# UEFA coefficient

(Redirected from UEFA club coefficient)

In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. Introduced in 1979,[1] the coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[2] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[3][4] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[5]

## National team coefficient

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups at the request of FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

### Old ranking and calculation method

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in 2003, 2005 and 2007.

### Current ranking and calculation method

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot-out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

#### Final ranking in 2015

The coefficients from 2015, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The seeding and pot placements of the teams in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 13 October 2015, which are as follows:[9]

## Country coefficient

Map of UEFA countries whose teams have reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
Not a UEFA member

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2016–17 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2018–19 (not 2017–18) UEFA season; however, the actual teams that will be participating in the 2018–19 UEFA season are determined at the end of the 2017–18 season when the individual association classifications and national cups are finalized.

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[10][11]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

• Clubs that reach the quarter-finals, semi-finals, or final of either the UEFA Champions League or the UEFA Europa League (1 bonus point).
• Clubs that qualify for the group stage of the Champions League (4 bonus points).
• Clubs that qualify for the round of 16 of the Champions League (5 bonus points).

### Current ranking

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2012–13 to 2016–17, with the 2016–17 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2016–17 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League and 2018–19 UEFA Europa League.

As of 16 March 2017 the coefficients are as follows:[13]

Ranking Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
Coefficient Teams Places in 2018–19 season
2017 2016 Mvmt 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 Total CL EL Total
1 1 Spain (L, C) 17.714 23.000 20.214 23.928 17.000 101.856 4/7 4[14] 3 7
2 2 Germany (L, C) 17.928 14.714 15.857 16.428 14.285 79.212 3/7
3 3 England (L, C, LC1) 16.428 16.785 13.571 14.250 13.357 74.391 2/7
4 4 Italy (L, C) 14.416 14.166 19.000 11.500 12.750 71.832 1/6
5 6 +1 France (L, C, LC1) 11.750 8.500 10.916 11.083 12.750 54.999 2/6 3 6
6 7 +1 Russia (L, C) 9.750 10.416 9.666 11.500 9.200 50.532 0/5
7 5 –2 Portugal (L, C) 11.750 9.916 9.083 10.500 8.083 49.332 0/6 2 5
8 8 Ukraine (L, C) 9.500 7.833 10.000 9.800 5.500 42.633 0/5
9 9 Belgium (L, C) 6.500 6.400 9.600 7.400 12.100 42.000 2/5
10 11 +1 Turkey (L, C) 10.200 6.700 6.000 6.600 9.300 38.800 1/5
11 13 +2 Czech Republic (L, C) 8.500 8.000 3.875 7.300 5.500 33.175 0/5
12 12 Switzerland (L, C) 8.375 7.200 6.900 5.300 4.300 32.075 0/5
13 10 –3 Netherlands (L, C) 4.214 5.916 6.083 5.750 7.900 29.863 1/5
14 14 Greece (L, C) 4.400 6.100 6.200 5.400 5.800 27.900 0/5
15 16 +1 Austria (L, C) 2.250 7.800 4.125 3.800 7.375 25.350 0/4
16 17 +1 Croatia (L, C) 4.375 4.375 6.875 4.500 5.125 25.250 0/4 1 4
17 15 –2 Romania (L, C) 6.800 6.875 5.125 2.250 3.300 24.350 0/5
18 24 +6 Denmark (L, C) 3.300 3.800 2.900 5.500 8.500 24.000 0/4
19 20 +1 Belarus (L, C) 4.500 1.750 5.500 5.125 3.000 19.875 0/4
20 18 –2 Poland (L, C) 2.500 3.125 4.750 5.500 3.875 19.750 0/4
21 21 Sweden (L, C) 5.125 3.200 3.900 4.750 2.750 19.725 0/4
22 23 +1 Israel (L, C) 3.250 5.750 1.375 2.250 6.750 19.375 0/4
23 25 +2 Scotland (L, C) 4.300 3.250 4.000 3.000 4.375 18.925 0/4
24 19 –5 Cyprus (L, C) 4.000 2.750 3.300 3.000 5.500 18.550 0/4
25 22 –3 Norway (L, C) 4.900 2.600 2.200 7.250 1.375 18.325 0/4
26 26 Azerbaijan (L, C) 3.000 2.500 3.625 4.375 4.250 17.750 0/4
27 29 +2 Bulgaria (L, C) 0.750 5.625 4.250 1.000 4.250 15.875 0/4
28 27 –1 Serbia (L, C) 3.000 2.500 2.750 4.250 2.875 15.375 0/4
29 28 –1 Kazakhstan (L, C) 1.375 3.125 3.375 4.625 2.750 15.250 0/4
30 30 Slovenia (L, C) 3.250 2.625 4.000 1.000 2.250 13.125 0/4
31 31 Slovakia (L, C) 1.500 1.625 2.750 3.750 2.125 11.750 0/4
32 32 Liechtenstein (C2) 0.000 1.000 2.500 5.000 2.500 11.000 0/1 0 1 1
33 33 Hungary (L, C) 3.000 0.875 2.125 1.625 1.875 9.500 0/4 1 3 4
34 34 Moldova (L, C) 2.250 3.375 1.750 1.250 0.875 9.500 0/4
35 35 Iceland (L, C) 1.250 2.500 2.500 1.125 1.000 8.375 0/4
36 37 +1 Finland (L, C) 2.000 0.500 2.400 1.000 1.750 7.650 0/4
37 41 +4 Republic of Ireland (L, C) 1.000 0.250 2.000 0.700 2.625 6.575 0/4
38 39 +1 Albania (L, C) 0.750 2.000 0.875 2.125 0.750 6.500 0/4
39 38 –1 Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C) 1.250 1.500 1.750 1.500 0.500 6.500 0/4
40 36 –4 Georgia (L, C) 1.500 1.875 1.250 0.625 1.125 6.375 0/4
41 42 +1 Latvia (L, C) 1.250 1.625 0.250 1.625 1.375 6.125 0/4
42 40 –2 Macedonia (L, C) 1.250 0.500 1.125 1.500 1.250 5.625 0/4
43 47 +4 Estonia (L, C) 0.375 1.000 1.500 1.000 1.375 5.250 0/4
44 44 Montenegro (L, C) 1.375 1.250 0.750 1.000 0.875 5.250 0/4
45 48 +3 Armenia (L, C) 0.875 1.125 0.375 1.625 1.125 5.125 0/4
46 43 –3 Luxembourg (L, C) 1.375 1.500 0.500 0.750 0.750 4.875 0/4
47 46 –1 Northern Ireland (L, C) 1.000 0.875 1.375 0.750 0.500 4.500 0/4
48 45 –3 Lithuania (L, C) 1.125 1.250 0.500 0.750 0.500 4.125 0/4
49 50 +1 Malta (L, C) 0.875 0.875 0.125 0.875 1.250 4.000 0/4
50 51 +1 Wales (L, C) 0.500 0.750 0.125 1.500 1.000 3.875 0/4
51 49 –2 Faroe Islands (L, C) 0.500 0.875 1.375 0.375 0.375 3.500 0/4
52 52 Gibraltar (L3, C) Not UEFA No entry 0.250 0.750 1.500 2.500 0/2 2 3
53 53 Andorra (L, C) 0.000 0.333 0.500 0.166 0.166 1.165 0/3
54 54 San Marino (L, C) 0.000 0.333 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.333 0/3
55 Kosovo (L4, C)
Not a UEFA member
No entry 0.000 0/0 1 2
Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
Indicates active countries which have teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
Indicates countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA (replacing the lowest-ranked league team which would have qualified).
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organize a national league competition and all its seven clubs compete in the Swiss football league system.[15][16] As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.[16]
3 Starting from the 2017–18 season, Gibraltar are granted two spots in the Europa League (instead of one until 2016–17).[17]
4 The Football Federation of Kosovo became a UEFA member on 3 May 2016.[18] The participation of their domestic league champions in the UEFA Champions League and their domestic cup winners in the UEFA Europa League were to be confirmed following the assessment of club licensing criteria by 31 May 2016,[19] but was denied by UEFA in June due to the clubs failing licensing requirements and also because the clubs could not provide a suitable stadium and UEFA did not allow them to play their home matches in a foreign country.[20][21]

UEFA uses this coefficient system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top three league places in the countries ranked 1 to 3 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams in the countries ranked 4 to 6 also gain automatic entry, as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 12. The Champions League and Europa League winners also get the chance to participate in the following season’s competition, with the Champions League title holders guaranteed an automatic entry into the group stage.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions.

• There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions.
• The league of Gibraltar used to have only six teams, but were expanded to eight in 2013–14 after admission to UEFA, to fulfill the requirement for entry into UEFA competitions starting from the 2014–15 season.[22]
• Prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant in European competitions, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the now defunct UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.

### History

The original European competition, the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, was limited to certain clubs and/or by invitation, so no coefficient calculation was necessary.

Following the introduction of the UEFA Cup in 1971, the competition began to grow in complexity. UEFA began to publish rankings in 1979,[1] to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup.

Subsequently, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system, only four leagues have succeeded in being ranked as the top European league.[23]

Following the Heysel Stadium disaster, all English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985. The ban was only lifted after five seasons, with the knock-on effects continuing to impact on the First Division and then the Premier League for a total of nine years from 1986 to 1994.[24] Having been top in 1985, England were unranked in 1990,[25] and would not regain the top position until 2008.[26]

The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years leading in Europe:

As of 28 May 2016
League Total
Serie A 13
La Liga 12
Bundesliga 7
First Division/Premier League 6

## Club coefficient

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[27][28]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[27] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League third qualifying round or the play-off because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition.[28]

Round Points awarded
Champions League Europa League
First qualifying round elimination 0.5 0.25
Second qualifying round elimination 1 0.5
Third qualifying round elimination 1
Play-off elimination 1.5
Group stage participation 4 2
Win in group stage or subsequent round 2 2
Draw in group stage or subsequent round 1 1
Round of 16 participation 5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation 1 1

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

On 26 August 2016, UEFA announced changes to the club coefficient formula beginning with the 2018–19 tournaments.[29] These changes include:

• Clubs will be judged on their own record. The country share of individual club coefficients will be eliminated, except when a club's coefficient is lower than 20% of their country's coefficient.
• Historical results will be considered, using a weighted system that awards points for previous Champions League and Europa League titles.

### UEFA team ranking

The top 25 clubs as of 16 March 2017 are as follows.[30]

Ranking Club Association Coefficient
2017 2016 Mvmt 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 Total
1 1 Real Madrid Spain 29.5428 39.6000 33.0428 37.7856 26.4000 166.371
2 2 Bayern Munich Germany 36.5856 29.9428 31.1714 32.2856 24.8570 154.842
3 3 Barcelona Spain 27.5428 28.6000 38.0428 30.7856 25.4000 150.371
4 4 Atlético Madrid Spain 13.5428 37.6000 26.0428 32.7856 26.4000 136.371
5 9 +4 Juventus Italy 25.8832 25.8332 32.8000 20.3000 26.5500 131.366
6 7 +1 Paris Saint-Germain France 27.3500 26.7000 23.1832 26.2166 22.5500 125.999
7 8 +1 Borussia Dortmund Germany 33.5856 24.9428 21.1714 20.2856 24.8570 124.842
8 14 +6 Sevilla Spain 3.5428 26.6000 32.0428 27.7856 22.4000 112.371
9 6 –3 Benfica Portugal 28.3500 30.9832 9.8166 24.1000 18.6166 111.866
10 5 –5 Chelsea England 30.2856 28.3570 23.7142 20.8500 2.6714 105.878
11 10 –1 Arsenal England 21.2856 21.3570 22.7142 17.8500 21.6714 104.878
12 11 –1 Manchester City England 10.2856 22.3570 17.7142 28.8500 20.6714 99.878
13 16 +3 Porto Portugal 22.3500 17.9832 26.8166 13.1000 18.6166 98.866
14 13 –1 Schalke 04 Germany 22.5856 18.9428 20.1714 14.2856 18.8570 94.842
15 18 +3 Bayer Leverkusen Germany 12.5856 18.9428 21.1714 17.2856 20.8570 90.842
16 17 +1 Napoli Italy 8.8832 18.8332 25.8000 15.3000 19.5500 88.366
17 21 +4 Shakhtar Donetsk Ukraine 18.9000 12.5666 19.0000 21.9600 15.1000 87.526
18 15 –3 Zenit Saint Petersburg Russia 14.9500 18.0832 18.9332 21.3000 13.8400 87.106
19 20 +1 Manchester United England 21.2856 26.3570 2.7142 15.8500 18.6714 84.878
20 23 +3 Tottenham Hotspur England 19.2856 18.3570 11.7142 14.8500 12.6714 76.878
21 12 –9 Valencia Spain 22.5428 26.6000 4.0428 18.7856 3.4000 75.371
22 19 –3 Basel Switzerland 17.6750 20.4400 16.3800 13.0600 6.8600 74.415
23 34 +11 Fiorentina Italy 2.8832 17.8332 23.8000 10.3000 13.5500 68.366
24 26 +2 Dynamo Kyiv Ukraine 10.9000 9.5666 18.0000 19.9600 9.1000 67.526
25 24 –1 Olympiacos Greece 10.8800 19.2200 12.2400 11.0800 11.1600 64.580
Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
Indicates teams from countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

### Top club by period

The following data indicate the top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period.[31] Data prior to 1975–1979 period has been calculated, but precedes the first published by the Confederation and has merely informative value.[31]

Years Club Coeff.
1975–1979 Borussia Mönchengladbach 8.402
1976–1980 Borussia Mönchengladbach 7.985
1977–1981 Barcelona 7.652
1978–1982 Barcelona 7.832
1979–1983 Barcelona 7.998
1980–1984 Liverpool 8.277
1981–1985 Liverpool 9.054
1982–1986 Anderlecht 7.915
Juventus 7.915
1983–1987 Juventus 8.665
1984–1988 Juventus 8.388
1985–1989 Bayern Munich 7.846
1986–1990 Bayern Munich 8.096
1987–1991 Juventus 8.291
1988–1992 Real Madrid 7.975
1989–1993 Real Madrid 7.850
1990–1994 Real Madrid 7.600
1991–1995 Real Madrid 7.266
1992–1996 Ajax 9.124
1993–1997 Juventus 8.719
Years Club Coeff.
1994–1998 Paris Saint-Germain 8.716
1995–1999 Juventus 121.606
1996–2000 Juventus 109.963
1997–2001 Real Madrid 114.605
1998–2002 Real Madrid 147.233
1999–2003 Real Madrid 151.769
2000–2004 Real Madrid 146.350
2001–2005 Real Madrid 131.326
2002–2006 Milan 129.020
2003–2007 Milan 133.808
2004–2008 Chelsea 124.996
2005–2009 Barcelona 121.853
2006–2010 Barcelona 136.951
2007–2011 Manchester United 151.157
2008–2012 Barcelona 157.837
2009–2013 Barcelona 157.605
2010–2014 Real Madrid 161.542
2011–2015 Real Madrid 171.999
2012–2016 Real Madrid 176.142

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5-year period since the first period officially analysed (1975–1979):

Rank Club Total
1 Real Madrid 12
2 Juventus 7
Barcelona 7
4 Borussia Mönchengladbach 2
Bayern Munich 2
Liverpool 2
Milan 2
8 Ajax 1
Anderlecht 1
Paris Saint-Germain 1
Chelsea 1
Manchester United 1

## Criticisms

The UEFA coefficient system has been criticised for being likely to preserve the status quo for rankings and seedings, as well as for favouring teams from stronger leagues.[32]

## References

1. ^ a b Patric Andersson; Peter Ayton; Carsten Schmidt (2009). Myths and Facts about Football: The Economics and Psychology of the World's Greatest Sport. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 14-4381-525-X.
2. ^ "UEFA Women's National Team Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 25 October 2012.
3. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League Association Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com.
4. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League 2012/13 Entry List" (PDF). UEFA.com.
5. ^ "Spain and Israel top seeds for Under-21 draw". UEFA.com. 19 October 2012.
6. ^ "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
7. ^ "New UEFA National Team Coefficient Ranking System" (PDF). UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
8. ^ "National Team Coefficient Ranking -Technical explanation" (PDF). UEFA. October 2009.
9. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA.com. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
10. ^ "UEFA Country Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
11. ^ "Regulations of UEFA Champions League" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
12. ^ "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2015/16 Season" (PDF). UEFA.com. 1 May 2015.
13. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2016". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
14. ^ "Evolution of UEFA club competitions from 2018". UEFA.com. 26 August 2016.
15. ^ "Border crossing". When Saturday Comes (WSC). July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
16. ^ a b "Liechtenstein making strides (Liechtenstein's profile)". UEFA. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
17. ^ "Gibraltar gains an additional spot in the Europa League". Gibraltar Football Association. 20 September 2016.
18. ^ "Football Federation of Kosovo joins UEFA". UEFA. 3 May 2016.
19. ^ "Timeline for UEFA Presidential elections decided". UEFA. 18 May 2016.
20. ^ "Kosovo clubs denied UEFA license for European competitions". InSerbia. 2 June 2016.
21. ^ "Infrastruktura i lë jashtë Evropës!". zeri.info. 2 June 2016.
22. ^ "Gibraltar Premier Division to expand". Gibraltar Football. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
23. ^ UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database (Bert Kassies)
24. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1985". Retrieved 22 April 2014.
25. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1990". Retrieved 22 April 2014.
26. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2008". Retrieved 22 April 2014.
27. ^ a b "UEFA Coefficients calculation method". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
28. ^ a b "UEFA Club Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
29. ^ "Evolution of UEFA club competitions from 2018". UEFA.com. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
30. ^ "UEFA Team Ranking 2016". kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
31. ^ a b "UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
32. ^ Chris Bevan (28 August 2013). "How Uefa's seeding system helps Arsenal & hinders Celtic". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 July 2014.