United States Army Transportation Corps class S100

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USATC S100 class
KESR 22 Maunsell (Southern 62).JPG
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Howard G. Hill
Builder Davenport Locomotive Works (109),
H. K. Porter, Inc (150),
Vulcan Iron Works (123)
Build date 1942–1944
Total produced 382
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte 0-6-0T
 • UIC C nt
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Driver dia. 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm)
Minimum curve 150 ft (45.72 m) radius
Length 29 ft 6 in (8.99 m)
Width 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
Height 12 ft 1 58 in (3.70 m)
Loco weight 100,650 lb (45,654 kilograms)
Fuel type Coal or Oil
Fuel capacity 2,500 lb (1,130 kilograms) coal, or
300 US gallons (1,100 l; 250 imp gal) oil
Water cap 1,200 US gallons (4,500 l; 1,000 imp gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
First 50: 19.4 sq ft (1.80 m2),
Remainder: 18.3 sq ft (1.70 m2)
Boiler pressure 210 lbf/in2 (1.45 MPa)
Heating surface 876 sq ft (81.4 m2)
 • Tubes 790 sq ft (73 m2)
 • Firebox 86 sq ft (8.0 m2)
Superheater None
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 16.5 in × 24 in (419 mm × 610 mm)
Valve gear Outside Walschaerts
Valve type 8-inch (203 mm) piston valves
Performance figures
Tractive effort 21,630 lbf (96.2 kN)
Factor of adh. 4.65
Career
Operators USATC

The United States Army Transportation Corps (USATC) S100 Class is a 0-6-0 steam locomotive that was designed for switching (shunting) duties in Europe and North Africa during World War II. Several were later used on railways in Austria, Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia, Palestine, Iraq, Iran, the Netherlands, Israel and China.

Wartime development and use[edit]

The S100 is a side tank design by Col. Howard G. Hill. In 1942, the USATC ordered 382 S100s from Davenport Locomotive Works of Iowa, H. K. Porter, Inc, of Pittsburgh and Vulcan Iron Works of Wilkes-Barre. They were shipped to Great Britain in 1943 where they were stored until 1944. After D-Day, they were shipped to Continental Europe.

Construction[edit]

Builders Construction
numbers
Years Quantity USATC numbers
H. K. Porter,
7408 – 7422
1942
15
USATC 1252 – USATC 1266
Vulcan Iron Works
4365 – 4384
1942
20
USATC 1267 – USATC 1286
Davenport Locomotive Works
2417 – 2431
1942
15
USATC 1287 – USATC 1301
2473 – 2487
1943
15
USATC 1302 – USATC 1316
H. K. Porter
7501 – 7512
1942
12
USATC 1387 – USATC 1398
7513 – 7550
1943
38
USATC 1399 – USATC 1436
Davenport Locomotive Works
2492 – 2516
1943
25
USATC 1927 – USATC 1951
Vulcan Iron Works
4425 – 4474
1943
50
USATC 1952 – USATC 2001
4475 – 4503
1943
29
USATC 4313 – USATC 4341
Davenport Locomotive Works
2521 – 2550
1943
30
USATC 4372 – USATC 4401
H. K. Porter
7460 – 7468
1942
9
USATC 5000 – USATC 5008
7483 – 7489
1942
7
USATC 5009 – USATC 5015
7490 – 7501
1943
12
USATC 5016 – USATC 5027
7571 – 7600
1943
30
USATC 5028 – USATC 5057
7616 – 7618
1943
3
USATC 5058 – USATC 5060
Davenport Locomotive Works
2589 – 2591
1943
3
USATC 6000 – USATC 6002
2592 – 2612
1944
21
USATC 6003 – USATC 6023
H. K. Porter
7660 – 7683
1944
24
USATC 6080 – USATC 6103
Vulcan Iron Works
4530 – 4553
1944
24
USATC 6160 – USATC 6183

Use after the Second World War[edit]

After the Second World War, SNCF bought 77 S100's and designated them class 030TU. Jugoslovenske železnice (Yugoslav State Railways) bought many S100's and designated them class 62. In the 1950s JŽ assembled more examples bringing the number of class 62 to 129. The Hellenic State Railways in Greece acquired 20 S100's and designated them class Δα (Delta-alpha). Österreichische Bundesbahnen in Austria acquired 10 and designated them class 989. Ferrovie dello Stato in Italy acquired four and designated them class 831.

The Oranje-Nassau Mijnen, a coal mining company in The Netherlands acquired two S100's (USATC 4389 and 1948)and numbered them ON-26 (Davenport 2533) and ON-27 (Davenport 2513) respectively. The ON-26 survived the scrapyard and was sold to the museum railway Stoomtrein Goes-Borsele.[1]

The Southern Railway (GB) bought 15 S100's (14 for operational use and one for spare parts) and designated them USA Class. Other S100's entered British industrial use with the National Coal Board, Longmoor Military Railway, Austin Motor Company and others.

China acquired about 20 S100's, designating them class XK2. In 1946, Egyptian State Railways bought eight and numbered them 1151–1158.[2] The UK War Department loaned six to Palestine Railways. In 1946 PR bought two of these, both of which subsequently entered the stock of Israel Railways in 1948.[3]

Iraqi State Railways bought five, designated them Class SA, and gave them fleet numbers 1211-1215.[4] All five were Davenport-built examples. At least two were still in service in March 1967: 1211 at Basrah[5] and 1214 as the station pilot at Baghdad West.[6]

Post-war design influence[edit]

Several European railways produced designs based on the S100. JŽ added to their Class 62 by ordering several similar examples from Đuro Đaković (factory) of Slavonski Brod, Croatia. These differed in minor details, principally the use of plate frames instead of bar frames, resulting in a higher boiler pitch. This gives the steam pipes a shoulder instead of being straight, and requires smaller domes with a flatter top to fit JŽ's loading gauge.

Poland built several TKh Ferrum Fablok TKh49 locomotives. These have a similar outline but include various differences such as the use of 2 domes instead of 3, driving onto the second axle instead of the third, a different cab, etc.

The British Great Western Railway (GWR) had used many S100s in South Wales during the Second World War. The GWR 1500 Class was partially inspired by the S100 in its use of outside cylinders and short wheelbase.

Original drawings for the S100, dated 29 November 1941

Continuing commercial use[edit]

A small number of former JŽ 62's remain in commercial service, more than 65 years after they were built. At least two work as switchers (shunters) at the ArcelorMittal steel plant in Zenica, Bosnia-Hercegovina.[7]

Survival and preservation[edit]

More than 100 S100s survive: either preserved, stored or derelict. Most are in Europe or North America but there are also two in China and one in Egypt. Project 62 has an online database of them.[8]

The Colebrookdale Railroad in Pennsylvania is currently restoring S100 #5002. #5002 was used for the Naval Yards in Philadelphia, PA, and later sold to the EJ Lavino Company in Pennsylvania, then sold to the Kentucky Railroad Museum.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Loc 4389 van Stichting Stoomtrein Goes Borsele". De Nederlanse Museummaterieel Database (in Dutch). 
  2. ^ Hughes 1981, p. 57.
  3. ^ Cotterell 1984, pp. 71, 134.
  4. ^ Hughes 1981, p. 94.
  5. ^ "Image no. br670501". The Restoration & Archiving Trust. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. 
  6. ^ "Image no. br670322". The Restoration & Archiving Trust. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. [not in citation given]
  7. ^ "Home". Project 62. 
  8. ^ "Project 62's Register of USA Class 62 0-6-0T Steam Locomotives". Project 62. 
  • Cotterell, Paul (1984). The Railways of Palestine and Israel. Tourret Publishing. ISBN 0-905878-04-3. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1981). Middle East Railways. Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9503469-7-7. 
  • Russell, J. H. (1991). Pictorial Record of Southern Locomotives. Haynes (Oxford Publishing). ISBN 0-86093-443-8. 
  • Tourret, R. (1995). Allied Military Locomotives of the Second World War. Abingdon, Oxon: Tourret Publishing. pp. 207–222. ISBN 0-905878-06-X. 

External links[edit]