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Upstream transcription factor 1
Protein USF1 PDB 1an4.png
PDB rendering based on 1an4.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM191523 MGI99542 HomoloGene31426 GeneCards: USF1 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7391 22278
Ensembl ENSG00000158773 ENSMUSG00000026641
UniProt P22415 Q61069
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001276373 NM_001305676
RefSeq (protein) NP_001263302 NP_001292605
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
161.04 – 161.05 Mb
Chr 1:
171.41 – 171.42 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Upstream stimulatory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the USF1 gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.[2]

A study of mice suggested reduced USF1 levels increases metabolism in brown fat.[3]


USF1 (human gene) has been shown to interact with USF2,[4][5] FOSL1[6] and GTF2I.[7][8]


  1. ^ Shieh BH, Sparkes RS, Gaynor RB, Lusis AJ (Apr 1993). "Localization of the gene-encoding upstream stimulatory factor (USF) to human chromosome 1q22-q23". Genomics 16 (1): 266–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1174. PMID 8486371. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: USF1 upstream transcription factor 1". 
  3. ^ Laurila PP, Soronen J, Kooijman S, Forsström S, Boon MR, Surakka I, et al. (2016). "USF1 deficiency activates brown adipose tissue and improves cardiometabolic health". Science Translational Medicine 8 (323): 323ra13. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aad0015. PMID 26819196. 
  4. ^ Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T, Figeys D (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. 
  5. ^ Viollet B, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Henrion A, Kahn A, Raymondjean M, Martinez A (Jan 1996). "Immunochemical characterization and transacting properties of upstream stimulatory factor isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 271 (3): 1405–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1405. PMID 8576131. 
  6. ^ Pognonec P, Boulukos KE, Aperlo C, Fujimoto M, Ariga H, Nomoto A, Kato H (May 1997). "Cross-family interaction between the bHLHZip USF and bZip Fra1 proteins results in down-regulation of AP1 activity". Oncogene 14 (17): 2091–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201046. PMID 9160889. 
  7. ^ Roy AL, Du H, Gregor PD, Novina CD, Martinez E, Roeder RG (Dec 1997). "Cloning of an inr- and E-box-binding protein, TFII-I, that interacts physically and functionally with USF1". The EMBO Journal 16 (23): 7091–104. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.7091. PMC 1170311. PMID 9384587. 
  8. ^ Roy AL, Meisterernst M, Pognonec P, Roeder RG (Nov 1991). "Cooperative interaction of an initiator-binding transcription initiation factor and the helix-loop-helix activator USF". Nature 354 (6350): 245–8. doi:10.1038/354245a0. PMID 1961251. 

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