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The '''United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization''' ('''UNESCO'''; {{pron-en|juːˈnɛskoʊ}} {{respell|yew|NESK|oh}}) is a specialized agency of the [[United Nations]]. Its stated purpose is to contribute to [[peace]] and [[security]] by promoting international [[collaboration]] through [[education]], [[science]], and [[culture]] in order to further universal [[respect]] for [[justice]], the [[rule of law]], and the [[human rights]] along with fundamental [[freedom (political)|freedoms]] proclaimed in the [[United Nations Charter|UN Charter]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/about-us/who-we-are/history/ |title=UNESCO History |publisher=www.unesco.org |date= |accessdate=23 April 2010}}</ref> It is the heir of the [[League of Nations]]' [[International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation]].
+
The '''United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization''' ('''UNESCO'''; {{pron-en|juːˈnɛskoʊ}} {{respell|yew|NESK|oh}}) is a specialized agency of the [[United Nations]]. Its stated purpose is to contribute to [[peace]] and [[security]] by promotbvc ghcykig ing international [[collaboration]] through [[education]], [[science]], and [[culture]] in order to further universal [[respect]] for [[justice]], the [[rule of law]], and the [[human rights]] along with fundamental [[freedom (political)|freedoms]] proclaimed in the [[United Nations Charter|UN Charter]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/about-us/who-we-are/history/ |title=UNESCO History |publisher=www.unesco.org |date= |accessdate=23 April 2010}}</ref> It is the heir of the [[League of Nations]]' [[International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation]].
   
 
UNESCO has 193 Member States and seven Associate Members.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=11170&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html |title=Member States &#124; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization |publisher=Portal.unesco.org |date= |accessdate=23 April 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mfa.fo/Default.aspx?ID=6607&M=News&PID=9485&NewsID=2332 |title=The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world}}</ref>
 
UNESCO has 193 Member States and seven Associate Members.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=11170&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html |title=Member States &#124; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization |publisher=Portal.unesco.org |date= |accessdate=23 April 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mfa.fo/Default.aspx?ID=6607&M=News&PID=9485&NewsID=2332 |title=The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world}}</ref>

Revision as of 15:27, 31 May 2011

UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
UNESCO.svg
Abbreviation UNESCO
Formation 16 November 1946
Type Specialized Agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Paris, France
Head
Irina Bokova
Website www.UNESCO.org

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; pronounced /juːˈnɛskoʊ/ (deprecated template) yew-NESK-oh) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promotbvc ghcykig ing international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights along with fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.[1] It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation.

UNESCO has 193 Member States and seven Associate Members.[2][3] Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion of cultural diversity; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[4]

Mission and priorities

UNESCO’s mission is to contribute to the "building of peace", reducing the poverty, promoting sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information. The Organization focuses, in particular, on two global priorities: Africa and Gender Equality.[5]

Other priorities of the Organization include attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[6]

The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO’s strategies and activities.

History

The UNESCO flag

UNESCO and its mandate for international intellectual co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.[7] The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (CICI) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IICI) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the CICI.[8] On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.[9] However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of the Second World War.

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945. 44 governments were represented. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[10] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946 – the date when UNESCO’s Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.[11]

The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General.[12] The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.[13] This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in terms of how member states would work together in the Organization’s fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO’s mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the Organization’s operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.

Among the major achievements of the Organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[14] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[15] In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the Organization’s publications amounted to “interference” in the country’s “racial problems.”[16] South Africa rejoined the Organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.

UNESCO’s early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[17] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.[18] In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[19] In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[20] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[21]

UNESCO’s early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.[22] The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Moenjodaro (Pakistan), Fez (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The Organization’s work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.[23] The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.[24] Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[25]) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions[26]).

At an intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 was held which led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN)[27] in 1954. The World Wide Web was born at CERN in 1989.

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[28] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme.[29]

In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[30] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[31] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[32] Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All[33] programme and Toward Knowledge Societies[34] programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis).

Activities

UNESCO offices in Brasília

UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

  • Education: UNESCO is providing international leadership[citation needed] in creating learning societies with educational opportunities for all; it supports research in Comparative education; and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[35]

  • UNESCO also issues public 'statements' to educate the public:
    • Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.

Official UNESCO NGOs

UNESCO enjoys official relations with 322 international NGOs.[39] Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational", a select few are "formal".[40] Operational relations are reserved for an NGO with an active presence in the field, with special expertise and with an ability to channel the concerns of their clients. Requests for admission by an NGO to UNESCO for operational relations can be made to the Director-General at any time. Formal relations are reserved for those NGOs who have a sustained role in cooperating with UNESCO both upstream and downstream. Admission for formal recognition is only granted to international NGOs that are widely representative and expert in their field of activity, and with a genuinely international structure and membership. Formal relations are themselves sub-divided into two types, "consultative" or "associate", depending on the role and structure of the NGO itself. The Executive Board, one of UNESCO's governing bodies, decides on requests for admission by NGOs to one or the other type of formal relation on the basis of recommendations made by the Director-General. Formal relations are established for renewable periods of six years.

The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs[41] with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:

  1. International Baccalaureate (IB)
  2. Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS)
  3. Education International (EI)
  4. International Association of Universities (IAU)
  5. International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication (IFTC)
  6. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (ICPHS) which publishes Diogenes
  7. International Council for Science (ICSU)
  8. International Council of Museums (ICOM)
  9. International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE)
  10. International Council on Archives (ICA)
  11. International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
  12. International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)
  13. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
  14. International Federation of Poetry Associations (IFPA)
  15. International Music Council (IMC)
  16. International Scientific Council for Island Development (INSULA)
  17. International Social Science Council (ISSC)
  18. International Theatre Institute (ITI)
  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
  20. International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations
  21. Union of International Associations (UIA)
  22. World Association of Newspapers (WAN)
  23. World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)
  24. World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations (WFUCA)

UNESCO Institutes and Centres

The institutes are specialized departments of the Organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Education

  • UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE); Geneva (Switzerland) specializes in educational contents, methods and structures. IBE shares expertise on curriculum development and aims to introduce innovative approaches in curriculum design and implementation, improve practical skills, and facilitate international dialogue on educational policies and practices.
  • UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning promotes lifelong learning policy and practice with a focus on adult learning and education, especially literacy and non-formal education and alternative learning opportunities for marginalized and disadvantaged groups.
  • UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP); Paris (France) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) is a centre for training and research to strengthen the capacity of countries to plan and manage their education systems.
  • UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE); Moscow (Russian Federation) serves as a centre of excellence and provider of technical support and expertise in the area of ICT usage in education.
  • UNESCO International Institute for Capacity-Building in Africa (IICBA); Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) works to enhance the capacities of regional, national and local level educational institutions in Africa, thus providing the opportunity for technological improvements, such as the utilization of electronic media for networking and for educational purposes, targeting both individuals and institutions.
  • UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC); Caracas (Venezuela) contributes to the development and transformation of the tertiary education through the reinforcement of a work plan that, among other purposes, attempts to be an instrument to support the management of change and the required transformations in order that higher education in the region becomes an effective promoter of a culture of peace that allows to make viable - in an age of globalization - the human sustainable development based on principles of justice, equity, freedom, solidarity, democracy and respect of the human rights.
  • UNESCO International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC); Bonn (Germany) works to strengthen and upgrade countries' Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems.
  • UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES); Bucarest (Romania) promotes co-operation and provides technical support in the field of higher education among UNESCO’s Member States in Central, Eastern and South-East Europe.

Natural sciences

  • UNESCO Institute for Water Education (IHE); Delft (Netherlands)the largest water education facility in the world, and the only institution in the UN system authorised to confer accredited MSc degrees.
  • International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP); Trieste (Italy) aims to foster growth of advanced studies and research in physical and mathematical sciences, develops high level programmes and conducts research especially in developing countries.

Statistics

  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS); Montreal (Canada) provides an impressive collection of up to date statistics in the fields of education, science and technology, culture and communication.

Official list of UNESCO prizes

UNESCO currently awards 22 prizes[42] in education, science, culture and peace:

Inactive UNESCO prizes

Member states

As of October 2009, UNESCO counts 193 Member States and seven Associate Members.[43] Some member states have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.[44]

Postage stamps

Various countries have issued postage stamps commemorating UNESCO. The organization's seal and its headquarters building have been common themes. In 1955 the United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) issued its first ones honouring the organization.

While UNESCO has never separately issued stamps valid for postage, from 1951 to 1966 it issued a series of 41 "gift stamps" to raise money for its activities. Designed by artists in various countries, they were sold at a desk by the UNPA counter located in the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City. No longer available at the UN, most of these Cinderella stamps can be purchased at low cost from speciality stamp dealers.

Directors-General

  1. Julian Huxley (1946–1948)
  2. Jaime Torres Bodet (1948–1952)
  3. John Wilkinson Taylor (acting 1952–1953)
  4. Luther Evans (1953–1958)
  5. Vittorino Veronese (1958–1961)
  6. René Maheu (1961–1974; acting 1961)
  7. Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow (1974–1987)
  8. Federico Mayor Zaragoza (1987–1999)
  9. Koïchiro Matsuura (1999–2009)
  10. Irina Bokova (2009– )

UNESCO offices

File:UNESCO Headquarters.jpg
UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France

UNESCO has offices in many locations across the globe; its headquarters are located in Paris, France.48°51′00″N 2°18′22″E / 48.85°N 2.306°E / 48.85; 2.306 (UNESCO headquarters))Coordinates: 48°51′00″N 2°18′22″E / 48.85°N 2.306°E / 48.85; 2.306 (UNESCO headquarters))

Through its field offices, UNESCO develops strategies, programs and activities in consultation with national authorities and other partners.

Office types

UNESCO's field offices are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage. The following descriptions identify the primary dividing lines.

Cluster offices

A cluster office covers a group of countries and is the central component in the field, around which are organized national offices and regional bureaux. The 27 cluster offices, covering 148 Member States, represent the main supporting structure of UNESCO Secretariat’s network in the field.[45]

National offices

In addition to cluster offices which are the main supporting structure of the Secretariat’s network in the field, there are 21 national offices, each serving a single Member State. These exceptions to the cluster system involve either the so-called E-9 countries (nine highly-populated countries) which are either in post-conflict situations or are in transition.[46]

Regional bureaux

Regional bureaux and regional advisers specializing in the fields of education, science, the social sciences, culture and communication provide specialized support to cluster and national offices in a given region.[47]

Liaison offices

The decentralized network includes two liaison offices to the United Nations in New York and Geneva and a liaison office to the European Union in Brussels.[48]

UNESCO field offices by region

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.[49]

Africa

File:UNESCO Office in Harare.jpg
UNESCO Office in Harare Headquarters

Arab States

File:UNESCO Office for Iraq Headquarters.jpg
UNESCO Office for Iraq Headquarters

Asia and Pacific

Europe and North America

Latin America and the Caribbean

File:UNESCO Office in San Jose.jpg
UNESCO Office in San José Headquarters

Elections

Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris from 7 September to 23 September 2009. Eight candidates ran for the position, and 58 countries[50] voted for them. The Executive Council gathered from 7 September to 23 September, the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General.

Controversy and reform

New World Information and Communication order

UNESCO has been the center of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived by some as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, a stark contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[51] In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985 and Singapore in 1986. Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.

Internal reforms

Part of the reason for their change of stance was due to considerable reforms implemented by UNESCO over the past 10 years. These included the following measures: the number of divisions in UNESCO was cut in half, allowing a corresponding halving of the number of Directors—from 200 to under 100, out of a total staff of approximately 2,000 worldwide.[citation needed] At the same time, the number of field units was cut from a peak of 1,287 in 1998 to 93 today. Parallel management structures, including 35 Cabinet-level special adviser positions, were abolished.[citation needed] Between 1998 and 2009, 245 negotiated staff departures and buy-outs took place, causing the inherited $12 million staff cost deficit to disappear.[citation needed] The staff pyramid, which was the most top-heavy in the UN system, was cut back as the number of high-level posts was halved and the "inflation" of posts was reversed through the down-grading of many positions. Open competitive recruitment, results-based appraisal of staff, training of all managers and field rotation were instituted, as well as SISTER and SAP systems for transparency in results-based programming and budgeting.[citation needed] In addition, the Internal Oversight Service (IOS) was established in 2001 to improve organizational performance by including the lessons learned from programme evaluations into the overall reform process. It regularly carries out audits of UNESCO offices that essentially look into administrative and procedural compliance, but do not assess the relevance and usefulness of the activities and projects that are carried out. At least in thoery, the evaluation of the relevance and effectiveness of programmes is carried out by the Evaluation Section of IOS, although evidence of using "lessons learned" in programming is less clear and not always free from donor preferences.[citation needed]

Israel

Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. In 1974, UNESCO stripped Israel of its membership on the grounds of alleged damage being done by Israel's archaeological excavations on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. UNESCO defended this decision with two statements in 1974 and 1975, but renewed Israel's membership in 1977.[52]

In October 2010, UNESCO’s Executive Board voted to include Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem on the West Bank[53] referring to it as the 'Bilal Bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb and a part of Palestinian territory under occupation. The board demanded that Israel remove the site from its own list of National Heritage Sites, even though the site has had Jewish significance for thousands of years, on the grounds that this unilateral action was a violation of international law.[54][55] Subsequently, Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Danny Ayalon, the Deputy Foreign Minister of Israel, declared that it was another example of campaign of delegitimization that the Palestinian National Authority was waging and that it hurt UNESCO for seeming to be a rubber stamp. Zevulun Orlev, chairman of Israel's Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.[56][57]

References

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  2. ^ "Member States | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Portal.unesco.org. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  3. ^ "The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world". 
  4. ^ http://www.undg.org/index.cfm?P=13
  5. ^ Introducing UNESCO
  6. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001499/149999e.pdf
  7. ^ League of Nations. Records of the Second Assembly. Plenary Meetings. 5 September-5 October 1921. Geneva. P. 313
  8. ^ UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947-1987. Paris, December 1987. LAD.85/WS/4 Rev. UNESDOC database, accessed 8/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000790/079049eb.pdf
  9. ^ UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology.
  10. ^ United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. UNESDOC database, accessed 8/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117626e.pdf
  11. ^ Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 16 November 1945. United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. P. 93. UNESDOC database, accessed 8/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117626e.pdf
  12. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 1st Session. (1947). General Conference, First Session, held at UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions]. (Paris.) Item 14, p. 73. UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114580e.pdf
  13. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 8th Session. (1955). Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, Montevideo, 1954: Resolutions. 8 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution II.1.2, p.12. UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114586e.pdf
  14. ^ UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001269/126969eb.pdf
  15. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001140/114032e.pdf
  16. ^ UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
  17. ^ The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947-1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.
  18. ^ Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0005/000590/059046eb.pdf
  19. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114591e.pdf#xml=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?database=&set=4CFE6AEC_1_103&hits_rec=1&hits_lng=eng
  20. ^ UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database, accessed 7/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000975/097551e.pdf
  21. ^ UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database, accessed 07/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001211/121147e.pdf
  22. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database, accessed 07/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0004/000419/041943eb.pdf
  23. ^ Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database, accessed 8/12/2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001140/114044e.pdf
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  39. ^ [1] quoted on UNESCO official site
  40. ^ [2] the full list of NGOs enjoying official relations with UNESCO
  41. ^ [3] UNESCO Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009 found on a UNESCO official site
  42. ^ UNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010
  43. ^ List of UNESCO members and associates
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  45. ^ [4] UNESCO's Bureau of Field Coordination Description of Cluster Offices and their Duties
  46. ^ [5] UNESCO's Bureau of Field Coordination Description of National Offices and their Duties
  47. ^ [6] UNESCO's Bureau of Field Coordination Description of Regional Bureaux and their Duties
  48. ^ [7] UNESCO's Bureau of Field Coordination Description of Liaison Offices and their Duties
  49. ^ [8] List of All UNESCO Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage
  50. ^ List of the voting countries : http://saveunesco.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/electoral-groups-unesco.pdf
  51. ^ Grahm, S. E. (2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History. 30 (2): 231–251. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  52. ^ Journal of Palestine Studies, Volume 4, No. 2, Winter 1975
  53. ^ "Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories". unesco.org. 21.10.2010.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  54. ^ Maayana Miskin (29.10.2010). "UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb is a Mosque". IsraelNationalNews.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  55. ^ Hillel Fendel (01.11.2010). "UNESCO Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb Protocol". IsraelNationalNews.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  56. ^ "Ayalon: Israel will no longer cooperate with UNESCO". The Jerusalem Post. 03.11.2010.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  57. ^ Cooperation with UNESCO only partially suspended

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