UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods are contained in the UN Model Regulations prepared by the Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). They cover the transport of dangerous goods by all modes of transport except by bulk tanker. They are not obligatory or legally binding on individual countries, but have gained a wide degree of international acceptance: they form the basis of several international agreements and many national laws.
"Dangerous goods" (also known as "hazardous materials" or "HAZMAT" in the United States) may be pure chemical substance (for example, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerin), mixtures (for example, dynamite, gunpowder) or manufactured articles (for example, ammunition, fireworks). The transport hazards that they pose are grouped into nine classes, which may be subdivided into divisions and/or packing groups. The most common dangerous goods are assigned a UN number, a four digit code which identifies it internationally: less common substances are transported under generic codes such as "UN1993: flammable liquid, not otherwise specified".
The UN Recommendations do not cover the manufacture, use or disposal of dangerous goods.
History and principles
The first version of the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods was produced by the ECOSOC in 1956. From 1996, the Recommendations were effectively split into two parts: the Model Regulations, which form a suggested drafting for laws and regulations on the transport of dangerous goods; and the Manual of Tests and Criteria, which contains technical information about methods of testing products to ascertain their hazards. The 18th edition of the Recommendations was published in 2013.
The container requirements include some material and construction requirements but also performance testing is required. The package testing is based on the packing group (hazard level) of the contents, the quantity of material, and the type of container.
- Australian Dangerous Goods Code
- UNO Hazard Class and Division
- European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)
- Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail ("RID", part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail)
- European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN)
- International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), (part of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea)
- Annex 18 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation ("Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air")
- International Air Transport Association
- Umstead, S L (May 2003). "Performance-Oriented Packaging". Army Sustainment. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "How to Comply with Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations". US DoT.
- UNECE: ADN
- UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Manual of Tests and Criteria (Fourth revised ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2002, ISBN 92-1-139087-7, ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.4
- UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Model Regulations (Fifteenth ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-139120-6, ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.15
- ASTM D4919- Standard Specification for Testing of Hazardous Materials Packaging
- ASTM D7387- Standard Test Method for Vibration Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) Used for Shipping Liquid Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods)
- ISO 16104 - 2003 Packaging - Transport packaging for dangerous goods - Test methods
- Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4
- Yam, K. L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
- Dangerous Goods at the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
- Performance tests of selected plastic drums, National Research Council Canada, February 2005. TP 14396E, Transport Canada
- Drop tests of selected steel drums, InNOVAcorp, 2003. TP 14093E, Transport Canada
- Bulk Bags (FIBC - Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers) and The UN Code