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Uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)
Symbols UCP3 ; SLC25A9
External IDs OMIM602044 MGI1099787 HomoloGene2517 GeneCards: UCP3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE UCP3 219827 at tn.png
PBB GE UCP3 207349 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7352 22229
Ensembl ENSG00000175564 ENSMUSG00000032942
UniProt P55916 P56501
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003356 NM_009464
RefSeq (protein) NP_003347 NP_033490
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
74 – 74.01 Mb
Chr 7:
100.47 – 100.49 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UCP3 gene.[1][2]


Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. Tissue specificity occurs for the different UCPs and the exact methods of how UCPs transfer H+/OH are not known.[3]


UCPs contain the three homologous protein domains of MACPs.[3]

Gene regulation[edit]

This gene has tissue-specific transcription initiation with other transcription initiation sites upstream of SM-1 (major skeletal muscle site). Chromosomal order is 5'-UCP3-UCP2-3'. Two splice variants have been found for this gene.[3]

Disease association[edit]

Mutations in the UCP3 gene are associated with obesity.[4][5]


UCP3 has been shown to interact with YWHAQ.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Boss O, Giacobino JP, Muzzin P (April 1998). "Genomic structure of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) and its assignment to chromosome 11q13". Genomics 47 (3): 425–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5135. PMID 9480760. 
  2. ^ Vidal-Puig A, Solanes G, Grujic D, Flier JS, Lowell BB (July 1997). "UCP3: an uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 235 (1): 79–82. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6740. PMID 9196039. 
  3. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: UCP3 uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)". 
  4. ^ Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y, Reitman M, Gevao SM, Spruill I, Garvey WT (October 1998). "Effects of mutations in the human uncoupling protein 3 gene on the respiratory quotient and fat oxidation in severe obesity and type 2 diabetes". J. Clin. Invest. 102 (7): 1345–51. doi:10.1172/JCI4115. PMC 508981. PMID 9769326. 
  5. ^ Dalgaard LT, Sørensen TI, Drivsholm T, Borch-Johnsen K, Andersen T, Hansen T, Pedersen O (March 2001). "A prevalent polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP3 gene and its relationship to body mass index and long term body weight change in the Danish population". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (3): 1398–402. doi:10.1210/jc.86.3.1398. PMID 11238538. 
  6. ^ Pierrat B, Ito M, Hinz W, Simonen M, Erdmann D, Chiesi M, Heim J (May 2000). "Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 interact with members of the 14.3.3 family". Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (9): 2680–7. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01285.x. PMID 10785390. 

Further reading[edit]