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UEFA coefficient

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In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. Introduced in 1979,[1] the coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[2] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[3][4] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[5]

National team coefficient

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups at the request of FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

Old ranking and calculation method

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

  1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
  2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
  3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
  4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
  5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in 2003, 2005 and 2007.

Current ranking and calculation method

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

  1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
  2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
  3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot-out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
  4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
  5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
  6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
  7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
  8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

Final ranking in 2015

The coefficients from 2015, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The seeding and pot placements of the teams in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 13 October 2015, which are as follows:[9]

Country coefficient

Map of UEFA countries whose teams have reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
  Not a UEFA member

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2015–16 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2017–18 (not 2016–17) UEFA season; however, the actual teams that will be participating in the 2016–17 UEFA season are determined at the end of the 2015–16 season when the individual association classifications and national cups are finalized.

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[10][11]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

  • Clubs that reach the quarter-finals, semi-finals, or final of either the UEFA Champions League or the UEFA Europa League (1 bonus point).
  • Clubs that qualify for the group stage of the Champions League (4 bonus points).
  • Clubs that qualify for the round of 16 of the Champions League (5 bonus points).

Current ranking

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2012–13 to 2016–17, with the 2016–17 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2016–17 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League and 2018–19 UEFA Europa League.

As of 25 August 2016 the coefficients are as follows:[13]

Ranking Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
Coefficient Teams Places in 2018–19 season
2017 2016 Mvmt 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 Total CL EL Total
1 1 0 Spain Spain (L, C) 17.714 23.000 20.214 23.928 2.285 87.141 7/7 4 3 7
2 2 0 Germany Germany (L, C) 17.928 14.714 15.857 16.428 2.714 67.641 6/7
3 3 0 England England (L, C, LC1) 16.428 16.785 13.571 14.250 2.785 63.819 6/7
4 4 0 Italy Italy (L, C) 14.416 14.166 19.000 11.500 1.916 60.998 6/6 3 6
5 6 1 +1 France France (L, C, LC1) 11.750 8.500 10.916 11.083 3.083 45.332 5/6
6 7 1 +1 Russia Russia (L, C) 9.750 10.416 9.666 11.500 3.000 44.332 4/5
7 5 -2 –2 Portugal Portugal (L, C) 11.750 9.916 9.083 10.500 2.583 43.832 4/6 2 5
8 8 0 Ukraine Ukraine (L, C) 9.500 7.833 10.000 9.800 1.500 38.633 3/5
9 9 0 Belgium Belgium (L, C) 6.500 6.400 9.600 7.400 2.900 32.800 5/5
10 11 1 +1 Turkey Turkey (L, C) 10.200 6.700 6.000 6.600 2.700 32.200 4/5
11 13 2 +2 Czech Republic Czech Republic (L, C) 8.500 8.000 3.875 7.300 2.100 29.775 3/5
12 12 0 Switzerland Switzerland (L, C) 8.375 7.200 6.900 5.300 1.700 29.475 3/5
13 17 4 +4 Croatia Croatia (L, C) 4.375 4.375 6.875 4.500 5.125 25.250 1/4
14 14 0 Greece Greece (L, C) 4.400 6.100 6.200 5.400 2.000 24.100 3/5
15 10 -5 –5 Netherlands Netherlands (L, C) 4.214 5.916 6.083 5.750 2.100 24.063 4/5
16 15 -1 –1 Romania Romania (L, C) 6.800 6.875 5.125 2.250 0.900 21.950 2/5 1 4
17 16 -1 –1 Austria Austria (L, C) 2.250 7.800 4.125 3.800 3.875 21.850 3/4
18 24 6 +6 Denmark Denmark (L, C) 3.300 3.800 2.900 5.500 5.500 21.000 1/4
19 20 1 +1 Belarus Belarus (L, C) 4.500 1.750 5.500 5.125 3.000 19.875 0/4
20 21 1 +1 Sweden Sweden (L, C) 5.125 3.200 3.900 4.750 2.750 19.725 0/4
21 18 -3 –3 Poland Poland (L, C) 2.500 3.125 4.750 5.500 2.875 18.750 1/4
22 22 0 Norway Norway (L, C) 4.900 2.600 2.200 7.250 1.375 18.325 0/4
23 25 2 +2 Scotland Scotland (L, C) 4.300 3.250 4.000 3.000 3.625 18.175 1/4
24 23 -1 –1 Israel Israel (L, C) 3.250 5.750 1.375 2.250 4.000 16.625 2/4
25 26 1 +1 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (L, C) 3.000 2.500 3.625 4.375 3.000 16.500 2/4
26 19 -7 –7 Cyprus Cyprus (L, C) 4.000 2.750 3.300 3.000 3.000 16.050 1/4
27 27 0 Serbia Serbia (L, C) 3.000 2.500 2.750 4.250 2.875 15.375 0/4
28 29 1 +1 Bulgaria Bulgaria (L, C) 0.750 5.625 4.250 1.000 3.250 14.875 1/4
29 28 -1 –1 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan (L, C) 1.375 3.125 3.375 4.625 1.750 14.250 1/4
30 30 0 Slovenia Slovenia (L, C) 3.250 2.625 4.000 1.000 2.250 13.125 0/4
31 31 0 Slovakia Slovakia (L, C) 1.500 1.625 2.750 3.750 2.125 11.750 0/4
32 32 0 Liechtenstein Liechtenstein (C2) 0.000 1.000 2.500 5.000 2.500 11.000 0/1 0 1 1
33 33 0 Hungary Hungary (L, C) 3.000 0.875 2.125 1.625 1.875 9.500 0/4 1 3 4
34 34 0 Moldova Moldova (L, C) 2.250 3.375 1.750 1.250 0.875 9.500 0/4
35 35 0 Iceland Iceland (L, C) 1.250 2.500 2.500 1.125 1.000 8.375 0/4
36 37 1 +1 Finland Finland (L, C) 2.000 0.500 2.400 1.000 1.750 7.650 0/4
37 39 2 +2 Albania Albania (L, C) 0.750 2.000 0.875 2.125 0.750 6.500 0/4
38 38 0 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C) 1.250 1.500 1.750 1.500 0.500 6.500 0/4
39 36 -3 –3 Georgia (country) Georgia (L, C) 1.500 1.875 1.250 0.625 1.125 6.375 0/4
40 42 2 +2 Latvia Latvia (L, C) 1.250 1.625 0.250 1.625 1.375 6.125 0/4
41 41 0 Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland (L, C) 1.000 0.250 2.000 0.700 1.875 5.825 1/4
42 40 -2 –2 Republic of Macedonia Macedonia (L, C) 1.250 0.500 1.125 1.500 1.250 5.625 0/4
43 47 4 +4 Estonia Estonia (L, C) 0.375 1.000 1.500 1.000 1.375 5.250 0/4
44 44 0 Montenegro Montenegro (L, C) 1.375 1.250 0.750 1.000 0.875 5.250 0/4
45 48 3 +3 Armenia Armenia (L, C) 0.875 1.125 0.375 1.625 1.125 5.125 0/4
46 43 -3 –3 Luxembourg Luxembourg (L, C) 1.375 1.500 0.500 0.750 0.750 4.875 0/4
47 46 -1 –1 Northern Ireland Northern Ireland (L, C) 1.000 0.875 1.375 0.750 0.500 4.500 0/4
48 45 -3 –3 Lithuania Lithuania (L, C) 1.125 1.250 0.500 0.750 0.500 4.125 0/4
49 50 1 +1 Malta Malta (L, C) 0.875 0.875 0.125 0.875 1.250 4.000 0/4
50 51 1 +1 Wales Wales (L, C) 0.500 0.750 0.125 1.500 1.000 3.875 0/4
51 49 -2 –2 Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (L, C) 0.500 0.875 1.375 0.375 0.375 3.500 0/4
52 52 0 Gibraltar Gibraltar (L3, C) Not UEFA No entry 0.250 0.750 1.500 2.500 0/2 1 2
53 53 0 Andorra Andorra (L, C) 0.000 0.333 0.500 0.166 0.166 1.165 0/3 2 3
54 54 0 San Marino San Marino (L, C) 0.000 0.333 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.333 0/3
55 0 Kosovo Kosovo (L4, C)
Not a UEFA member
No entry 0.000 0/0 1 2
  Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates active countries which have teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA (replacing the lowest-ranked league team which would have qualified).
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organize a national league competition and all its seven clubs compete in the Swiss football league system.[14][15] As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.[15]
3 The Gibraltar Football Association has only one place in each of the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League as per decision by the UEFA Executive Committee.[16] This will be reviewed in February 2016.[17]
4 The Football Federation of Kosovo became a UEFA member on 3 May 2016.[18] The participation of their domestic league champions in the UEFA Champions League and their domestic cup winners in the UEFA Europa League were to be confirmed following the assessment of club licensing criteria by 31 May 2016,[19] but was denied by UEFA in June due to the clubs failing licensing requirements and also because the clubs could not provide a suitable stadium and UEFA did not allow them to play their home matches in a foreign country.[20][21]

UEFA uses this coefficient system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top three league places in the countries ranked 1 to 3 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams in the countries ranked 4 to 6 also gain automatic entry, as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 12. The Champions League and Europa League winners also get the chance to participate in the following season’s competition, with the Champions League title holders guaranteed an automatic entry into the group stage.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions.

  • There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions.
  • The league of Gibraltar used to have only six teams, but were expanded to eight in 2013–14 after admission to UEFA, to fulfill the requirement for entry into UEFA competitions starting from the 2014–15 season.[22]
  • Prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant in European competitions, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the now defunct UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.

History

La Liga Premier League La Liga Serie A Bundesliga Serie A Football League First Division Bundesliga

The original European competition, the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, was limited to certain clubs and/or by invitation, so no coefficient calculation was necessary.

Following the introduction of the UEFA Cup in 1971, the competition began to grow in complexity. UEFA began to publish rankings in 1979,[1] to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup.

Subsequently, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system, only four leagues have succeeded in being ranked as the top European league.[23]

Following the Heysel Stadium disaster, all English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985. The ban was only lifted after five seasons, with the knock-on effects continuing to impact on the First Division and then the Premier League for a total of nine years from 1986 to 1994.[24] Having been top in 1985, England were unranked in 1990,[25] and would not regain the top position until 2008.[26]

The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years leading in Europe:

As of 28 May 2016
League Total
Italy Serie A 13
Spain La Liga 12
Germany Bundesliga 7
England First Division/Premier League 6

Club coefficient

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[27][28]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[27] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League third qualifying round or the play-off because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition.[28]

Round Points awarded
Champions League Europa League
First qualifying round elimination 0.5 0.25
Second qualifying round elimination 1 0.5
Third qualifying round elimination 1
Play-off elimination 1.5
Group stage participation 4 2
Win in group stage or subsequent round 2 2
Draw in group stage or subsequent round 1 1
Round of 16 participation 5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation 1 1

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

UEFA team ranking

The top 25 clubs as of 25 August 2016 are as follows.[29]

Ranking Club Association Coefficient
2017 2016 Mvmt 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 Total
1 1 0 Real Madrid Spain Spain 29.5428 39.6000 33.0428 37.7856 4.4570 144.428
2 2 0 Bayern Munich Germany Germany 36.5856 29.9428 31.1714 32.2856 4.5428 134.528
3 3 0 Barcelona Spain Spain 27.5428 28.6000 38.0428 30.7856 4.4570 129.428
4 4 0 Atlético Madrid Spain Spain 13.5428 37.6000 26.0428 32.7856 4.4570 114.428
5 9 4 +4 Juventus Italy Italy 25.8832 25.8332 32.8000 20.3000 4.3832 109.199
6 7 1 +1 Paris Saint-Germain France France 27.3500 26.7000 23.1832 26.2166 4.6166 108.066
7 8 1 +1 Borussia Dortmund Germany Germany 33.5856 24.9428 21.1714 20.2856 4.5428 104.528
8 5 -3 –3 Chelsea England England 30.2856 28.3570 23.7142 20.8500 0.5570 103.763
9 6 -3 –3 Benfica Portugal Portugal 28.3500 30.9832 9.8166 24.1000 4.5166 97.766
10 14 4 +4 Sevilla Spain Spain 3.5428 26.6000 32.0428 27.7856 4.4570 94.428
11 10 -1 –1 Arsenal England England 21.2856 21.3570 22.7142 17.8500 4.5570 87.763
12 16 4 +4 Porto Portugal Portugal 22.3500 17.9832 26.8166 13.1000 4.5166 84.766
13 11 -2 –2 Manchester City England England 10.2856 22.3570 17.7142 28.8500 4.5570 83.763
14 13 -1 –1 Schalke 04 Germany Germany 22.5856 18.9428 20.1714 14.2856 2.5428 78.528
15 15 0 Zenit Saint Petersburg Russia Russia 14.9500 18.0832 18.9332 21.3000 2.6000 75.866
16 21 5 +5 Shakhtar Donetsk Ukraine Ukraine 18.9000 12.5666 19.0000 21.9600 2.3000 74.726
17 18 1 +1 Bayer Leverkusen Germany Germany 12.5856 18.9428 21.1714 17.2856 4.5428 74.528
18 17 -1 –1 Napoli Italy Italy 8.8832 18.8332 25.8000 15.3000 4.3832 73.199
19 12 -7 –7 Valencia Spain Spain 22.5428 26.6000 4.0428 18.7856 0.4570 72.428
20 19 -1 –1 Basel Switzerland Switzerland 17.6750 20.4400 16.3800 13.0600 4.3400 71.895
21 23 2 +2 Tottenham Hotspur England England 19.2856 18.3570 11.7142 14.8500 4.5570 68.763
22 20 -2 –2 Manchester United England England 21.2856 26.3570 2.7142 15.8500 2.5570 68.763
23 26 3 +3 Dynamo Kyiv Ukraine Ukraine 10.9000 9.5666 18.0000 19.9600 4.3000 62.726
24 32 8 +8 Galatasaray Turkey Turkey 24.0400 16.3400 6.2000 10.3200 0.5400 57.440
25 34 9 +9 Fiorentina Italy Italy 2.8832 17.8332 23.8000 10.3000 2.3832 57.199
  Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

Top club by period

The following data indicate the top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period.[30] Data prior to 1975–1979 period has been calculated, but precedes the first published by the Confederation and has merely informative value.[30]

Years Club Coeff.
1975–1979 West Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach 8.402
1976–1980 West Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach 7.985
1977–1981 Spain Barcelona 7.652
1978–1982 Spain Barcelona 7.832
1979–1983 Spain Barcelona 7.998
1980–1984 England Liverpool 8.277
1981–1985 England Liverpool 9.054
1982–1986 Belgium Anderlecht 7.915
Italy Juventus 7.915
1983–1987 Italy Juventus 8.665
1984–1988 Italy Juventus 8.388
1985–1989 West Germany Bayern Munich 7.846
1986–1990 West Germany Bayern Munich 8.096
1987–1991 Italy Juventus 8.291
1988–1992 Spain Real Madrid 7.975
1989–1993 Spain Real Madrid 7.850
1990–1994 Spain Real Madrid 7.600
1991–1995 Spain Real Madrid 7.266
1992–1996 Netherlands Ajax 9.124
1993–1997 Italy Juventus 8.719
Years Club Coeff.
1994–1998 France Paris Saint-Germain 8.716
1995–1999 Italy Juventus 121.606
1996–2000 Italy Juventus 109.963
1997–2001 Spain Real Madrid 114.605
1998–2002 Spain Real Madrid 147.233
1999–2003 Spain Real Madrid 151.769
2000–2004 Spain Real Madrid 146.350
2001–2005 Spain Real Madrid 131.326
2002–2006 Italy Milan 129.020
2003–2007 Italy Milan 133.808
2004–2008 England Chelsea 124.996
2005–2009 Spain Barcelona 121.853
2006–2010 Spain Barcelona 136.951
2007–2011 England Manchester United 151.157
2008–2012 Spain Barcelona 157.837
2009–2013 Spain Barcelona 157.605
2010–2014 Spain Real Madrid 161.542
2011–2015 Spain Real Madrid 171.999
2012–2016 Spain Real Madrid 176.142

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5-year period since the first period officially analysed (1975–1979):

Rank Club Total
1 Spain Real Madrid 12
2 Italy Juventus 7
Spain Barcelona 7
4 West Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach 2
Germany Bayern Munich 2
England Liverpool 2
Italy Milan 2
8 Netherlands Ajax 1
Belgium Anderlecht 1
France Paris Saint-Germain 1
England Chelsea 1
England Manchester United 1

Criticisms

The UEFA coefficient system has been criticised for being likely to preserve the status quo for rankings and seedings, as well as for favouring teams from stronger nations.[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Patric Andersson; Peter Ayton; Carsten Schmidt (2009). Myths and Facts about Football: The Economics and Psychology of the World's Greatest Sport. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 14-4381-525-X. 
  2. ^ "UEFA Women's National Team Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 25 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League Association Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 
  4. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League 2012/13 Entry List" (PDF). UEFA.com. 
  5. ^ "Spain and Israel top seeds for Under-21 draw". UEFA.com. 19 October 2012. 
  6. ^ "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "New UEFA National Team Coefficient Ranking System" (PDF). UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  8. ^ "National Team Coefficient Ranking -Technical explanation" (PDF). UEFA. October 2009. 
  9. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA.com. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  10. ^ "UEFA Country Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "Regulations of UEFA Champions League" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2015/16 Season" (PDF). UEFA.com. 1 May 2015. 
  13. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2016". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "Border crossing". When Saturday Comes (WSC). July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  15. ^ a b "Liechtenstein making strides (Liechtenstein's profile)". UEFA. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  16. ^ "Strategic talks in Dubrovnik". UEFA. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "Places in European Club Competitions". Gibraltar Football Association. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  18. ^ "Football Federation of Kosovo joins UEFA". UEFA. 3 May 2016. 
  19. ^ "Timeline for UEFA Presidential elections decided". UEFA. 18 May 2016. 
  20. ^ "Kosovo clubs denied UEFA license for European competitions". InSerbia. 2 June 2016. 
  21. ^ "Infrastruktura i lë jashtë Evropës!". zeri.info. 2 June 2016. 
  22. ^ "Gibraltar Premier Division to expand". Gibraltar Football. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  23. ^ UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database (Bert Kassies)
  24. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1985". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  25. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1990". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2008". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  27. ^ a b "UEFA Coefficients calculation method". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  28. ^ a b "UEFA Club Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  29. ^ "UEFA Team Ranking 2016". kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  30. ^ a b "UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 
  31. ^ Chris Bevan (28 August 2013). "How Uefa's seeding system helps Arsenal & hinders Celtic". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 

External links