United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium
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|United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium|
|Formation||January 15, 1996|
|Jacques Paul Klein
|United Nations Security Council|
The United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) was a UN peacekeeping mission in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia in the eastern parts of Croatia between 1996 and 1998, established by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1037 of January 15, 1996. It is also sometimes known as the United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium.
After Operation Storm in mid-1995, the only remaining part of the Republic of Serbian Krajina became that in the east, near the border with Yugoslavia. The subsequent Dayton agreement ended the most deadly conflicts of the Yugoslav wars, and laid the ground for the restoration of this territory into Croatian jurisdiction. The Erdut Agreement between the Croatian Government and the representatives of the Serbs in the region was signed in November 1995, which requested that the UN form a transitional authority and a peacekeeping force. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1023 supported that, and after the UNCRO mission was terminated in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1025, UNTAES was set up to serve as a United Nations protectorate over the region in Resolution 1037.
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|History of Slavonia|
The mission started on January 15, 1996 with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1043. Mission was meant to last for one year, with provision which permitted extension of mandate of up to one year if one of the sides ask so. Mission main task was to monitor demilitarization and ensure peaceful reintegration of the territory into Croatia. UN Secretary General initially proposed that UNTAES should have 9,300 soldiers. The final agreement mission had a military and a civilian component with 5,000 soldiers, 500 UNTAES civilian police (UNCIVPOL) and 99 military observers. Before the arrival of UNTAES troops in region has already been located 1,600 troops from Belgian and Russian Armed Forces under United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia. They were joined by Jordanian and Pakistani mechanized battalions, Ukrainian helicopter gunship and other units. Initial headquarters was located at United Nations Protection Force headquarters in Zagreb but idea of mission personnel was to put headquarters in eastern Croatia. Croatian Government offered Osijek for that purpose but mission refused it since it wanted to locate it on the territory of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia. Therefore the headquarters were located in Vukovar, with a liaison office in Beli Manastir, which provided UNTAES civil affairs officers with the opportunity to attend sessions of local Serb Executive Councils and assemblies which facilitated exchange of relevant information. One of the challenges mission faced was tense and peaceful retake of Đeletovci oil fields from the control of Scorpions paramilitary. Representatives of mission urged ambassadors from Zagreb to visit region and additionally introduced practice of visiting of the local Serbian orthodox churches and two Catholic churches that still were in operation.
Local Police Reform
One of the main tasks of UNTAES was reform of local police forces in which before the war occurred first inter-ethnic conflicts (see:Battle of Borovo Selo). UNTAES initial problem was to replacement of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia symbols. Since there was resistance to that, compromise was reached where UNTAES with financial support of US Department of Justice bought uniforms without any state features. Croatian government initially refused to begin paying salaries to local police but later agreed to do so since it showed return of Croatian sovereignty and responsibility for region. Second problem was the fact that Croatian government refused to pay salaries in Yugoslav dinar while local police didn't want it in Croatian kuna so in the end it was paid in Deutsche Mark. Support for UNTAES was provided by Polish Special Police Group that made first arrest of an indicated war criminal who was former mayor of Vukovar.
- in July 1996 with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1069
- in November 1996 with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1079
- in July 1997 with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1120
The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1145 in late 1997 arranged for the United Nations Police Support Group (UNPSG) to take over UNTAES' policing tasks, effectively concluding the UNTAES mission on January 15, 1998. A support group of 180 civilian UN police officers remained to monitor the progress of the Croatian police and oversee the return of the refugees. After the end of UNTAES mission OSCE office continue to work in region for few years.
- Derek Boothby (Jan–Mar 2004). "The Political Challenges of Administering Eastern Slavonia" (PDF). Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations. pp. 37–51 (15 pages). Retrieved 2014-03-15.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1037. S/RES/1037(1996) (1996) Retrieved September 6, 2008.