Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UCP3gene.
UCP3 is a mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, which is encoded by UCP3. The gene is located in chromosome (11q13.4) with an exon count of 7 (HGNC et al., 2016). Uncoupling protein being a supreme family of mitochondrial anion carrier. Its functions is to separate the oxidative phosphorylation from synthesis of ATP as energy which is anticipated as heat. The uncoupling proteins involves in the transferring of anions from inner mitochondrial membrane to outer mitochondrial membrane, its protein is programmed in a way to protect mitochondria from induced oxidative stress.
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP).UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and there turn transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. Tissue specificity occurs for the different UCPs and the exact method so far how UCPs transfer H+/OH− are not known.
Uncoupling proteins are transporters in mitochondrial membrane which deplete the proton gradient.UCP1 asseverate in brown adipocytes, But UCP2 is widely expressed. Molecular cloning of UCP3 (uncoupling protein homologue). At amino acid level the hUCP3 is 71% equivalent to hUCP2.Uncoupling protein3 is acclaimed from UCP1 and UCP2 because of its ample and preferred expression in skeletal muscle in humans and brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in rodents (Antonio et al., 1997). UCP3 is an important mediator of thermogenesis.
UCP3 were confirmed containing four single nucleotide polymorphism rs1800849, rs11235972, rs1726745 and rs3781907. There was high impact score of rs11235972 GG genotype thus showing association of UCP3 gene polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese children (Xu YP et al., 2013) The research of counterfeits in two independent population there was a similarity between the -55CT mutation of UCP3 and lower BMI. This affiliation was being modulated by the energy intake, hence deriving the undefined effect of diet and partly association of inconsistencies of prior related studies.
This gene has tissue-specific transcription initiation with other transcription initiation sites upstream of SM-1 (major skeletal muscle site). Chromosomal order is 5'-UCP3-UCP2-3'. Two splice variants have been found for this gene.
Mutations in the UCP3 gene are associated with obesity. UCP3 plays an essential role in obesity. A mutation in exon 3 (V102I) was diagnosed in an obese and diabetic. A mutation initializing a stop codon at exon 4 (R143X) and a mutation in the splice donor junction of exon 6 was analyzed in a compound heterozygote which was unnaturally obese and diabetic. Allele frequency of exon 3 and exon 6 splice at an alliance mutation were analyzed to be similar in African American and mende tribe and was absent in Caucasians. Exon 6–splice donor being heterozygotes, fat oxidation rates was reduced by 50%, initiating a role for UCP3 in metabolic fuel partitioning. UCP3 (uncoupling protein) deliberates the hypoxia resistance to the renal epithelial cells and its upregulation in renal cell carcinoma. The energy consumption of modulated and the association of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 with the body weight and in type 2 diabetic patients.
Since protein UCP3 is affecting the long chain fatty acid metabolism and preventing cytosolic triglyceride storage. Telmisartan being an inhibitor by proven studies on rat skeletal muscle and improving the mutant protein activity and also its involvement in the dominant negative UCP3 mutants(C V Musa et al., 2012). Hence, novel UCP3 gene variants which associated to childhood obesity and even the effect of fatty acid oxidation prevention in triglyceride storage(C V Musa et al., 2012).
UCP3 has been shown to interact with YWHAQ. Uncoupling protein UPC2 and uncoupling protein UPC3 interaction with members of the 14.3.3 family (Benoit pierrat et al., 2000). Uncoupling protein (UCP3) modulating the process of Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) by declining the mitochondrial ATP fabrication (De Marchi U et al., 2011).
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