USS Cod (SS-224)
|Builder:||Electric Boat Company, Groton, Connecticut|
|Laid down:||21 July 1942|
|Launched:||21 March 1943|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. G.M. Mahoney|
|Commissioned:||21 June 1943|
|Decommissioned:||22 June 1946|
|Struck:||15 December 1971|
|Status:||Museum ship at Cleveland, Ohio since 25 January 1975|
|Class & type:||Gato-class diesel-electric submarine|
|Length:||311 ft 9 in (95.02 m)|
|Beam:||27 ft 3 in (8.31 m)|
|Draft:||17 ft (5.2 m) maximum|
|Range:||11,000 nautical miles (20,000 km) surfaced at 10 kn (19 km/h)|
|Test depth:||300 ft (90 m)|
|Complement:||6 officers, 54 enlisted|
USS COD (submarine)
USS Cod moored at its permanent location in Cleveland's North Coast Harbor.
|Area||less than one acre|
|Built by||Electric Boat Company, Groton, Connecticut|
|Architectural style||Other, Submarine|
|NRHP Reference #||86000088|
|Added to NRHP||14 January 1986|
Her keel was laid down by the Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut on 21 July 1942. The submarine's four diesel engines were built by General Motors' Cleveland Diesel plant located on the west side of Cleveland. She was launched on 21 March 1943 (sponsored by Mrs. G.M. Mahoney), and commissioned on 21 June 1943 with Lieutenant Commander James C. Dempsey in command.
She is now permanently moored as a museum ship in Cleveland, Ohio, and is open to visitors.
World War II
First and second patrols
Cod arrived in Brisbane, Australia, on 2 October 1943 to prepare for her first war patrol. She sailed from there 20 days later. Penetrating the South China Sea, she contacted few targets, and launched an attack only once, on 29 November, with unobserved results. Returning to Fremantle, Western Australia, to refit from 16 December 1943 to 11 January 1944, Cod put to sea for her second war patrol in the South China Sea, off Java, and off Halmahera. On 16 February, she surfaced to sink a sampan by gunfire, and on 23 February, torpedoed a Japanese merchantman. She sent another to the bottom on 27 February and two days later attacked a third, only to be forced deep by a concentrated depth charging delivered by a Japanese escort ship.
Third and fourth patrols
Refitting at Fremantle again from 13 March – 6 April 1944, Cod sailed to the Sulu Sea and the South China Sea off Luzon for her third war patrol. On 10 May, she attacked a heavily escorted convoy of 32 ships and sank the destroyer Karukaya and a cargo ship before the escorts drove her down with depth charges. Returning to Fremantle to replenish on 1 June, she left again 3 July on her fourth war patrol, under the command of Commander James "Caddy" Adkins. She ranged from the coast of Luzon to Java. She sank a merchantman on 3 August, and a landing craft, LSV-129, on 14 August, and, once more successful, returned to Fremantle 25 August.
Cod put to sea on her fifth war patrol 18 September 1944, bound for Philippine waters. She made her first contact, a cargo ship, on 5 October, and sank it. Two days later, she inflicted heavy damage on a tanker. Contacting a large convoy on 25 October, Cod launched several attacks without success. With all her torpedoes expended, she continued to shadow the convoy for another day to report its position. In November she took up a lifeguard station off Luzon, ready to rescue carrier pilots carrying out the series of air strikes on Japanese bases which paved the way for the invasion of Leyte later that month.
Sixth and seventh patrols
On 24 March she sailed from Pearl Harbor for the East China Sea on her sixth war patrol. Assigned primarily to lifeguard duty, she used her deck gun to sink a tug and its tow on 17 April, rescuing three survivors, and on 24 April launched an attack on a convoy which resulted in the most severe depth charging of her career. The next day, she sent the minesweeper W-41 to the bottom. On 26 April Cod was threatened by a fire in the aft torpedo room, but the ship's crew brought the fire under control and manually launched a torpedo already in its tube before the fire could detonate it. QM2c L.E. Foley and S1c A.G. Johnson were washed overboard while freeing the torpedo room hatch. Foley was recovered the next morning, but Johnson was drowned during the night, the Cod's only fatality during the war.
After refitting at Guam between 29 May and 26 June 1945, Cod put out for the Gulf of Siam and the coast of Indo-China on her seventh war patrol under the command of Lieutenant Commander Edwin M. Westbrook, Jr. On 9 and 10 July she went to the rescue of a grounded Dutch submarine, O 19, taking its crew on board and destroying the Dutch boat when it could not be gotten off the reef. This was the only international submarine-to-submarine rescue in history. After returning the Dutch sailors to Subic Bay, between 21 July and 1 August Cod made 20 gunfire attacks on the junks, motor sampans, and barges which were all that remained to supply the Japanese at Singapore. After inspecting each contact to rescue friendly natives, Cod sank it by gunfire, sending to the bottom a total of 23. On 1 August, an enemy plane strafed Cod, forcing her to dive, leaving one of her boarding parties behind. The men were rescued two days later by Blenny (SS-324).
When Cod returned to Fremantle 13 August 1945, the crew of O-19 was waiting to throw a party for their rescuers. During that celebration, the two crews learned of the Japanese surrender. To symbolize that moment, another symbol was added to Cod 's battle flag: the name O-19 under a martini glass.
Cod sailed for home on 31 August. Arriving in New London, on 3 November after a visit to Miami, Florida, Cod sailed to Philadelphia for overhaul, returning to New London where she was decommissioned and placed in reserve 22 June 1946.
Cod was recommissioned in 1951, under the command of Captain Francis E. Rich, to participate in NATO anti-submarine training exercises. During the Cold War, Cod traveled to St. John's, Newfoundland, as well as Cuba and South America.
Cod was decommissioned in 1954 and placed in reserve. In 1959 she was towed through the St. Lawrence Seaway to Cleveland, Ohio, and used as a training vessel. Cod was reclassified first as an Auxiliary Submarine (AGSS-224) on 1 December 1962, and later as a Miscellaneous Unclassified Submarine (IXSS-224) on 30 June 1971. In 1971, Cod was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register.
Cod is credited with sinking 26,985 tons of enemy shipping during World War II, and was awarded seven battle stars for her World War II service.
A group of Cleveland, Ohio residents formed the Cleveland Coordinating Committee to Save Cod, Inc., with the goal of preserving the ship as a memorial. In January 1976, the Navy gave guardianship of the submarine to the group. Cod opened for public tours as a floating memorial in May 1976. In 1986, the U.S. Department of the Interior designated Cod a National Historic Landmark. The memorial is open between 1 May and 30 September of each year.
Unlike many submarine memorials, Cod has never had an access door cut in the side of her hull; visitors to the ship enter and leave using the same ladders and hatches once used by the Cod's crew.
The Cod memorial recently acquired two GM Cleveland Model 248 engines that had originally been used aboard another World War II submarine, Stingray (SS-186). The two engines will be used for parts for the restoration of Cod's engines.
- Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 285–304. ISBN 1-55750-263-3.
- Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 271–273. ISBN 0-313-26202-0.
- Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 275–280. ISBN 978-0-313-26202-9.
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 p. 261
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305–311
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305–311
- Staff (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- McDaniel, J.T., Ed. (2005) U.S.S. Cod: American Submarine War Patrol Reports, Riverdale, Georgia: Riverdale Books, pp. 241–242. ISBN 1-932606-04-1
- http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675076083_USS-Cod_Dutch-submarine_holding-rubber-raft_airplane-in-flight Video of USS Cod sinking O 19
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.
- Butowsky, Harry A. (May 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form / USS Cod (SS-224)" (pdf). Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- Butowsky, Harry A. (May 1985). "Accompanying Photos" (pdf). Retrieved 2012-08-27.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to USS Cod (SS-224).|
- Photo gallery of USS Cod at NavSource Naval History
- hazegray.org: USS Cod
- USS Cod website
- List of the men who served on the Cod
- USS Cod (SS-224) at Historic Naval Ships Association
- Video of USS Cod sinking O 19