UEFA coefficient

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In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. The coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[1] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[2][3] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[4]

National team coefficient[edit]

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. The reason why UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups was a request from FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

Old ranking and calculation method[edit]

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

  1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
  2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
  3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
  4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
  5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in 2003, 2005 and 2007.[5]

New ranking and calculation method[edit]

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

  1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
  2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
  3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
  4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted some extra bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
  5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
  6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
  7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
  8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

Final ranking in 2013[edit]

The coefficients from 2013, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 qualification groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The seeding and pot placements of the teams in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 12 December 2013, which are as follows:[9]

Country coefficient[edit]

Map of UEFA countries, teams from which have reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
  Not a UEFA member

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2015–16 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2017–18 (not 2016–17) UEFA season; however, the actual teams that will be participating in the 2016–17 UEFA season are determined at the end of the 2015–16 season when the individual association classifications and national cups are finalized.

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[10] [11]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

  • Clubs that reach the quarter-finals, semi-finals, or final of either the UEFA Champions League or the UEFA Europa League (1 bonus point).
  • Clubs that qualify for the group stage of the Champions League (4 bonus points).
  • Clubs that qualify for the round of 16 of the Champions League (5 bonus points).

Current ranking[edit]

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2011–12 to 2015–16, with the 2015–16 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2015–16 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League and 2017–18 UEFA Europa League.

Note: Starting from the 2015–16 season, all associations will have a maximum of three teams entering the Europa League.[12]

As of 28 July 2015 the coefficients are as follows:[13]

Rank
2016
Rank
2015
Mvmt. Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 Coeff. Teams
CL places EL places Total
1 1 0 Spain Spain (L, C) 20.857 17.714 23.000 20.214 2.285 84.070 7/7 4 3 7
2 3 1 +1 Germany Germany (L, C) 15.250 17.928 14.714 15.857 1.714 65.463 7/7
3 2 -1 –1 England England (L, C, LC1) 15.250 16.428 16.785 13.571 1.875 63.909 8/8
4 4 0 Italy Italy (L, C) 11.357 14.416 14.166 19.000 1.333 60.272 6/6 3 6
5 5 0 Portugal Portugal (L, C) 11.833 11.750 9.916 9.083 1.333 43.915 6/6
6 6 0 France France (L, C, LC1) 10.500 11.750 8.500 10.916 1.500 43.166 6/6
7 7 0 Russia Russia (L, C) 9.750 9.750 10.416 9.666 0.900 40.482 5/5 2 5
8 8 0 Ukraine Ukraine (L, C) 7.750 9.500 7.833 10.000 0.900 35.933 5/5
9 10 1 +1 Belgium Belgium (L, C) 10.100 6.500 6.400 9.600 1.200 33.800 5/5
10 9 -1 –1 Netherlands Netherlands (L, C) 13.600 4.214 5.916 6.083 0.750 30.563 5/6
11 12 1 +1 Turkey Turkey (L, C) 5.100 10.200 6.700 6.000 1.300 29.300 5/5
12 11 -1 –1 Switzerland Switzerland (L, C) 6.000 8.375 7.200 6.900 0.300 28.775 5/5
13 14 1 +1 Czech Republic Czech Republic (L, C) 5.250 8.500 8.000 3.875 0.500 26.125 4/5
14 13 -1 –1 Greece Greece (L, C) 7.600 4.400 6.100 6.200 1.200 25.500 5/5
15 15 0 Romania Romania (L, C) 4.333 6.800 6.875 5.125 1.000 24.133 3/4
16 16 0 Austria Austria (L, C) 7.125 2.250 7.800 4.125 0.400 21.700 5/5 1 4
17 17 0 Croatia Croatia (L, C) 3.750 4.375 4.375 6.875 1.875 21.250 2/4
18 18 0 Cyprus Cyprus (L, C) 9.125 4.000 2.750 3.300 2.000 21.175 4/4
19 19 0 Poland Poland (L, C) 6.625 2.500 3.125 4.750 2.250 19.250 2/4
20 24 4 +4 Sweden Sweden (L, C) 2.900 5.125 3.200 3.900 2.375 17.500 4/4
21 20 -1 –1 Israel Israel (L, C) 6.000 3.250 5.750 1.375 0.750 17.125 2/4
22 21 -1 –1 Belarus Belarus (L, C) 3.125 4.500 1.750 5.500 1.500 16.375 2/4
23 23 0 Scotland Scotland (L, C) 2.750 4.300 3.250 4.000 1.500 15.800 2/4
24 22 -2 –2 Denmark Denmark (L, C) 3.100 3.300 3.800 2.900 2.500 15.600 3/4
25 26 1 +1 Norway Norway (L, C) 2.300 4.900 2.600 2.200 2.875 14.875 4/4
26 25 -1 –1 Bulgaria Bulgaria (L, C) 1.500 0.750 5.625 4.250 1.000 13.125 0/4
27 28 1 +1 Slovenia Slovenia (L, C) 2.250 3.250 2.625 4.000 1.000 13.125 0/4
28 27 -1 –1 Serbia Serbia (L, C) 2.125 3.000 2.500 2.750 1.875 12.250 2/4
29 29 0 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (L, C) 1.375 3.000 2.500 3.625 1.750 12.250 3/4
30 30 0 Slovakia Slovakia (L, C) 2.375 1.500 1.625 2.750 3.000 11.250 3/4
31 32 1 +1 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan (L, C) 1.625 1.375 3.125 3.375 1.250 10.750 2/4
32 31 -1 –1 Hungary Hungary (L, C) 2.250 3.000 0.875 2.125 1.625 9.875 2/4
33 38 5 +5 Liechtenstein Liechtenstein (C2) 2.000 0.000 1.000 2.500 4.000 9.500 1/1 0 1 1
34 33 -1 –1 Moldova Moldova (L, C) 0.500 2.250 3.375 1.750 1.125 9.000 1/4 1 3 4
35 36 1 +1 Iceland Iceland (L, C) 1.375 1.250 2.500 2.500 1.125 8.750 0/4
36 34 -2 –2 Georgia (country) Georgia (L, C) 2.875 1.500 1.875 1.250 0.625 8.125 0/4
37 35 -2 –2 Finland Finland (L, C) 1.500 2.000 0.500 2.400 0.750 7.150 1/4
38 37 -1 –1 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C) 1.125 1.250 1.500 1.750 1.500 7.125 1/4
39 42 3 +3 Albania Albania (L, C) 0.875 0.750 2.000 0.875 1.375 5.875 2/4
40 39 -1 –1 Republic of Macedonia Macedonia (L, C) 1.625 1.250 0.500 1.125 1.000 5.500 1/4
41 40 -1 –1 Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland (L, C) 1.500 1.000 0.250 2.000 0.700 5.450 0/5
42 46 4 +4 Latvia Latvia (L, C) 0.625 1.250 1.625 0.250 1.625 5.375 0/4
43 43 0 Luxembourg Luxembourg (L, C) 1.125 1.375 1.500 0.500 0.750 5.250 0/4
44 41 -3 –3 Montenegro Montenegro (L, C) 0.500 1.375 1.250 0.750 1.000 4.875 0/4
45 45 0 Lithuania Lithuania (L, C) 1.000 1.125 1.250 0.500 0.750 4.625 0/4
46 44 -2 –2 Northern Ireland Northern Ireland (L, C) 0.500 1.000 0.875 1.375 0.750 4.500 0/4
47 48 1 +1 Estonia Estonia (L, C) 0.375 0.375 1.000 1.500 1.000 4.250 0/4
48 51 3 +3 Armenia Armenia (L, C) 0.125 0.875 1.125 0.375 1.625 4.125 0/4
49 49 0 Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (L, C) 0.500 0.500 0.875 1.375 0.375 3.625 0/4
50 47 -3 –3 Malta Malta (L, C) 0.833 0.875 0.875 0.125 0.875 3.583 0/4
51 50 -1 –1 Wales Wales (L, C) 0.625 0.500 0.750 0.125 1.500 3.500 0/4
52 54 2 +2 Gibraltar Gibraltar (L3, C) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.250 0.750 1.000 0/2 1 2
53 52 -1 –1 Andorra Andorra (L, C) 0.000 0.000 0.333 0.500 0.166 0.999 0/3 2 3
54 53 -1 –1 San Marino San Marino (L, C) 0.000 0.000 0.333 0.000 0.000 0.333 0/3
  Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates active countries which have teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA.
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organize a national league competition as it does not have the necessary amount of national clubs. As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.
3 The Gibraltar Football Association has only one place in each of the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League as per decision by the UEFA Executive Committee.[14]

UEFA uses this coefficient system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top three league places in the countries ranked 1 to 3 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams in the countries ranked 4 to 6 also gain automatic entry, as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 12. The Champions League and Europa League winners also get the chance to participate in the following season’s competition, with the Champions League title holders guaranteed an automatic entry into the group stage.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases.

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions. There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions. Note: prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the European competitions.

History[edit]

La Liga Premier League La Liga Serie A Bundesliga Serie A Football League First Division Bundesliga Football League First Division La Liga

Ranking has been published by UEFA since 1979 to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup after the re-organization of the Inter-cities Fairs Cup in 1971. No calculation of coefficients took place prior to that. Later, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. Because the Inter-cities Fairs Cup was limited only to certain clubs and/or by invitation no coefficient calculation was necessary. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system only four leagues have succeeded in being the top European league.[15]

Due to the Heysel Stadium disaster, all English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985 and so the First Division did not gain any coefficient points until the ban was lifted after 5 seasons, directly affecting the ranking of the First Division and then the Premier League for 9 years from 1986 to 1994; top in 1985,[16] England was unranked in 1990,[17] and would not regain the top position until 2008.[18]

The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years leading in Europe:

As of 6 June 2015
Rank League Total
1 Spain La Liga 18
2 England First Division/Premier League 15
3 Italy Serie A 13
4 Germany Bundesliga 10

Club coefficient[edit]

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[19][20]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[19] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League third qualifying round or the play-off because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition.[20]

Round Points awarded
Champions League Europa League
First qualifying round elimination 0.5 0.25
Second qualifying round elimination 1 0.5
Third qualifying round elimination 1
Play-off elimination 1.5
Group stage participation 4 2
Win in group stage or subsequent round 2 2
Draw in group stage or subsequent round 1 1
Round of 16 participation 5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation 1 1

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of, the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

UEFA team ranking[edit]

The top 25 clubs as of 23 July 2015 are as follows.[21]

Rank
2016
Rank
2015
Mvmt. Club Association 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 Coeff.
1 1 0 Real Madrid Spain Spain 36.171 29.542 39.600 33.042 4.457 142.814
2 3 1 +1 Bayern Munich Germany Germany 33.050 36.585 29.942 31.171 4.343 135.092
3 2 -1 –1 Barcelona Spain Spain 34.171 27.542 28.600 38.042 4.457 132.814
4 4 0 Chelsea England England 33.050 30.285 28.357 23.714 4.375 119.781
5 5 0 Atlético Madrid Spain Spain 34.171 13.542 37.600 26.042 4.457 115.814
6 6 0 Benfica Portugal Portugal 23.366 28.350 30.983 9.816 4.267 96.783
7 9 2 +2 Arsenal England England 22.050 21.285 21.357 22.714 4.375 91.781
8 13 5 +5 Borussia Dortmund Germany Germany 10.050 33.585 24.942 21.171 1.343 91.092
9 14 5 +5 Juventus Italy Italy 2.271 25.883 25.833 32.800 4.267 91.054
10 11 1 +1 Paris Saint-Germain France France 9.100 27.350 26.700 23.183 4.267 90.599
11 7 -4 –4 Schalke 04 Germany Germany 20.050 22.585 18.942 20.171 2.343 84.092
12 8 -4 –4 Porto Portugal Portugal 12.366 22.350 17.983 26.816 4.267 83.783
13 12 -1 –1 Valencia Spain Spain 25.171 22.542 26.600 4.042 2.457 80.814
14 20 6 +6 Napoli Italy Italy 21.271 8.883 18.833 25.800 2.267 77.054
15 19 4 +4 Basel Switzerland Switzerland 20.200 17.675 20.440 16.380 1.560 76.255
16 15 -1 –1 Zenit Saint Petersburg Russia Russia 19.950 14.950 18.083 18.933 4.160 76.076
17 17 0 Manchester City England England 20.050 10.285 22.357 17.714 4.375 74.781
18 16 -2 –2 Bayer Leverkusen Germany Germany 19.050 12.585 18.942 21.171 2.343 74.092
19 23 4 +4 Sevilla Spain Spain 5.671 3.542 26.600 32.042 4.457 72.314
20 10 -10 –10 Manchester United England England 16.050 21.285 26.357 2.714 2.375 68.781
21 22 1 +1 Milan Italy Italy 22.271 19.883 18.833 3.800 0.267 65.054
22 28 6 +6 Olympiacos Greece Greece 17.520 10.880 19.220 12.240 4.200 64.060
23 21 -2 –2 Tottenham Hotspur England England 10.050 19.285 18.357 11.714 2.375 61.781
24 18 -6 –6 Shakhtar Donetsk Ukraine Ukraine 9.550 18.900 12.566 19.000 1.660 61.676
25 25 0 Lyon France France 19.100 14.350 16.700 3.683 4.267 58.099
  Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

Top club by period[edit]

Although the ranking was officially introduced by UEFA in 1979,[22] the following data indicate the top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period listed by year based on the projection of the ranking made by Bert Kassies, a Dutch System designer and amateur statistician.[23] All data prior to 1975–1979 period, the first published by the Confederation, are merely informative, since no official value.[22]

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5 year period considering separately the Kassies' statistical projection (since the 1956–1960 period) and exclusively the data used by UEFA since the first period officially analized (1975–1979):

Rank Club Total based on Kassies' projection Total since the ranking's introduction
1 Spain Real Madrid 15 10
2 Spain Barcelona 8 7
3 Italy Juventus 7 7
4 West Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach 5 2
5 Portugal Benfica 3 0
England Leeds United 3 0
Netherlands Ajax 3 1
Germany Bayern Munich 3 2
9 England Liverpool 2 2
Italy Milan 2 2
11 Spain Real Zaragoza 1 0
Belgium Anderlecht 1 1
France Paris Saint-Germain 1 1
England Chelsea 1 1
England Manchester United 1 1

Criticisms[edit]

The UEFA coefficient system has been criticised for being likely to preserve the status quo for rankings and seedings, as well as for favouring teams from stronger nations.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UEFA Women's National Team Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 25 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League Association Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 
  3. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League 2012/13 Entry List" (PDF). UEFA.com. 
  4. ^ "Spain and Israel top seeds for Under-21 draw". UEFA.com. 19 October 2012. 
  5. ^ jf
  6. ^ "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "New UEFA National Team Coefficient Ranking System" (PDF). UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  8. ^ "National Team Coefficient Ranking -Technical explanation" (PDF). UEFA. October 2009. 
  9. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA.com. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "UEFA Country Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "Regulations of UEFA Champions League" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Added bonus for UEFA Europa League winners". UEFA.com. 24 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2016". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Strategic talks in Dubrovnik". UEFA. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  15. ^ UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database (Bert Kassies)
  16. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1985". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1990". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2008". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "UEFA Coefficients calculation method". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  20. ^ a b "UEFA Club Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  21. ^ "UEFA Team Ranking 2016". kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 
  23. ^ "The Bert Kassies Home page: Profile". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  24. ^ Chris Bevan (28 August 2013). "How Uefa's seeding system helps Arsenal & hinders Celtic". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 

External links[edit]