Headquarters of the United Nations
|Headquarters of the United Nations|
View from Roosevelt Island
Location within New York City
|Alternative names||Headquarters of the United Nations (in English)
مقر الأمم المتحدة (in Arabic)
联合国总部大楼 (in Chinese)
Siège des Nations unies (in French)
Штаб-квартира Организации Объединенных Наций (in Russian)
Sede de las Naciones Unidas (in Spanish)
|Architectural style||International Style|
|Location||New York City
|Address||760 United Nations Plaza, Manhattan, New York City|
|Completed||October 9, 1952|
(in adjusted inflation $586,221,805)
|Height||155.3 meters (510 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Oscar Niemeyer Le Corbusier Harrison & Abramovitz|
|Main contractor||Fuller, Turner, Slattery, and Walsh|
The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. The complex has served as the official headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1952. It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, on spacious grounds overlooking the East River. Its borders are First Avenue on the west, East 42nd Street to the south, East 48th Street on the north and the East River to the east. The term "Turtle Bay" is occasionally used as a metonym for the UN headquarters or for the United Nations as a whole.
The United Nations has three additional, subsidiary, regional headquarters, or headquarters districts. These were opened in Geneva (Switzerland) in 1946, Vienna (Austria) in 1980, and Nairobi (Kenya) in 1996. These adjunct offices help represent UN interests, facilitate diplomatic activities, and enjoy certain extraterritorial privileges, but only the main headquarters in New York City contains the seats of the principal organs of the UN, including the General Assembly and Security Council.
All fifteen of the United Nations' specialized agencies are located outside New York City at these other headquarters or in other cities: the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Fund for Agricultural Development in Rome, the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal, the International Labour Organization, International Telecommunication Union, World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization and World Meteorological Organization in Geneva, the International Maritime Organization in London, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group in Washington, D.C., the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in Paris, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in Vienna, the United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific in Bangkok, Thailand and the World Tourism Organization in Madrid.
Although it is situated in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters and the spaces of buildings that it rents are under the sole administration of the United Nations and not the U.S. government. They are technically extraterritorial through a treaty agreement with the U.S. government. However, in exchange for local police, fire protection and other services, the United Nations agrees to acknowledge most local, state, and federal laws.
The United Nations Headquarters complex was constructed in stages with the core complex completed between 1948 and 1952. The Headquarters occupies a site beside the East River, on between 17 and 18 acres (6.9 and 7.3 ha)[note 1] of land purchased from the real estate developer, William Zeckendorf, Sr. Nelson Rockefeller arranged this purchase, after an initial offer to locate it on the Rockefeller family estate of Kykuit was rejected as being too isolated from Manhattan. The US$8.5 million (adjusted by inflation US$84.7 million) purchase was then funded by his father, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who donated it to the city. The Rockefeller family owned the Tudor City Apartments across First Avenue from the site. Wallace Harrison, the personal architectural adviser for the Rockefeller family and brother-in-law to a Rockefeller daughter, served as the Director of Planning for the United Nations Headquarters. His firm, Harrison and Abramovitz, oversaw the execution of the design.
- 1 Planning and construction
- 2 International character
- 3 Structures
- 4 Maintenance
- 5 Relocation proposals
- 6 Public gatherings
- 7 Security
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Further reading
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Planning and construction
The property was originally a slaughterhouse before the donation took place, bordered on one side by Tudor City. While the United Nations had dreamed of constructing an independent city for its new world capital, multiple obstacles soon forced the organization to downsize their plans. The diminutive site on the East River necessitated a Rockefeller Center-type vertical complex, thus, it was a given that the Secretariat would be housed in a tall office tower. During daily meetings from February to June 1947, the collaborative team produced at least 45 designs and variations. Rather than hold a competition for the design of the facilities for the headquarters, the UN decided to commission a multinational team of leading architects to collaborate on the design. The American architect Wallace K. Harrison was named as Director of Planning, and a Board of Design Consultants was composed of architects, planners and engineers nominated by member governments. The board consisted of N. D. Bassov of the Soviet Union, Gaston Brunfaut (Belgium), Ernest Cormier (Canada), Le Corbusier (France), Liang Seu-cheng (China), Sven Markelius (Sweden), Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil), Howard Robertson (United Kingdom), G. A. Soilleux (Australia), and Julio Vilamajó (Uruguay).
Niemeyer met with Corbusier at the latter's request shortly after the former arrived in New York City. Corbusier had already been lobbying hard to promote his own scheme 23, and thus, requested that Niemeyer not submit a design, lest he further confuse the contentious meetings of the Board of Design. Instead, he asked the younger architect to assist him with his project. Niemeyer began to absent himself from the meetings. Only after Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz repeatedly pressed him to participate did Niemeyer agree to submit his own project. Niemeyer's project 32 was finally chosen, but as opposed to Corbusier’s project 23, which consisted of one building containing both the Assembly Hall and the councils in the center of the site (as it was hierarchically the most important building), Niemeyer's plan split the councils from the Assembly Hall, locating the first alongside the river, and the second on the right side of the secretariat. This would not split the site, but on the contrary, would create a large civic square.
After much discussion, Harrison, who coordinated the meetings, determined that a design based on Niemeyer's project 32 and Le Corbusier's project 23 would be developed for the final project. Le Corbusier's project 23 consisted of a large block containing both the Assembly Hall and the Council Chambers near the center of the site with the Secretariat tower emerging as a slab from the south. Niemeyer's plan was closer to that actually constructed, with a distinctive General Assembly building, a long low horizontal block housing the other meeting rooms, and a tall tower for the Secretariat. The complex as built, however, repositioned Niemeyer's General Assembly building to the north of this tripartite composition. This plan included a public plaza as well.
Wallace Harrison's assistant, architect George Dudley, later stated: "It literally took our breath away to see the simple plane of the site kept open from First Avenue to the River, only three structures on it, standing free, a fourth lying low behind them along the river’s edge...[Niemeyer] also said, ‘beauty will come from the buildings being in the right space!’. The comparison between Le Corbusier’s heavy block and Niemeyer’s startling, elegantly articulated composition seemed to me to be in everyone’s mind..." Later on, Corbusier came once again to Niemeyer and asked him to reposition the Assembly Hall back to the center of the site. Such modification would destroy Niemeyer’s plans for a large civic square. However, he finally decided to accept the modification: "I felt [Corbusier] would like to do his project, and he was the master. I do not regret my decision." Together, they submitted the scheme 23–32, which was built and is what can be seen today. Along with suggestions from the other members of the Board of Design Consultants, this was developed into project 42G. This late project was built with some reductions and other modifications.
Many cities vied for the honor of hosting the UN Headquarters site, prior to the selection of New York City. The selection of the East River site came after over a year of protracted study and consideration of many sites in the United States. A powerful faction among the delegates advocated returning to the former League of Nations complex in Geneva, Switzerland. Suggestions came from far and wide including such fanciful suggestions as a ship on the high seas to housing the entire complex in a single tall building. Amateur architects submitted designs, local governments offered park areas, but the determined group of New York City boosters that included such luminaries as Grover Whalen, Thomas J. Watson, and Nelson Rockefeller, coordinated efforts with the powerful Coordinator of Construction, Robert Moses, and Mayor William O'Dwyer, to assemble acceptable interim facilities. Their determined courtship of the UN Interim Site committee resulted in the early meetings taking place at multiple locations throughout the New York area. Sites in San Francisco (including the Presidio), Marin County, California, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Fairfield County, CT, Westchester County, NY, and Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in Queens, were among those sites given serious consideration before Manhattan was finally selected. The Manhattan site was selected after John D. Rockefeller, Jr., offered to donate $8.5 million to purchase the land.
In 1945–46 London hosted the first meeting of the General Assembly in Methodist Central Hall, and the Security Council in Church House. The third and sixth General Assembly sessions, in 1948 and 1951, met in the Palais de Chaillot in Paris. Prior to the construction of the current complex, the UN was headquartered at a temporary location at the Sperry Corporation's offices in Lake Success, New York, an eastern suburb of the city in Nassau County on Long Island, from 1946 to 1952. The Security Council also held sessions on what was then the Bronx campus of Hunter College (now the site of Lehman College) from March to August 1946. The UN also met at what is now the Queens Museum, built as the New York City Pavilion for the 1939 New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. The General Assembly met at what had previously been the ice skating rink, and the Long Island Rail Road reopened the former World's Fair station as United Nations station. After the UN moved to its new Manhattan headquarters, the building was remodeled and briefly used as a pavilion for the 1964 New York World's Fair, after which it reverted to use as a skating rink until 2008, when the entire building began a long-term renovation to create expanded museum facilities.
Per an agreement with the city, the buildings met some but not all local fire safety and building codes. Construction on the initial buildings began in 1948, with the cornerstone laid on October 24, 1949, and was completed in 1952. The Dag Hammarskjöld Library Building, designed by Harrison and Abramovitz, was added in 1961. The construction of the headquarters was financed by an interest-free loan of $65 million made by the United States government, and the cost of construction was also reported as $65 million.
The site of the UN headquarters has extraterritoriality status. This affects some law enforcement where UN rules override the laws of New York City, but it does not give immunity to those who commit crimes there. In addition, the United Nations Headquarters remains under the jurisdiction and laws of the United States, although a few members of the UN staff have diplomatic immunity and so cannot be prosecuted by local courts unless the diplomatic immunity is waived by the Secretary-General. In 2005, Secretary-General Kofi Annan waived the immunity of Benon Sevan, Aleksandr Yakovlev, and Vladimir Kuznetsov in relation to the Oil-for-Food Programme, and all were charged in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Benon Sevan later fled the United States to Cyprus, while Aleksandr Yakovlev and Vladimir Kuznetsov decided to stand trial.
The UN identifies Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish as its six official languages. Delegates speaking in any of these languages will have their words simultaneously translated into all of the others, and attendees are provided with headphones through which they can hear the translations. A delegate is allowed to make a statement in a non-official language, but must provide either an interpreter or a written copy of his/her remarks translated into an official language. English and French are the working languages of the United Nations Secretariat, as most of the daily communication within the Secretariat and most of the signs in the UN headquarters building are in those languages.
The complex has a street address of United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY 10017, USA. For security reasons, all mail sent to this address is sterilized, so items that may be degraded can be sent by courier. The United Nations Postal Administration issues stamps, which must be used on stamped mail sent from the building. Journalists, when reporting from the complex, often use "United Nations" rather than "New York City" as the identification of their location in recognition of the extraterritoriality status.
For award purposes, amateur radio operators consider the UN headquarters a separate "entity" under some award programs such as DXCC. For communications, UN organizations have their own internationally recognized ITU prefix, 4U. However, only contacts made with the UN Headquarters in New York, and the ITU count as separate entities. Other UN organizations such as the World Bank count for the state or country they are located in. The UN Staff Recreation Council operates amateur radio station 4U1UN, and occasionally use special callsigns with prefix 4U and ending in UN to commemorate various events at the UN.
The complex includes a number of major buildings. While the Secretariat building is most predominantly featured in depictions of the headquarters, it also includes the domed General Assembly building, the Dag Hammarskjöld Library, as well as the Conference and Visitors Center, which is situated between the General Assembly and Secretariat buildings, and can be seen only from FDR Drive or the East River. Just inside the perimeter fence of the complex stands a line of flagpoles where the flags of all 193 UN member states, plus the UN flag, are flown in English alphabetical order.
General Assembly building
The General Assembly building, housing the United Nations General Assembly, holds the General Assembly Hall which has a seating capacity of 1,800. At 165 ft (50 m) long by 115 ft (35 m) wide, it is the largest room in the complex. The Hall has two murals by the French artist Fernand Léger. At the front of the chamber, is the rostrum containing the green marble desk for the President of the General Assembly, Secretary-General and Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services and matching lectern for speakers. Behind the rostrum is the UN emblem on a gold background. Flanking the rostrum is a paneled semi-circular wall that tapers as it nears the ceiling and surrounds the front portion of the chamber. In front of the paneled walls are seating areas for guests and within the wall are windows which allow translators to watch the proceedings as they work. The ceiling of the hall is 75 ft (23 m) high and surmounted by a shallow dome ringed by recessed light fixtures. The entrance to the hall bears an inscription from the Gulistan by Iranian poet Saadi. The General Assembly Hall was last altered in 1980 when capacity was increased to accommodate the increased membership. Each of the 192 delegations has six seats in the hall with three at a desk and three alternate seats behind them.
The Conference Building faces the East River between the General Assembly Building and the Secretariat. The Conference Building holds the Security Council Chamber, which was a gift from Norway and was designed by the Norwegian architect Arnstein Arneberg. The oil canvas mural depicting a phoenix rising from its ashes by Norwegian artist Per Krogh hangs at the front of the room.
The 39-story Secretariat Building was completed in 1952. It houses offices for the Secretary General, the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel, the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and Office of Disarmament Affairs, and the Department for General Assembly and Conference Management (DGACM).
Dag Hammarskjöld Library
The library was founded with the United Nations in 1946. It was originally called the United Nations Library, later the United Nations International Library. In the late 1950s the Ford Foundation gave a grant to the United Nations for the construction of a new library building; Dag Hammarskjöld was also instrumental in securing the funding for the new building. The Dag Hammarskjöld Library was dedicated and renamed on November 16, 1961. The building was a gift from the Ford Foundation and is located next to the Secretariat at the southwest corner of the headquarters campus. The library holds 400,000 books, 9,800 newspapers and periodical titles, 80,000 maps and the Woodrow Wilson Collection containing 8,600 volumes of League of Nations documents and 6,500 related books and pamphlets. The library's Economic and Social Affairs Collection is housed in the DC-2 building.
The complex is also notable for its gardens and outdoor sculptures. Iconic sculptures include the "Knotted Gun", called Non-Violence, a statue of a Colt Python revolver with its barrel tied in a knot, which was a gift from the Luxembourg government  and "Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares", a gift from the Soviet Union. The latter sculpture is the only appearance of the "swords into plowshares" quotation, from Isaiah 2:4, within the complex. Contrary to popular belief, the quotation is not carved on any UN building. Rather, it is carved on the "Isaiah Wall" of Ralph Bunche Park across First Avenue. A piece of the Berlin Wall also stands in the UN garden.
Other prominent artworks on the grounds include a Marc Chagall stained glass window memorializing the death of Dag Hammarskjöld, the Japanese Peace Bell which is rung on the vernal equinox and the opening of each General Assembly session, a Chinese ivory carving made in 1974 (before the ivory trade was largely banned in 1989), and a Venetian mosaic depicting Norman Rockwell's painting The Golden Rule. A full-size tapestry copy of Pablo Picasso's Guernica, by Jacqueline de la Baume Dürrbach, on the wall of the United Nations building at the entrance to the Security Council room. In 1952, two Léger murals were installed in the General Assembly Hall. The works are meant to merely be decorative with no symbolism. One is said to resemble cartoon character Bugs Bunny and U.S. President Harry S. Truman dubbed the other work Scrambled Eggs.
Two huge murals by Brazilian artist Cândido Portinari, entitled Guerra e Paz (War and Peace) are located at the delegates hall. The works are a gift from the United Nations Association of the United States of America and Portinari intended to execute them in the United States. However, he was denied a visa due to his communist convictions and decided to paint them in Rio de Janeiro. They were later assembled in the headquarters. After their completion in 1957, Portinari, who was already ill when he started the masterpiece, succumbed to lead poisoning from the pigments his doctors advised him to abandon.
While outside of the complex, the headquarters also includes two large office buildings that serve as offices for the agencies and programmes of the organization. These buildings, known as DC-1 and DC-2, are located at 1 and 2 UN Plaza respectively. DC1 was built in 1976. There is also an identification office at the corner of 46th Street, inside a former bank branch, where pre-accredited diplomats, reporters, and others receive their grounds passes. UNICEF House (3 UN Plaza) and the UNITAR Building (807 UN Plaza) are also part of headquarters. In addition, the Church Center for the United Nations (777 UN Plaza) is a private building owned by the United Methodist Church as an interfaith space housing the offices of several non-governmental organizations. The Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) is located at 380 Madison Avenue.
Additional main aspects
Besides the actual and outer structures that make up and surround the United Nations Headquarters are the inner groups that play a role as well. The Security Council containing 5 permanent and 10 temporary for a total of 15 members, ensures the stabilization of peace and security whether in terms of threats or simple adjustments. A heavier focus on actual activities like debating in policymaking, and reflecting in and out of the environment, is conducted by the Economic and Social Council.
The headquarter's buildings have come to need extensive renovation, including the need to install sprinklers, fix leaks, and remove asbestos. Expansion has also come to be needed.
On July 28, 2007, UN officials announced the complex would undergo a $1 billion renovation starting in the fall. Swedish firm Skanska AB won a bid to overhaul the buildings which including the Conference, General Assembly and Secretariat buildings. The renovations, which will be the first since the complex opened in 1950, are expected to take about 7 years to complete. When completed the complex is also expected to be more energy efficient and have improved security. Work began on May 5, 2008 but the project was delayed for a while. By 2009 the cost of the work had risen from $1.2 billion to $1.6 billion with some estimates saying it would take up to $3 billion. Officials hope the renovated buildings will achieve a LEED Silver rating. Despite some delays and rises in construction costs, renovation on the entire UN headquarters is progressing rapidly. As of 2012, the installation of the new glass facade of the Secretariat Building is completed. The new glass wall will retain the look of the original facade but it will be more energy efficient. The renovation of the Secretariat building has been complete and the UN staff moved into the new building in July 2012.
Alternative sites were considered as temporary holding locations during renovations. In 2005, officials investigated establishing a new temporary site be created at the old Lake Success location. Brooklyn was also suggested as a temporary site. Another alternative for a temporary headquarters or a new permanent facility was the World Trade Center site. Once again, these plans met resistance both within the UN and from the United States and New York governments and were abandoned.
In October 2011 city and state officials announced an agreement in which the UN would be allowed to build a long-sought new office tower adjacent to the existing campus on the current Robert Moses Playground, which would be relocated. In exchange, the United Nations would allow the construction of an esplanade along the East River that would complete the East River Greenway, a waterfront pedestrian and bicycle pathway. While host nation authorities have agreed to the provisions of the plan, it needs the approval of the United Nations in order to be implemented. The plan is similar in concept to an earlier proposal that had been announced in 2000 but did not move forward.
The renovations are nearing completion in 2016, with the cost having risen to $2.15 billion.
After the multi-year process, the UN Headquarters now includes new electronics, audio and language systems, heating and cooling installments, and is said to be more safe as well as more energy efficient compared to before. With these new additions, general public visitations have increased and guided tours are even available.
Hours of operation include:
·Monday – Friday: 9:00am to 4:30pm
·Saturday & Sunday: 10:00am to 4:30pm
Due to the significance of the organization, proposals have occasionally been discussed to relocate its headquarters. Complaints about its current location include diplomats who find it difficult to obtain visas from the United States and local residents complaining of inconveniences whenever the surrounding roads are closed due to visiting dignitaries as well as the high costs to the city. A telephone survey in 2001 found that 67% of respondents favor moving the United Nations headquarters out of the country. Countries critical of the USA, such as Iran and Russia, are especially important in questioning the current location of the United Nations. Arguing that the United States government could manipulate the work of the General Assembly through selective access to politicians from other countries, with the aim of having an advantage over rival countries. Due to accusations of espionage by the United States, the subject of the relocation of the UN headquarters was again discussed, this time for security reasons.
Among the cities that have been proposed to house the headquarters of the United Nations are Saint Petersburg, Montreal, Dubai, Jerusalem, and Nairobi. Critics of the relocation say that the idea would be expensive and would also involve the withdrawal of the United States from the organization, and with it much of the agency's funding. They also state that the proposals have never gone from being mere declarations.
Large scale protests, demonstrations, and other gatherings directly on First Avenue are rare. Some gatherings have taken place in Ralph Bunche Park, but it is too small to accommodate large demonstrations. The closest location where the New York City Police Department usually allows demonstrators is Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza at 47th Street and First Avenue, one block away from the visitors' entrance, four blocks away from the entrance used by top-level diplomats, and five blocks away from the general staff entrance.
Excluding gatherings solely for diplomats and academics, there are a few organizations which regularly hold events at the UN. The United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA), a non-governmental organization, holds an annual "member's day" event in one of the conference rooms. Model United Nations conferences sponsored by UNA-USA, the National Collegiate Conference Association (NCCA/NMUN), and the International Model UN Association (IMUNA/NHSMUN) hold part of their sessions in the General Assembly chamber. Seton Hall University's Whitehead School of Diplomacy hosts its UN summer study program at the headquarters as well.
United Nations Security officers are generally responsible for security within the UN Headquarters. They are equipped with weapons and handcuffs and may be mistaken for NYPD officers, due to similarity in uniforms. The NYPD's 17th Precinct patrols the area around and near the complex, but does not have jurisdiction inside the UN headquarters themselves since the headquarters are considered international property.
In popular culture
Due to its role in international politics, the United Nations Headquarters is often featured in movies and other pop culture. The only film actually shot on location in the UN headquarters is The Glass Wall (1953) by legendary Hollywood writer/director/producer Ivan Tors. When he was unable to obtain permission to film in the UN Headquarters, director Alfred Hitchcock covertly filmed Cary Grant arriving for the 1959 feature North by Northwest. After the action within the building, another scene shows Grant leaving across the plaza looking down from the building's roof. This was created using a painting. In the 1976 comedy film The Pink Panther Strikes Again, the building is vaporised by Dreyfus with a doomsday device. The final Roadblock of the 21st season of the American version of The Amazing Race also took place inside the gates of this building and had teams associating national flags with the different "hellos" and "goodbyes" they heard during the race. The building is seen in the 2008 game Grand Theft Auto IV, but called the Civilization Committee Building (CC). The building is also in the racing game The Crew in the New York City area of the game.
- Charlene Mires (2013). Capital of the World: The Race to Host the United Nations. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814707944.
- Sources vary on whether the site is 17 acres (6.9 ha) or 18 acres (7.3 ha).
- Hamilton, Thomas J. (October 10, 1952). "Work Completed on U.N. Buildings". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- "United Nations Visitors Centre". United Nations. Archived from the original on September 24, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Turtle Bay blog". Foreign Policy. foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Welcome to the United Nations Office at Vienna!". United Nations. Retrieved October 24, 2011. referring to the office at Vienna as "the third United Nations Headquarters
- Kelsen, Hans (1950). The law of the United Nations: a critical analysis of its fundamental problems. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 350. ISBN 1-58477-077-5.
- Boland, Ed Jr. (June 8, 2003). "F.Y.I". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Phipps, Linda S. "'Constructing' the United Nations Headquarters: Modern Architecture as Public Diplomacy" PhD Thesis, Harvard University, 1998. Phipps' account affords a detailed overview of the site acquisition, the selection of architects, the design of the complex and its reception.
- "Fact Sheet: United Nations Headquarters". United Nations. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- "Oscar Niemeyer and the United Nations Headquarters (1947–1949)". United Nations. December 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
- Philippou S., Curves of Irreverence, YALE
- Niemeyer, A Vida é um Sopro, Fabiano Maciel
- Dudley, George A., A Workshop for Peace: Designing the United Nations Headquarters, (Cambridge, MA and London, England: MIT Press and the Architectural History Foundation, 1994) p. 314. Dudley provides an accurate and detailed account of the Design meetings as well as discussing the evolution of the final design.
- Phipps, Linda S., "'Constructing' the United Nations Headquarters: Modern Architecture as Public Diplomacy," Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1998; Chapters 1 and 2.
- "Lake Success: A Reluctant Host to the United Nations". Newsday. New York. Archived from the original on May 23, 2006. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- "About Lehman College". Lehman College. Archived from History of Lehman College the original Check
|url=value (help) on October 9, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- "The Story of United Nations Headquarters" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved September 8, 2009.[dead link]
- "The History of Ice Skating in New York City Parks". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "United Nations Station". Arrt's Arrchives. August 14, 2004. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Childers, Erskine (September 29, 1995). "Financing the UN". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "The Story of United Nations Headquarters". United Nations. July 2006. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "UN/Volcker Report". United Nations. August 8, 2005. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Q&A: Oil-for-food scandal". BBC News. September 7, 2005. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Official language" United Nations website
- "Security Notice – United Nations Headquarters". United Nations. 2001. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- For example, Richard Roth is CNN's UN correspondent, while Ian Williams is his counterpart at The Nation and Carola Hoyos is the UN correspondent for the Financial Times.
- Endrst, Elsa B. (December 1992). "So proudly they wave ... flags of the United Nations". UN Chronicle. findarticles.com. Retrieved October 24, 2011. (at the time the article was printed, there were only 179 member states)
- Serpentinite from Val d'Aoste http://planet-terre.ens-lyon.fr
- "The General Assembly". United Nations. Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Axworthy, Michael (2010). Iran: Empire of the Mind. Basic Books. p. 110.
- "The Security Council". United Nations. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Hamilton, Thomas J. (October 10, 1953). "Work Completed on U.N. Buildings". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Office of Legal Affairs". United Nations. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "United Nations Disarmament". United Nations. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "DGACM". United Nations. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Hammarskjold Library Dedicated". The New York Times. November 17, 1961. p. 5. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- "Collections". United Nations. Archived from the original on December 11, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Luxembourg Mission to the UN". United Nations. Archived from the original on October 18, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Swords into Plowshares". United Nations. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Jewett, Robert; Lawrence, John Shelton (January 2003). Captain America and the Crusade Against Evil: The Dilemma Of Zealous Nationalism. William B. Erdmans Publishing Co. p. book jacket. ISBN 978-0-8028-6083-5. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Piece of Berlin Wall, a gift of Germany, unveiled at UN garden". United Nations. April 4, 2002. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Chagall Stained Glass". United Nations. Archived from the original on April 13, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Japanese Peace Bell". United Nations. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Chinese Ivory Carving". United Nations. Archived from the original on April 13, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Norman Rockwell Mosaic". United Nations. Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "In praise of ... Guernica". The Guardian. March 26, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Cohen, David (February 6, 2003). "Hidden Treasures: What's so controversial about Picasso's Guernica?". Slate.com. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Marks, Ed (Winter 1998). "Art...at home in the United Nations". UN Chronicle. Findarticles.com. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- "An 'element of inspiration and calm' at UN Headquarters – art in the life of the United Nations". UN Chronicle. FindArticles.com. December 1990. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- "Investigations Hotline". United Nations. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Hodge, Warren (November 28, 2007). "After 10 Years and 3 Plans, U.N. Renovation Is in Sight". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Farley, Maggie (May 6, 2008). "'A time of rebirth' at U.N. site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- "U.N. Renovation Cost Jumps $400M". CBS News. Associated Press. February 11, 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- "United Nations Capital Master Plan: Current Status". Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "United Nations Capital Master Plan: Timeline". Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "U.N. may move to Brooklyn temporarily". USA Today. Associated Press. May 10, 2005. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- New York Daily News, Fred A. Bernstein: "United Nations Should Move to World Trade Center Site." November 6, 2001, column archived at Bernstein's website. Archived November 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kjelstad, Carina (May 16, 2006). "Without Action Now, the UN Capital Master Plan Is Not Going Anywhere Anytime Soon". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "MAYOR BLOOMBERG ANNOUNCES HISTORIC AGREEMENT TO CLOSE LAST MAJOR GAP IN THE MANHATTAN GREENWAY AND ENABLE MODERNIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS' NEW YORK CITY PRESENCE". Press Release. City of New York. October 5, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Foderaro, Lisa (September 30, 2011). "Land Deal With U.N. Would Fill a Big Gap in the Waterfront Greenway". news article. The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Haberman, Clyde (February 25, 2005). "Act Globally, Get Stuck Locally". The New York Times. Global Policy Forum. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "UN Makeover Sacrifices Hammarskjold Library for Security". New York Times. September 3, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- admin (December 11, 2013). "Hours". visit.un.org. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Evo Morales pidió cambiar sede de Asamblea General de la ONU". El Espectador (in Spanish). Bogotá: Comunican S.A. September 24, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Park, Katrin (September 23, 2013). "New York and the United Nations: Time for a divorce". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "Merits of Moving the UN HQ to Baghdad". Laetus in Praesens. April 12, 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Iran pursues relocation of UN HQs". WilayahNews.com.
- "'NYC far & expensive': Russian MP says UN headquarters must be moved from America". RT. Moscow: TV-Novosti. October 21, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "Russian Lawmaker: Move United Nations Headquarters To Neutral Country Like Switzerland". HNGN. August 31, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "Morales says UN headquarters must move from 'bully' US". Inside Costa Rica. September 26, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- "Russia may call for moving U.N. from New York to St Petersburg". Johnson's Russia List. May 14, 2001. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- DeWolf, Christopher (October 25, 2007). "Will the UN move to Montreal – and how will it affect the waterfront?". Spacing Montreal. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Salama, Vivian; AlKhalisi, Zahraa (January 14, 2010). "UN Is Invited to Relocate to Dubai, Government Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Kotkin, Joel; Cristiano, Robert (January 12, 2010). "Move The U.N. To Dubai". Forbes. Forbes Media. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Bird, Eugene (November 3, 2014). "The UN can bring peace to Jerusalem by moving its headquarters there". Mondoweiss. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Castillo, Diego (September 25, 2013). "Evo Morales pide cambiar sede de la ONU, idea es viable pero falta una propuesta". La Nación (in Spanish). San José: Grupo Nación. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Saulny, Susan (February 11, 2003). "Court Bans Peace March in Manhattan". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "Seton Hall Summer Study Program UNA-USA". UNAUSA. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "United Nations Photo". Unmultimedia.org. September 10, 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- U.S. Mission to the United Nations, 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017: Environmental Impact Statement. 2001. p. 11.
- Thill, Scott (December 6, 2009). "8 Reasons Hitchcock's North by Northwest Still Rules". Wired. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Mires, Charlene. Capital of the World: The Race to Host the Unite Nations. New York: New York University Press, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Headquarters of the United Nations.|
- UN Visitors Centre
- UN: Building an International Headquarters in New York – historical overview, on the UN 60th Anniversary webpage
- Agreement Establishing the UN headquarters – with information on legal status