese Citizens". Al Monitor. 2013.
- "UAE/Lebanon: Allow Lebanese/Palestinian Deportees to Appeal". Human Rights Watch. 2010.
- "Lebanese Families in UAE Face Deportations on Short Notice". Al Monitor. 2012.
- "Hezbollah and the Gulf".
- "Thousands of Shias Deported from UAE". majlis.org.uk.
- Sarah Leah Whitson (24 March 2007). "UAE: Draft Labor Law Violates International Standards". Human Rights Watch.
- "Indian workers jailed in Dubai over violent protest". Reuters. 24 February 2008.
- "Annual Report 2013". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Dubai drugs trial: Mother tells of 'torture horror'". BBC. 28 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Dubai drugs trial: David Cameron 'concerned' over torture claims". 29 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Dubai pardons three Britons 'tortured' and jailed over drugs". The Guardian. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- "Modern Day Slave Labor: Conditions for Abu Dhabi's Migrant Workers Shame the West".
- "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation.
- "United Arab Emirates". International Trade Union Confederation.
- "Conditions for Abu Dhabi's migrant workers 'shame the west'".
- "Call for UN to investigate plight of migrant workers in the UAE".
- Senior UAE official arrested over driver attack. ArabianBusiness.com. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Three held for parody video on Satwa streets", Khaleej Times, 9 December 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Australian woman deported from Abu Dhabi over Facebook post. Khaleej Times. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- "Human Rights in The UAE". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015.
- "Arrest of Dr Al Shawa".
- Fanack. "Stifling Dissent in the UAE". Fanack.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Criminal Law of Dubai".
- "UAE: "Dress Modestly" Drive Gains Momentum".
- "Twitter Campaign Wants Female Visitors To Respect UAE Dress Code in Malls".
- "Dubai Mall dress code".
- "Freedom of the Press".
- "United Arab Emirates". Carnegie Endowment.
- "United Arab Emirates – Media". BBC News. 15 June 2012.
- "UAE's economy growth momentum set to pick up". Khaleej Times. 27 December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "GDP to hit $474.2b in 2018". Khaleej Times. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Ranking of Economies". World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
- "Speaking of Water".
- Fitch, Asa (4 January 2015). "Dubai Unveils Balanced Budget for 2015". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "Dubai Ranks Fifth Among Top Global Destinations For Travellers". Gulf Business.
- "Infrastructure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)". The Prospect Group.
- "UAE yearbook 2009". Slideshare.net.
- "The Seismic Activities of Dubai Property Bubble and Inevitable Consequences". Asian Tribune. 9 November 2009.
- "United Arab Emirates". ITUC.
- Krane, Jim (2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. pp. 267–270. ISBN 978-0-312-53574-2.
- Bayt.com Middle East Consumer Confidence Index – March 2015, Bayt.com. Retrieved 1 July 2015
- Anderson, Elizabeth (27 January 2015). "Dubai Overtakes Heathrow To Become World's Busiest". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "From sand to sea". International Railway Journal. 21 March 2012.
- "Will metro change Dubai car culture?". BBC News. 11 September 2009.
- "UAE Ports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008.
- "United Arab Emirates" (PDF). OpenNet Interactive.
- "UAE telecom market grows with competition | Mobile telecomms report". Ameinfo.com.
- "UAE reports high website censorship". The National Newspaper. 12 June 2009.
- WAM. "Expo impact: UAE to see $35bn contracts – Emirates 24/7". Emirates 24/7. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Hosting of Expo 2020 unprecedented achievement for the region, says Sultan Al Jaber – WAM". Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Dubai Expo will open up unlimited opportunities – WAM". Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Expo 2020...What it Means to Us?". CSS Light House. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates. p. 167.
- Handbook of Islamic Marketing. p. 430.
Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of a 'local' identity.
- Hellyer, Peter. United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. Trident. p. 181. ISBN 978-1900724470.
- "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief" (PDF).
- "Official holidays in UAE". Gowealthy.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008.
- "UAE National Clothing". Grapeshisha.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012.
- "Literature and poetry". Visitabudhabi.ae. 1 July 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011.
- Sharjah Museums Department. sharjahmuseums.ae
- "About Sharjah – Sharjah Commerce Tourism Development Authority". Sharjahtourism.ae. 18 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009.
- Dubai FAQs. "Art Galleries Dubai". Dubaifaqs.com.
- "Saadiyat Island – Island of Happiness". Saadiyat.ae. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012.
- John Irish and Tamara Walid (11 June 2009). "Dubai eyeing new fashion, design district". ArabianBusiness.com.
- "Festival Info". DesertRockFestival.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010.
- "UAE Travel& Tourism: Food & Drink". UAEinteract.
- The UAE's big fat problem. Gulf News. (19 July 2012). Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Alcohol and Pork Licenses". Alloexpat.com. 30 May 2009.
- "AUTOSPORT.com – premium content". Autosport. 28 August 2009.
- "UAE Sports". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
- Middle East | Help for Gulf child camel jockeys. BBC News (2 December 2004). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- "Clubs, Sports Clubs UAE United Arab Emirates". Indexuae.com.
- "Gulf Cup 2007". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007.
- "UAE Cricket Timeline". Cricketeurope4.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
- "Cricinfo – Grounds – United Arab Emirates". Content-uk.cricinfo.com. 17 June 2008. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.
- K.R. Nayar (6 September 2008). "Not stumped by UAE cricket issues – Khan". Gulf News.
- Qualification – Cricket World Cup 2015 Qualifier | ICC. Icc-cricket.com (10 April 2015). Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- United Arab Emirates set to host Asia Cup – Rediff.com Cricket. Rediff.com (14 June 2015). Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- "10 Best Schools in UAE (2015)". Edarabia. Edarabia.com. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
[1.] ... School in Dubai. Reviews: 7. The ... School in Dubai will be a leading international school... The school is being built to meet the highest expectations...
- "American University in Dubai. Undergraduate : Admission". Aud.edu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
- "Country Profile: United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Library of Congress – Federal Research Division.
- Ghazala Biqluise. "Study in UAE – UAE Educational System". Arabiancampus.com.
- "Adult Literacy Rate: United Arab Emirates". UNdata. United Nations Statistics Division. 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2015.
Subgroup: Total 15+ yr. Year: . Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Unit: Percent. Value: 90.
- "UAE Education". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007.
- "MASDAR | Profile". Web.archive.org. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008.
- Khalifa University | Undergraduate. Top Universities. Retrieved on 10 October 2015.
- American University of Sharjah Rankings. Top Universities. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "UAE National Bureau of Statistics" (PDF).
- "United Arab Emirates". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009.
- "Population leaps to 8.19 million". The National. Abu Dhabi. 30 May 2010.
- Andrzej Kapiszewski (22 May 2006). "Arab versus Asian migrant workers in the GCC countries" (PDF). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
- "Net migration rate". Cia.gov.
- Camille Paldi (13 July 2010) UAE Islamic Finance. I Love The UAE. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". Migration Policy Institute. 18 September 2013.
- Andy Sambidge (7 October 2009). "UAE population hits 6m, Emiratis make up 16.5%". ArabianBusiness.com.
- "Indians, Pakistanis make up 37% of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman population". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m". Uaeinteract.com.
- Mcintosh, Lindsay (16 June 2008). "Terror red alert for 100,000 British expats in Dubai". The Scotsman.
- Giles Whittell (15 March 2010). "British pair face jail for kissing in Dubai restaurant". The Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010.
- "Editorial: The Ideal Prince". Arabnews.com. 3 November 2004. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
- "Table 3.10 Urbanization" (PDF). World Development Indicators. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.
- "Life expectancy at birth". The World Factbook.
- "Average life expectancy in UAE rises to 75 years". Uaeinteract.com.
- "Sex ratio". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 30 November 2013.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: United Arab Emirates. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- United Arab Emirates. International Religious Freedom Report 2007. State.gov. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2012 – United Arab Emirates". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
- Bassma Al Jandaly (5 April 2008). "Churches and temples in the UAE". Gulf News.
- "Islam: Sunnis and Shiites" (PDF). investigativeproject.org. 23 February 2004.
- Christensen, Shane (2010). Frommer's Dubai. John Wiley & Sons. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-470-71178-1.
- "The World Life Expectancy".
- "United Arab Emirates country profile" (PDF). Library of Congress.
- "Prevalence of obesity, ages 18+, 2010–2014". WHO. World Health Organisation. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- "UAE Health". Uae.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
- Dina El Shammaa (3 January 2009). "Health cover is mandatory". Gulf News.
- Megan Detrie (15 November 2009). "Dubai has eye on medical tourism". The National Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009.
358. "Towards A Foreign Language, Teaching Policy for the Arab World: U.A.E Perspective." United Arab Emirates University (1996).
359. Abu Libdeh, A. (1994). ‘English on Khalifa Street’. The Journal of the College of Education. UAE University 10, 25-51.
360. Swan, M. (2012, April 26). Arabic school aims to boost the popularity of the language. The National, p. 6.
- Government of the United Arab Emirates
- The World Government Summit – UAE
- The 2020 World Exposition in UAE
- "United Arab Emirates". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- United Arab Emirates web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- United Arab Emirates at DMOZ
- United Arab Emirates profile from the BBC News.
- United Arab Emirates country profile from the Lebanese Economy Forum, extracted from the CIA Factbook & Worldbank data.
- Wikimedia Atlas of United Arab Emirates
- World Bank Summary Trade Statistics United Arab Emirates
- Bohra caste relations
- Minister Cabinet 2016
- Timeline of the United Arab Emirates History from Bronze Age to present day