USS Juneau (CL-52)
USS Juneau (CL-52), in New York harbor, 11 February 1942.
|Namesake:||City of Juneau, Alaska|
|Builder:||Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey|
|Laid down:||27 May 1940|
|Launched:||25 October 1941|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. Harry I. Lucas|
|Commissioned:||14 February 1942|
|4 × battle stars|
|Fate:||Sunk, Naval Battle of Guadalcanal 13 November 1942|
|Notes:||Approximate location of sinking: Coordinates: |
|General characteristics (as built)|
|Class and type:||Atlanta-class cruiser|
|Length:||541 ft 6 in (165.05 m) oa|
|Beam:||53 ft (16 m)|
|Speed:||32.5 kn (37.4 mph; 60.2 km/h)|
|Complement:||673 officers and men|
The first USS Juneau (CL-52) was a United States Navy Atlanta-class light cruiser sunk at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal 13 November 1942. In total 687 men, including the five Sullivan brothers, were killed in action as a result of its sinking. She was laid down by Federal Shipbuilding Company, Kearny, New Jersey, on 27 May 1940, launched on 25 October 1941, sponsored by Mrs. Harry I. Lucas, wife of the mayor of the city of Juneau, Alaska, and commissioned on 14 February 1942, Captain Lyman K. Swenson in command.
Following a hurried shakedown cruise along the Atlantic coast in the spring of 1942, Juneau assumed blockade patrol in early May off Martinique and Guadeloupe Islands to prevent the escape of Vichy French Naval units. She returned to New York to complete alterations and operated in the North Atlantic and Caribbean from 1 June to 12 August on patrol and escort duties. The cruiser departed for the Pacific Theater on 22 August.
After stopping briefly at the Tonga Islands and New Caledonia, she rendezvoused on 10 September with Task Force 18 (TF 18) under the command of Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes, flying his flag on Wasp. The following day TF 17, which included Hornet, combined with Admiral Noyes' unit to form TF 61, whose mission was to ferry fighter aircraft to Guadalcanal. On 15 September, Wasp took three torpedo hits from the Japanese submarine I-19, and, with fires raging out of control, was sunk at 2100 by Lansdowne. Juneau and screen destroyers rescued 1,910 survivors of Wasp and returned them to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides on 16 September. The next day, the fast cruiser rejoined TF 17. Operating with the Hornet group, she supported three actions that repulsed enemy thrusts at Guadalcanal: the Buin-Faisi-Tonolai Raid; the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands; and the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (Third Savo).
Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands
The ship's first major action was the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands on 26 October. On 24 October, Hornet's task force had combined with Enterprise's group to reform TF 61 under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid. This force positioned itself north of the Santa Cruz Islands in order to intercept enemy units that might attempt to close Guadalcanal. Meanwhile, on Guadalcanal, the Japanese achieved a breakthrough along Lunga Ridge on the night of 25 October. That success evidently was a signal for enemy surface units to approach the island.
Early on the morning of 26 October, U.S. carrier planes uncovered the enemy force and immediately attacked it, damaging two Japanese carriers (CVL Zuihō and CV Shōkaku), one heavy cruiser (CA Chikuma) and 2 destroyers. But while American aircraft were locating and engaging the enemy, American ships were also under fire. Shortly after 1000, some 27 enemy aircraft attacked Hornet. Though Juneau and other screen ships threw up an effective AA barrage which shot down about 20 of the attackers, Hornet was badly damaged and sank the next day. Just before noon, Juneau left Hornet's escort for the beleaguered Enterprise group several miles away. Adding her firepower, Juneau assisted in repulsing four enemy attacks on this force and shooting down 18 Japanese planes.
That evening the American forces retired to the southeast. Although the battle had been costly, it – combined with the Marine victory on Guadalcanal – turned back the attempted Japanese parry in the Solomons. Furthermore, the damaging of two Japanese carriers sharply curtailed the air cover available to the enemy in the subsequent Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.
On 8 November, Juneau departed Nouméa, New Caledonia as a unit of TF 67 under the command of Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner to escort reinforcements to Guadalcanal. The force arrived there early morning on 12 November, and Juneau took up her station in the protective screen around the transports and cargo vessels. Unloading proceeded unmolested until 1405, when 30 Japanese planes attacked the alerted United States group. The AA fire was effective, and Juneau alone accounted for six enemy torpedo bombers shot down. The few remaining Japanese planes were in turn attacked by American fighters; only one bomber escaped. Later in the day, an American attack group of cruisers and destroyers cleared Guadalcanal on reports that a large enemy surface force was headed for the island. At 0148 on 13 November, Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan's relatively small Landing Support Group engaged the enemy. The Japanese force consisted of two battleships, one light cruiser, and nine destroyers.
Because of bad weather and confused communications, the battle occurred in near pitch darkness and at almost point-blank range as the ships of the two sides became intermingled. During the melee, Juneau was struck on the port side by a torpedo launched by Japanese destroyer Amatsukaze, causing a severe list, and necessitating withdrawal. Before noon on 13 November, Juneau, along with two other cruisers damaged in the battle — Helena and San Francisco — headed toward Espiritu Santo for repairs. Juneau was steaming on one screw, keeping station 800 yd (730 m) off the starboard quarter of the likewise severely damaged San Francisco. She was down 12 ft (4 m) by the bow, but able to maintain 13 kn (15 mph, 24 km/h).
A few minutes after 1100, two torpedoes were launched from Japanese submarine I-26. These were intended for San Francisco, but both passed ahead of her. One struck Juneau in the same place that had been hit during the battle. There was a great explosion; Juneau broke in two and disappeared in just 20 seconds. Fearing more attacks from I-26, and wrongly assuming from the massive explosion that there were no survivors, Helena and San Francisco departed without attempting to rescue any survivors. In fact, more than 100 sailors had survived the sinking of Juneau. They were left to fend for themselves in the open ocean for eight days before rescue aircraft belatedly arrived. While awaiting rescue, all but 10 died from the elements and shark attacks, including the five Sullivan brothers. Two of the brothers apparently survived the sinking, only to die in the water; two presumably went down with the ship. Some reports indicate the fifth brother also survived the sinking, but disappeared during the first day in the water. On 20 November 1942, USS Ballard recovered two of the ten survivors. They were found in separate rafts around five miles apart. One of the survivors recovered by Ballard stated he had been with one of the Sullivan brothers for several days after the sinking.
- See List of U.S. Navy losses in World War II for other Navy ships lost in World War II.
- USS The Sullivans (DD-537), a U.S. Navy destroyer named in honor of the Sullivan brothers.
- List by death toll of ships sunk by submarines
- Hoover, Gilbert G. (14 November 1942). "Report of Submarine Torpedo Attack on Task Unit and sinking of USS Juneau". World War II War Diaries, 1941-1945 via fold3.com.(subscription required)
- Rickard, J (13 January 2015). "Atlanta Class Cruisers". Historyofwar.org. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "US Cruisers List: US Light/Heavy/AntiAircraft Cruisers, Part 2". Hazegray.org. 24 April 2000. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "Juneau CL-52". Naval History and Heritage Command. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Tameichi Hara, "Japanese Destroyer Captain", Chapter 23
- Kurzman, 1994
- "War Diary USS Ballard". World War II War Diaries, 1941-1945 via fold3.com. 20 November 1942.(subscription required)
- Heyn, Allen (June 1956). "One Who Survived". American Heritage. 7 (4). Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- "History of USS Ballard AVD-10 1918-1945". World War II War Diaries, 1941-1945 via fold3.com. 29 October 1945. p. 14.(subscription required)
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.
- Holbrook, Heber A. (1997). The loss of the USS Juneau (CL-52) and the relief of Captain Gilbert C. Hoover, commanding officer of the USS Helena (CL-50) (Callaghan-Scott naval historical monograph). Pacific Ship and Shore-Books. ASIN B0006QS91A.
- Kurzman, Dan (1994). Left to Die: The Tragedy of the USS Juneau. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-74874-2.
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